A Complementary Medicine
to Abdominal Epilepsy
Abdominal epilepsy is one of numerous forms of
seizure disorder recognized in the medical literature. The purpose
of this paper is to review the historical and current medical literature
on abdominal epilepsy, discuss the biological aspects of the syndrome,
and explain the abdominal/visceral component as a plausible etiological
factor. Based on this discussion, the clinical and research
implications of abdominal epilepsy will be presented from the perspective
of a complementary medicine model based on the work of Edgar Cayce as developed
by the Meridian Institute.
From a medical perspective, the term epilepsy
refers not to a single disease, but to a group of symptoms with numerous
causes. The common factor in all forms of epilepsy is an excessive
electrical excitability of the brain. The increased excitation is
called a seizure and may manifest as a partial or total loss of consciousness
and muscle spasms or other involuntary movements.
Many conditions can produce epilepsy. For
example, a genetic predisposition is believed to be involved in some cases.
In others instances, trauma to the head, brain tumors and stroke
are known to be causative factors. Yet, in approximately one half
of all cases of epilepsy the cause is unknown (Pedley, 1985). This
predominant category of epilepsy is classified as ideopathic, which means
"disease without recognizable cause." (Thomas, 1973)
Historically, ideopathic epilepsy has been called
by several names. "Cases of epilepsy in which no cerebral lesion
can be demonstrated are labeled as ideopathic, cryptogenic, essential,
pure, primary or true." (Epilepsy
Foundation of America, 1975, p. 17) The earlier designation
of ideopathic epilepsy as "true" epilepsy will be relevant later
in this paper as it was the term used by Edgar Cayce.
This paper will focus on a form of ideopathic
epilepsy known as abdominal epilepsy. Selections from the historical
and current medical literature will be cited which support the idea
that abdominal epilepsy may account for a significant portion of ideopathic
epilepsy. A later section will discuss the research and clinical
implications of abdominal epilepsy from a complementary medicine model.
The association of abdominal symptoms with epilepsy
has been recognized for many years. For example, "gastric and intestinal
disturbances" were viewed as primary etiological factors by medical doctors
during the late 19th and early twentieth century (Musser & Kelly, 1912).
The invention and clinical application of the electroencephalogram (EEG)
during the 1920's shifted the focus of medical attention from the abdomen
to the brain where, for the most part, it has remained to this day.
Another example of the abdominal connection in
epilepsy is the aura which is common in certain types of epilepsy.
For example, temporal lobe epileptic seizures frequently begin with an
aura. In neurological terms, an aura is actually a mild seizure which
precedes the primary seizure. It can be thought of as a warning that
a seizure is about to happen. Most often, auras manifest as an altered
consciousness or peculiar sensation. "The most common aura is of
vague gastric distress, ascending up into the chest" (Gordon,
1942, p. 610).
Modern medical science has rediscovered the abdominal
connection in epilepsy. Several papers published in the medical journals
during the 1960s called attention to the abdominal connection in epilepsy.
Over the past forty years, numerous researchers and clinicians have
reported on various aspects of abdominal epilepsy. Appendix A contained
a representative sample of the abdominal epilepsy literature.
Common clinical features of abdominal epilepsy
include abdominal pain, nausea, bloating, and diarrhea with nervous
system manifestations such as headache, confusion, and syncope (Peppercorn
& Herzog, 1989). "Although its abdominal symptoms may be similar
to those of the irritable bowel syndrome, it may be distinguished from
the latter condition by the presence of altered
consciousness during some of the attacks, a tendency toward
tiredness after an attack, and by an
abnormal EEG"(Zarling, 1984, p.687). Mitchell, Green- wood and Messenheimer
(1983) regard cyclic vomiting as a primary symptom of abdominal epilepsy
manifesting as simple partial seizures (1983).
Although abdominal epilepsy is diagnosed most
often in children, the research of Peppercorn and Herzog (1989) suggests
that abdominal epilepsy may be much more common in adults than is generally
Abdominal epilepsy is well described among pediatric
patients but is recognized only infrequently in adults. Our experience
over the past 15 years indicates that the disorder may not be as rare as
is suggested by the paucity of literature on the subject. Moreover,
the variability of the clinical presentation indicates a spectrum to both
the gastrointestinal (GI) and central nervous system (CNS) manifestations
of abdominal epilepsy in adults." (Peppercorn & Herzog, 1989,
One of the primary problems in understanding abdominal
epilepsy is clearly defining the relationship of the abdominal symptoms
to the seizure activity in the brain. In other words, what is the
pathophysiology of abdominal epilepsy. Is the essential pathology
in certain areas of the brain which happen to be connected to the abdominal
organs? Or, is the primary pathology in the abdomen which is conveyed
through connecting nerve fibers to the brain resulting in epileptic seizures?
Peppercorn and Herzog noted both possibilities in their attempt to understand
the cause of abdominal epilepsy:
The pathophysiology of abdominal
epilepsy remains unclear. Temporal lobe seizure activity usually
arises in or involves the amygdala. It is not surprising, therefore,
that patients who have seizures involving the temporal lobe have GI symptoms,
since discharges arising in the amygdala can be transmitted to the gut
via dense direct projections to the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus.
In addition, sympathetic pathways from the amygdala to the GI tract can
be activated via the hypothalamus.
On the other hand, it is
not clear that the initial disturbance in abdominal epilepsy arises in
the brain. There are direct sensory pathways from the bowel via the
vagus nerve to the solitary nucleus of the medulla which is heavily connected
to the amygdala. These can be activated during intestinal contractions.
(Peppercorn & Herzog, 1989, p. 1296).
At this time, there is no definitive model of
abdominal epilepsy which explains the association of brain seizures and
abdominal symptoms. However, there is a growing body of medical information
which may lead to a better understanding of this complex relationship.
The Abdominal Brain
Although Peppercorn and Herzog allow for the possibility
that abdominal epilepsy may be caused by abdominal processes transferred
to the brain via the vagus (tenth cranial nerve), the anatomical and physiological
basis for such an abdominal connection in epilepsy requires further discussion.
In other words, what is it about the abdomen that could possibly produce
such an extreme neurological reaction as to cause a seizure in the brain?
To answer this important question, it is helpful to review the medical
literature of the early decades of this century. For example, the
work of Byron Robinson, M.D., a well respected physician and researcher
of that era, exemplifies the position that the abdomen contains a secondary
In mammals there exist two
brains of almost equal importance to the individual and race. One
is the cranial brain, the instrument of volitions, of mental progress and
physical protection. The other is the abdominal brain, the instrument
of vascular and visceral function. It is the automatic, vegetative,
the subconscious brain of physical existence. In the cranial brain
resides the consciousness of right and wrong. Here is the seat of
all progress, mental and moral ... However, in the abdomen there exists
a brain of wonderful power maintaining eternal, restless vigilance over
its viscera. It presides over organic life. It dominates the
rhythmical function of viscera....The abdominal brain is a receiver, a
reorganizer, an emitter of nerve forces. It has the power of a brain.
It is a reflex center in health and disease....
The abdominal brain is
not a mere agent of the [cerebral] brain and cord; it receives and generates
nerve forces itself; it presides over nutrition. It is the center
of life itself. In it are repeated all the physiologic and pathologic
manifestations of visceral function (rhythm, absorption, secretion, and
nutrition). The abdominal brain can live without the cranial brain,
which is demonstrated by living children being born without cerebrospinal
axis. On the contrary the cranial brain can not live without the
abdominal brain.... (Byron Robinson, 1907, 123 -
Robinson was not alone in his fascination with
the nervous system of the abdomen. At about the same time that Robinson
was discovering the abdominal brain, British physiologist Johannis Langley
of Cambridge University recognized that:
... the ganglia of the gut do more than
simply relay and distribute information from the cephalic [cerebral] brain.
He was unable to reconcile conceptually the great disparity between the
2 X 10 (8) neurons in the gut and the few hundred vagus fibers from the
big brain, other than to suggest that the nervous system of the gut was
capable of integrative functions independent of the central nervous system.
(Wood, 1994, p. 424)
Langley labeled the brain in the gut the enteric
nervous system (ENS). Although for several decades Robinson and Langley's
work has been ignored, modern medical research has finally rediscovered
the abdominal brain with its enteric nervous system. In fact, research
on the nerve connections in the abdomen is one of the "hot" areas of medical
To a considerable extent,
the new interest in exploring the ENS has come from the realization that
both the ENS and the remainder of the autonomic nervous system are richly
endowed with neurotransmitters and neuromodulators. Many substances
are found in both the bowel and the brain, a coincidence that strikes most
observers as intrinsically interesting, if not immediately explicable.
(Gershon, Kirchgessner & Wade, 1994, p. 386)
The similarity between the
structure of the ENS and that of the brain, combined with the ability of
the ENS to mediate relatively simple behaviors, suggests that general principles
can be derived from studies of the ENS that will eventually be applicable
to the CNS. Given the unique position of the ENS as the only peripheral
system capable of autonomous function, it seems more likely that such principles
will emerge from investigations of the ENS than from studies of other aggregates
of peripheral ganglia. The parallel between the bowel and the brain
also suggests that newly discovered principles of central neural function
may find applicability in studies of the ENS, in a sort of reverse form
of reductionism whereby the brain serves as a model for the gut.
(Gershon, Kirchgessner & Wade, 1994, p. 414)
In addition to the biochemical and structural
similarities between the cerebral brain and the abdominal brain, contemporary
researchers are drawing computer analogies and using information processing
models to describe the relationship between the brains of the body.
The cephalic [cerebral]
brain communicates with the smaller brain in the gut in a manner analogous
to that of interactive communication between networked computers.
Primary sensory afferents and extensions of intramural neurons in the gut
carry information to the central nervous system. Information is transmitted
from the brain to the enteric nervous system over sympathetic and parasympathetic
pathways. This, however, represents only one kind of input of an
integrative network that also contains microcircuitry for processing information
from a variety of sensory receptors along the digestive tract, as well
as synaptic circuits that generate programmed patterns of neural outflow
to the effector systems. Input to enteric ganglion cells is not exclusively
from the central nervous system as once thought, and the old habit of referring
to the neurons of the enteric nervous system as postganglionic neurons
has become outmoded and abandoned.
The current concept of
the enteric nervous system is that of a minibrain placed in close proximity
to the effector systems it controls. Rather than crowding the hundred
million neurons required for control of the gut into the cranial cavity
as part of the cephalic brain, and transmitting signals over long-unreliable
pathways, natural selection placed the integrative microcircuits at the
site of the effectors. The circuits at the effector sites have evolved
as an organized network of different kinds of neurons interconnected by
chemical synapses. (Wood, 1994,
To extend Wood's computer analogy of the enteric
nervous system to abdominal epilepsy, one might say that the nervous system
network "crashes" during a seizure. The linkage between the abdominal
brain and cerebral brain is broken. Depending upon the severity of
the incoordination, much of the information processing and regulatory functioning
of the entire nervous system may temporarily go "offline."
Although these selections from the medical literature
do not solve the problem of the cause of abdominal epilepsy, they do tend
to support the plausibility of primary abdominal pathology in the pathophysiology
of abdominal epilepsy.
A Complementary Medicine Approach to Abdominal
The possibility that abdominal epilepsy may be
caused by pathology in the abdomen raises some intriguing questions in
regards to clinical practice and basic research. What is the nature
of the pathology? Can it be measured? If pathology is
shown (or assumed) to exist, what type of treatment regimen is most effective?
Is there any evidence to support therapies which focus on abdominal pathology?
What is the role of regular medical treatment modalities for abdominal
epilepsy (i.e., medication and surgery). Can abdominal epilepsy be
In seeking answers to these questions, the
Meridian Institute (a research organization located in Virginia Beach Virginia)
has developed a therapeutic model based on the work of Edgar Cayce.
Cayce was an intuitive diagnostician who died in 1945. He is widely
regarded as the father of modern holistic medicine (Callen, 1979; Mein,
1989). Almost 15,000 of his readings were stenographically transcribed
and are now available at the Association of Research and Enlightenment
(A.R.E.) Library in Virginia Beach, Virginia and are also available in
a CD-ROM format (Cayce, 1993).
His views regarding epilepsy are highly consistent
with the medical information presented above. For example, he believed
that there are various forms of epilepsy produced by numerous causes.
However, he consistently maintained that the primary cause of epilepsy
can most often be found in the peripheral nervous systems, particularly
His perspective is consistent with the findings
of Peppercorn and Herzog (1989) which asserts that abdominal epilepsy
is more common that is generally recognized, especially in adults.
Cayce provided explicit, detailed descriptions of anatomical and physiological
pathology in epilepsy, often tracing the problem back to an area of the
abdomen which he called the "lacteal duct plexus."
Physiologically, lacteal ducts are part of the
lymphatic system. They absorb fats and proteins from the small
intestine. Cayce stated that various etiological factors (e.g., high
fever, abdominal injury, reflexes from other portions of the nervous system)
could produce "adhesions" in the area of the lacteal ducts. An adhesion
... union of two surfaces that are normally
separate; also, any fibrous band that connects them. Surgery within
the abdomen sometimes results in adhesions from scar tissue. As an
organ heals, fibrous scar tissue forms around the incision. This
scar tissue may cling to the surface of adjoining organs, causing them
to kink. Adhesions are usually painless and cause no difficulties,
although occasionally they produce obstruction or malfunction by distorting
the organ. The can also occur following peritonitis and other inflammatory
conditions. They may occur in the pleura, in the pericardium and
around the pelvic organ, in addition to the abdomen.
(Miller & Keane, 1972, p. 16)
Abdominal adhesions were a major etiological factor
in Cayce's model of epilepsy. He noted that adhesions to the lacteal
duct area could be produced by a variety of sources including high fever,
abdominal injury, and nerve reflexes from injured spinal centers.
Here are a couple of examples of Cayce's description
of the pathophysiology of abdominal epilepsy. The first case involved
an eighteen year old male. Cayce stated that there had been a spinal injury
producing nerve reflexes to the abdomen which:
... caused a slowing of
the circulation through the areas of the lacteal ducts, thus producing
a cold area there, that has produced a partial adherence of tissue.
With the activity of the
lymph through the area, we find that periodically, when there is the lack
of proper eliminations through the alimentary canal, there occurs a reflex
to the coordination between sympathetic [abdominal brain] and cerebrospinal
[central nervous] system area; that takes the governing of the impulse,
as it were, to the brain reactions; or a form of spasmodic reaction that
might be called epileptic in its nature. (Cayce, 1939)
Note the reference to adhesion ("adherence of
tissue") and a slowing of circulation through this area. Cayce believed
that restricted circulation produced coldness in the area of the
lacteal ducts (on the right side of the abdomen). According to Cayce,
"From EVERY condition that is of true [ideopathic] epileptic nature
there will be found a cold spot or area between the lacteal duct and the
caecum." (Cayce, 1934)
These points will be discussed later in regards
to therapeutic rationale and research implications. Also note the
reference to periodicity associated with "activity of the lymph through
the area" and "proper eliminations through the alimentary canal."
In other words, cycles of seizure activity were linked to activity of the
gastrointestinal tract (i.e., digestion and eliminations). Hence
seizure activity may be associated with digestive problems with certain
types of foods (e.g., carbohydrates and fats) and/or with improper eliminations
(diarrhea or constipation).
Another important point is the importance of
"coordination" between the nervous system in the abdomen and the nerves
of the brain. Consistent with the growing body of medical information
on the "abdominal brain" and enteric nervous system, Cayce referred to
the abdominal brain as the "solar plexus brain," (1921 & 1926),
the "secondary brain" (1944), and the "central brain in the solar plexus"
(1927). He noted that the brain in the abdomen with its nervous system
(the "sympathetic" system) and the brain in the head with its nervous system
(the "cerebrospinal system") must coordinate to maintain physical and mental
health. When these two systems are out of harmony with each other,
various forms of illness usually result. Epileptic seizures might
be regarded as the most severe form of incoordination between these two
brains and nervous systems of the body. Actually, the extent of nervous
system incoordination might be described as almost a complete dissociation.
Here is another description of the basic nervous
system incoordination by Edgar Cayce given for an adult suffering from
As indicated, the lesions
- or adhesions and lesions - in the lacteal ducts are the basic cause for
the disturbance in the nervous system.... When there is an expression or
activity from the sympathetic nervous system ... we find there is movement
or impulse to and from the brain centers themselves. Then with a
lesion or adhesion the impulse is cut off - or deflected.... Then this
... connection with the solar plexus nerve centers [abdominal brain], making
for an incoordination with the cerebrospinal nerve system, produces at
the base of the brain - or through the medulla oblongata - an incoordinant
reaction [seizure] ...
Q. Do you find any condition existing
in the brain, or is it reflex?
A. As we find, and as indicated, the
accumulations that have been there [in the cerebral brain] are rather reflex
- and are produced by the condition in the lacteal duct area.
Note that the reflex from the abdomen produced
"accumulations" in the cerebral brain . Perhaps a modern brain scan
or electro-encephalogram would have detected a focal lesion in the brain
as the source of the seizure. Yet, Cayce insisted that the source
of the condition was in the abdomen. Also note that the reflex from
the abdomen was mediated through the medulla oblongata, a important nerve
center at the upper portion of the spinal cord where it enters the
skull. This is significant because Cayce sometimes recommended that
a piece of ice be placed at this area during the aura or at the beginning
of the seizure. This simple technique has proven effective in several
contemporary cases where Cayce's therapeutic model has been utlilized.
Incidently, this technique for preventing seizures was also used
by osteopathic physicians during the early decades of this century and
is included in the therapeutic model developed by the Meridian Institute.
Because Cayce's perspective has been supported
by numerous anecdotal cases reporting improvement or cure in cases of epilepsy
and other major illnesses, the Meridian Institute was formed to research
this information "in a modern, scientific manner that would provide data
acceptable to all healthcare professionals and agencies." (Meridian
The research protocol developed to test Cayce's
perspective on epilepsy has the following format:
Selection of Subjects
Edgar Cayce and the modern medical literature
are in agreement that epilepsy is a heterogenous condition consisting of
various forms produced by various causes. Although Cayce provided
information for individuals suffering from many forms of epilepsy, the
most common form was linked to abdominal pathology. In current medical
terminology, this would be abdominal epilepsy or ideopathic epilepsy with
abdominal features. This subgroup of epilepsy will be the most appropriate
to test Cayce's statements about the pathophysiology and recommendations
for treatment. Thus the first step is to identify subjects suffering
from abdominal epilepsy or at least, ideopathic epilepsy with abdominal
Assessment of Subjects
The initial assessment is intended to collect
a broad spectrum of data related to symptoms, quality of life and
biological functioning. The assessment procedure begins with a physical
examination (with particular attention to possible somatic dysfunction
such as spinal lesions and abdominal pathology).
Thermography is utilized to assess for temperature
variations on the surface of the abdomen and along the spine. The
rationale for this assessment is to test Cayce's assertion that a cold
area is produced by decreased circulation on the right side of the abdomen
in the area of the lacteal ducts. Preliminary studies by the Meridian
Institute suggest that there may also be variations in temperature along
the spine which are segmentally correlated to abdominal variations.
Quality of life, symptomology, daily activities,
and treatment side-effects are measured by a variety of psychometric instruments.
This dimension of assessment is intended to address the whole person.
The therapeutic model is a complementary medicine
approach intended to supplement standard medical practices for the treatment
of epilepsy. Therefore, the first provision of the model is that
whatever medical treatment has been prescribed by the attending physician
will be continued. Complementary medicine can be thought of as treatment
"in addition to" standard medical practice. Complementary medicine
emphasizes cooperation between health care professionals of conventional
and alternative therapies. (Budd, C., Fisher, B., Parrinder, D. &
Price, L. ,1990; LaValley, J.W. & Verhoef, M. J.,
Several basic adjunct therapies are recommended
to normalize abdominal function- ing and assist the nervous systems to
coordinate with each other. These modalities are relatively inexpensive
and non-intrusive. For the most part, the treatments can be done
in the home by nonprofessional caregivers.
Hot castor oil packs applied to the abdomen are
the primary treatment. According to Cayce, these packs are intended
to break up adhesions in the lacteal duct plexus and normalize circulation
throughout this area of the abdomen. A typical session lasts approximately
one hour per day with three sessions per week.
Gentle masssage is recommended following the castor
oil session. Particular attention is paid to the abdomen (to assist
in breaking up adhesions) and along the spine (to assist with nervous system
Basic dietary suggestions include a balanced diet
with a prepondence of fruits and vegetables and low amounts of meats and
refined carbohydrates. In addition to the nutritional aspect of the
diet, it is intended to produce normal bowel movements. In other
words, improved digestion and normal eliminations through the colon are
viewed as beneficial to the treatment of this form of epilepsy.
In cases where constipation is a chronic problem,
colonic irrigations are recommended to cleanse the colon. The rationale
for this treatment is that "pressure" on the colon from chronic constipation
may be the source of the nervous system incoordination via pressures on
the enteric nervous system.
Spinal manipulations by an osteopath or chiropractor
may be helpful, particularly in cases where history or assessment indicate
somatic dysfunction. As noted above, Cayce often cited spinal injury
as the origin of the nerve reflexes producing adhesions in the abdomen.
If the subject is currently experiencing seizures
and can sense the beginning of the episode, they are encouraged to use
a piece of ice at the base of the brain for one to two minutes.
The protocol includes opportunities for addressing
psychological and spiritual issues associated with the illness. Individual
and group counseling and support is integrated into the therapeutic regimen.
The Meridian Institute research project on abdominal
epilepsy should be viewed as a preliminary study designed to test the plausibility
of Cayce's information on abdominal epilepsy and provide a foundation for
further study if deemed appropriate based on outcome evaluation.
Outcome evaluation will consist of a post-test
repeat of the initial assessment procedures approximately three months
after the beginning of the therapeutic regimen. Particular attention
will be paid to Cayce's assertion that a "cold spot" will be found on the
right side of the abdomen in cases of "true" or ideopathic epilepsy.
It is assumed that abdominal epilepsy as defined in the medical literature
and described in this paper will be included in Cayce's category of "true"
epilepsy. It is possible that many individuals suffering from idiopathic
epilepsy may have abdominal epilepsy which goes undiagnosed because the
abdominal symptoms are mild and subclinical. This may be particularly
true of temporal lobe epilepsy. Thus one of the goals of our outcome
evaluation is to try to get a sense of the prevalence of abdominal epilepsy
(or ideopathic epilepsy with abdominal features).
Furthermore, if a cold spot is found in the initial
assessment, post treatment assessment will determine whether use of castor
oil packs have had an impact on decreasing the thermal abnormality.
Longer term outcome evaluation will depend upon
the efficacy of the above procedures. If the subject appears to fit
the profile of abdominal epilepsy described above and seems to benefit
from the adjunct therapies in the treatment regimen, perhaps the
attending physician will be willing to reconsider the lowest therapeutic
dosage of medication on a trial basis.
Quality of life issues will be monitored in the
follow-up assessment to determine whether the treatment regimen has had
effects in this area.
This paper has discussed a particular form of
epilepsy designated as abdominal epilepsy. Abdominal epilepsy is
recognized in the medical literature in children and adults. Recent
research indicates that this type of epilepsy may be more common than is
The pathophysiology of abdominal epilepsy has
been considered from the standpoint of a well established research
literature on the abdominal nervous system. It appears that there
is a relatively autonomous nervous system with its own brain situated in
It has been hypothesized that incoordination between
the abdominal brain and the cerebral brain may be involved in abdominal
epilepsy. This perspective was first advanced by Edgar Cayce, a 20th
century intuitive diagnostician who provided a considerable amount
of information on various aspects of epilepsy and other medical conditions.
A research protocol has been developed by the
Meridian Institute to investigate Cayce's assertions and test specific
hypothesises derived from the Cayce material. A brief overview of
the assessment procedures, therapeutic modalities, and outcome evaluation
has been included.
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References on Abdominal Epilepsy
The following references are representative of
the abdominal epilepsy literature. They are included in this appendix
as an aid to readers interested in further pursuing the topic.
Agrawal, P., Dhar, N. K., Bhatia, M. S. &
Malik, S. C. (1989). Abdominal epilepsy. Indian
Journal of Pediatriacs, 56(4), 539-541.
Babb, R. R. & Eckman, P. B. (1972).
Abdominal epilepsy. Journal of the American Medical
Association, 222(1), 65-66.
Berdichevskii, M. (1965). Meso-diencephalic
epilepsy after abdominal injury. Vopr Psikhiatr Nevropatol,
Bondarenko, E. S., Shiretorova, D. Ch. &
Miron, V. A. (1986). Abdominal syndrome in
the structure of cerebral paroxysms in children and adolescents.
Soviet Medicine, (2), 39-44.
Douglas, E. F. & White, P. T.
(1971). Abdominal epilepsy--a reappraisal. Journal of
Pediatrics, 78(1), 59-67.
Hotta, T. & Fujimoto, Y. (1973).
A study on abdominal epilepsy. Yonago Acta Medica, 17(3),
Juillard, E. (1967). Abdominal pains
and epilepsy. Praxis, 56(3), 83-84.
Loar, C. R. (1979). Abdominal
epilepsy. Journal of the American Medical Association,
Matsuo, F. (1984). Partial epileptic
seizures beginning in the truncal muscles. Acta Neurologica
Scandinavia, 69(5), 264-269.
Mitchell, W. G., Greenwood, R.S. & Messenheimer,
J. A. (1983). Abdominal epilepsy: Cyclic
vomiting as the major symptom of simple partial
seizures. Archives of Neurology, 40(4) 251-252.
Moore, M. T. (1972). Abdominal epilepsy.
Journal of the American Medical Association, 222 (11),
Moore, M. T. (1979). Abdominal
epilepsy [letter]. Journal of the American Medical Association,
O'Donohoe, N. V. (1971). Abdominal
epilepsy. Developmental Medicine of Child Neurology, 13(6),
Peppercorn, M. A., Herzog, A. G., Dichter, M.
A. & Mayman, C. I. (1978). Abdominal epilepsy: A cause
of abdominal pain in adults. Journal of the American Medical Association,40(22),
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