The Edgar Cayce health information is a rich source of research hypotheses
with regard to anatomy, physiology, pathology, and therapy. This
section contains a variety of research hypotheses waiting to be pursued.
If you have expertise or interest in any of these areas and would
like to participate in our research programs, please contact us.
ARTICHOKE SUPPLEMENTATION FOR DIABETES
HYPOTHESIS: Dietary supplementation
with Jerusalem artichoke (JA) significantly decreases blood glucose levels
in non-insulin dependent diabetes (NIDD).
BACKGROUND: JA, a member of
the sunflower family, produces edible tubers resembling potatoes. JA is
a particularly good source of inulin, a naturally occurring fructan also
found in common foods such as asparagus, onions, chicory, and salsify.
Roberfroid and Delzenne (1998) suggest that inulin-type fructans may be
helpful for NIDD. Yamachita et al. (1984) observed a noticeable reduction
of cholesterolmia in diabetic subjects receiving a diet supplemented in
fructooligosaccharides. Levrat et al. (1991) demonstrated that even low
levels of inulin are effective in decreasing plasma cholesterol in rats.
DESIGN: A prospective, within-subjects,
repeated measures design counterbalanced to prevent order effects will
be used. Small quantities of JA (two per week) are provided to persons
(n = 35) with NIDD for two weeks at a time alternating with two week periods
without the JA. Thus the eight-week period of the study will include 2
two-week periods with JA and 2 periods without JA. Blood sugar levels are
closely monitored and recorded in a daily log. Statistical analysis will
focus on possible correlation of artichoke consumption and decreased blood
SETTING: Homes of participants.
PARTICIPANTS: 35 volunteers
with NIDD will be recruited by advertising on television and radio.
INTERVENTIONS: All participants
will receive education on dietary supplemention with Jerusalem artichoke
and monitoring of blood glucose levels. Two Jerusalem artichokes will be
consumed by each participant per week for the two week periods of JA consumption.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:
Fasting blood glucose levels taken morning,
noon, and bedtime.
Yamachita K, Kawai K, Itakura M. Effect
of fructooligosaccharides on blood glucose and serum lipids in diabetic
subjects. Nutr Res. 1984; 4:961-966.
Levrat MA, Remesy C, Demigne C. High
propionic acid fermentations and mineral accumulation in cecum of rats
adapted to different levels of inulin. J Nutr. 1991;121:1730-1737.
Roberfroid MB, Delzenne NM. Dietary
fructans. Annu Rev Nutr. 1998;18:117-143.
ROLE OF pH IN EXPERIMENTAL RHINOVIRUS INFECTION
HYPOTHESIS: In vivo pH (nasal,
urine and saliva) will be measured in volunteers infected with rhinovirus.
The hypothesis is that pH will be negatively correlated with rhinovirus
symptom severity and physiological indices of infection.
BACKGROUND: Rhinovirus (RV)
infection is a frequent causal factor in the etiology of the common cold.
In vitro studies have established that RV requires a mildly acidic environment
for optimal infectivity (Madshus et al., 1984). In vivo studies on the
role of pH in the etiology of the common cold have not been done.
DESIGN: This prospective study
will be a randomized controlled trial. Volunteers experimentally infected
with RV will follow an alkalizing diet (experimental group) or normal American
diet (control group) which tends toward excessive acidity. Physiology and
symptoms will be measured over a 7 day period. Data assessment will be
performed by blinded technicians.
SETTING: Local hotel or retreat
PARTICIPANTS: 20 healthy volunteers
who are susceptible to the challenge virus will be recruited by advertising
in magazines and newsletters.
INTERVENTIONS: All participants
will receive education on acid/alkaline diet theory and practice. Ten participants
will follow alkaline diet and ten will follow normal American diet. All
participants will receive two inoculations with RV on consecutive days.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:
nasal, urine, and saliva pH readings;
viral titers in nasal washings for five
days following first inoculation (Hendley et al., 1994);
cold symptom severity checklist (Jackson
et al, 1958).
Hendley JO, Abbott RD, Beasley PP, Gwaltney
JM. Effect of inhalation of hot humidified air on experimental
rhinovirus infection. JAMA 1994;271(14):1112-13.
Jackson GG, Dowling HF, Spiesman IG,
Boand AV. Transmission of the common cold to volunteers under controlled
conditions. 1. The common cold as a clinical entity. Arch Intern Med 1958;101:267-78.
Madshus IH, Olsnes S, Sandvig K. Different
pH requirements for entry of the two picornaviruses, human rhinovirus 2
and murine encephalomyocarditis virus. Virology. 1984;139:346-357.
LIVER PATHOLOGY AS AN ETIOLOGICAL FACTOR IN MS
HYPOTHESIS: Primary liver
disease comorbidity with multiple sclerosis (MS) exists and may be an etiological
(rather than iatrogenic) factor.
BACKGROUND: The liver is responsible
for multiple metabolic processes, including macromolecular synthesis, energy
generation and storage, and disposal of toxic substances and waste products.
Primary liver disease has been associated with MS. In three reported cases,
primary biliary cirrhosis has been linked to MS (Taub et al.., 1989; Noseworthy
and Ebers, 1989; Pontcorvo and Levinson JD, 1992). Blind liver biopsies
in eight etiologically different neurological disorders in which there
was no clinically obvious reason to expect liver disease yielded unexpectedly
high levels of liver pathology in MS and other central nervous system diseases
(Neu, 1981). Hepatitis A and skin test antigens resulted in exacerbation
of MS symptoms in a 29 year-old male (Owen et al., 1980). Further research
is required to determine the extent to which (if any) primary liver disease
is associated with MS.
DESIGN: The design is a retrospective
analysis of case records of patients with MS to measure the rate of comorbidity
with primary liver disease as compared to the general population.
SETTING: Local hospital or
insurance company with computer database of patient/client records.
PARTICIPANTS: Patients with
MS who received services from the specified hospital or insurance company.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:
Diagnoses of MS and primary liver disease.
Neu I. Leberhistologische Befunde bei
neurologischen Erkrankungen unter besonderer Berucksichtigung der Multiplen
Sklerose. [Liver biopsy findings in neurologic diseases with special reference
to multiple sclerosis]. Fortschr Med 1981 Oct 8;99(38):1533-40.
Noseworthy JH, Ebers GC. Primary biliary
cirrhosis and multiple sclerosis. Am J Gastroenterol 1989 Dec;84(12):1584-5.
Taub WH, Lederman RJ, Tuthill RJ, Falk
GW. Primary biliary cirrhosis in a patient with multiple sclerosis.
Am J Gastroenterol 1989 Apr;84(4):415-7
Owen RL, Dau PC, Johnson KP, Spitler
LE. Immunologic mechanisms in multiple sclerosis. JAMA 1980;244(20):2307-2309.
Pontcorvo MJ, Levinson JD. A patient
with primary biliary cirrhosis and multiple sclerosis. The American
Journal of Medicine. 1992;92:433-436.
OIL PACKS FOR UTERINE FIBROIDS
HYPOTHESIS: Hot castor oil
packs are effective in decreasing the size of uterine fibroids.
BACKGROUND: Thirty percent
of American women over the age of 30 will develop uterine fibroid tumors,
which are benign masses developed from an overgrowth of uterine muscle
tissue. Tumors may occur on the inside of the uterine cavity, within the
uterine muscle wall, or on the outside of the uterus. The number of tumors
present may vary from one to several, and may vary from the size of a pea
to larger than a melon. Most fibroids do not cause any symptoms and do
not require treatment other than regular observation by a physician. Some
women who have uterine fibroids may experience symptoms such as excessive
or painful bleeding during menstruation, bleeding between periods, a feeling
of fullness in the lower abdomen, frequent urination resulting from a fibroid
that compresses the bladder, pain during sexual intercourse, or low back
pain. Standard medical treatment normally calls for surgical removal. If
surgery is elected, some skilled surgeons are adept at removing only the
myoma, leaving the uterus in tact, however, in most cases a hysterectomy
is performed. McGarey reported success in the use of hot castor oil packs
in decreasing or eliminating uterine fibroids (1973; 1984).
DESIGN: This prospective study
will be a randomized controlled trial. We will recruit women with uterine
fibroids and randomly assign to experimental (n = 30) and control groups
(n = 30). We will assess the size and number of fibroids. Symptoms and
quality of life will be assessed. We will train subjects in the experimental
group in the use of castor oil packs to be used 3 times per week for six
weeks. The control group will receive no treatment. We will do a followup
assessment after six weeks for all participants.
SETTING: Home of participants
(intervention) and local hospital (assessment).
PARTICIPANTS: 60 women with
uterine fibroid tumors will be recruited by advertising on television and
INTERVENTIONS: Hot castor
oil packs applied superficially over uterus 3x weekly (experimental group
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:
Size of uterine fibroids,
Symptoms and quality of life,
Medication required for symptomatic
McGarey W. Myoma of the uterus. A.R.E.
Journal. 1973; 8(1).
McGarey W. Fibroid tumor of the uterus.
A.R.E. Journal. 1984; 19(3): 126.
ABNORMALITIES IN MIGRAINE
HYPOTHESIS: Migraine sufferers
with significant abdominal symptoms exhibit distinguishable colon abnormalities
as compared to healthy controls without abdominal symptoms.
BACKGROUND: Abdominal migraine
has been identified in children and adults (Symon and Russell, 1986; Santoro
et al., 1990). The enteric nervous system (ENS) provides a plausible explanation
for abdominal features in abdominal migraine. Irritation to the ENS may
cause neurovasucular imbalances resulting in migraine. Dietary migraine
and food sensitivities have been cited in the pathogenesis of migraine
(Monro et al., 1984; Mansfield, 1987). Upper GI-tract problems may be reflected
in colon abnormalities that can be detected by abdominal x-ray.
DESIGN: This pilot study will
compare the abdominal x-rays of 30 migraneurs and 30 normal volunteers
without bowel disease or migraine.
SETTING: Physician's office
with radiology equipment.
PARTICIPANTS: 30 patients
diagnosed with migraine and 30 normal persons without bowel pathology.
INTERVENTIONS: Abdominal x-ray
of migraineurs and normal participants and psychometric assessment of constipation
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:
Constipation score (Bruera et al., 1994);
Radiological assessment of constipation
(Blethyn et al., 1995);
Constipation symptoms (Agachan et al.,
Agachan F, Chen T, Pfeifer J, Reissman
P, Wexner SD. A constipation scoring system to simplify evaluation
and management of constipated patients. Dis Colon Rectum 1996;39:681-685.
Blethyn AJ, Jones KV, Newcombe R, Roberts
GM, Jenkins HR. Radiological assessment of constipation. Archives
of Disease in Childhood 1995;73:532-533.
Bruera E, Suarez-Almazor M, Velasco
A, Bertolino M, McDonald SM, Hanson J. The assessment of constipation in
terminal cancer patients admitted to a palliative care unit: a retrospective
review. J Pain Symptom Manage 1994;9(8):515-9.
Mansfield LE. The role of food allergy
in migraine: A review. Annals of Allergy. 1987;58:313-317.
Monro J, Carini C, Brostoff J. Migraine
is a food allergic disease. Lancet. 1984;2:719-721.
Santoro G, Curzio M, Venco A. Abdominal
migraine in adults: Case reports. Functional Neurology 1990;5(1):61-64.
Symon DN, Russell G. Abdominal migraine:
A childhood syndrome defined. Cephalalgia 1986;6(4):223-228.
OF COLON HEALTH AND GENERAL WELLNESS
HYPOTHESIS: A significant, positive correlation exists between
colon health (as measured by a standard colon hydrotherapy questionnaire
and general wellness (as measured by the SF-36).
BACKGROUND: The Edgar Cayce readings and advocates of colon hydrotherapy
insist that a healthy colon is essential for optimal health and wellness.
Conversely, colon abnormalities such as mucous, fecal cakes and bowel obstructions
are said to be associated with systemic conditions, such as migraine and
DESIGN: This pilot study will compare scores on from colon hydrotherapy
assessment with a standard measure of general wellness (SF-36). Participants
will complete an informed consent process before being administered the
SF-36 and receiving colon hydrotherapy. During the colon hydrotherapy
session, the therapist will document the presence of abnormal features
in the waste water using a questionnaire intended to measure such indices
as mucous and undigested food. Therapists will not discuss the health
status of the participant until after the colon hydrotherapy questionnaire
has been completed so as avoid bias in evaluation. Scores from the
colon hydrotherapy questionnaire and SF-36 will be analyzed to determine
whether a correlation exists between colon health and general wellness.
SETTING: A.R.E. Health Services department.
PARTICIPANTS: Clients who utilized A.R.E. Health Services colon
hydrotherapy and are willing to participate in research involving this
INTERVENTIONS: Colon hydrotherapy and psychometric assessment
using the SF-36 and colon hydrotherapy questionnaire.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:
Colon hydrotherapy questionnaire
USES OF GOLD CHLORIDE
Investigate therapeutic uses of gold chloride in rheumatoid arthritis.
More broadly, to understand role of gold as an essential trace element.
Gold has been used therapeutically for decades for rheumatoid arthritis.
Although the effectiveness of gold therapy is controversial, it is clear
that treatment with organic gold compounds sometimes result in severe side-effects.
A few studies suggest that gold may have a more extensive application,
serving as an essential element associated with nervous system functioning.
Edgar Cayce often recommended gold (usually gold chloride) both orally
and vibratorally (via electrotherapy). In a number of cases, oral
gold was suggested for rheumatoid arthritis. Over the years, oral
gold chloride has been taken by numerous individuals as per Cayce's recommendations
with few or no reported side-effects.
Do a clinical
trial of gold chloride with rheumatoid arthritis to determine clinical
efficacy and possible side-effects.
research into gold as a possible essential trace element involved in nervous
PERMEABILITY IN PSORIASIS
patients have increased bowel permeability compared to healthy controls.
Edgar Cayce often described a "thinning of the walls of the small intestine"
("leaky gut syndrome") in cases of psoriasis as a primary etiological factor.
Toxins leaking from the bowel were eliminated through the skin, resulting
in the characteristic lesions of psoriasis. Herbal teas and dietary
changes were recommended to decrease toxicity and heal the gut. The medical
literature contains numerous studies investigating the role of bowel permeability
and dietary factors in psoriasis.
Do an analysis
of bowel permeability in psoriatic patients comparing two well established
methods: 1) lactulose/mannitol ratio and 2) 51Cr-labeled EDTA absorption
If bowel permeability
is deemed a possible factor in psoriasis, encourage patients to follow
a simple protocol of herbal teas (yellow saffron and slippery elm bark)
and diet (mostly fruits and vegetables) to determine clinical efficacy
of the Cayce approach to psoriasis.
TONIC FOR ULCERATIVE COLITIS
Ulcerative colitis patients will experience significant remission of symptoms
when given a ginseng tonic recommended by Edgar Cayce for this condition.
Ulcerative colitis is an inflammatory disorder affecting the inner
lining of the large intestine. The inflammation causes the colon to empty
frequently, resulting in diarrhea. As cells on the surface of the lining
of the colon die and slough off, ulcers (tiny open sores) form, causing
pus, mucus, and bleeding. From a medical perspective, the cause of
ulcerative colitis is not known and currently there is no cure apart from
surgical removal of the diseased colon. About half of patients have
only mild symptoms. Only in rare cases, when complications occur, is the
disease fatal. There may be remissions - periods when the symptoms
go away - that last for months or even years. However, most
patients' symptoms eventually return. Standard medical treatment
for patients with ulcerative colitis usually involves medication or surgery.
Edgar Cayce often noted that ulcerative colitis (and colitis in general)
is produced as an after-effect of virus (usually flu) which has settled
in the system. One of Cayce's primary treatments for ulcerative colitis
is a remedy consisting of wild ginseng root, wild ginger root, and lactated
pepsin. This formulation has proven effective in several cases of
Test the clinical
efficacy of the ginseng tonic in patients with ulcerative colitis in a
BOWEL INVOLVEMENT IN ESSENTIAL HYPERTENSION
series of colonic irrigations will significantly decrease blood pressure.
Hypertension (high blood pressure) is a noncontagious cardiovascular
illness that afflicts over 37 million people in the United States.
It is highly variable in its symptoms and severity. The cause of
hypertension is unknown, although in about 10 percent of cases, hypertension
is linked to specific illnesses such as kidney disease and adrenal
gland tumors. From a medical perspective, hypertension cannot
be cured. Therefore, standard medical treatment of hypertension is
directed at control of the illness with drugs and lifestyle changes.
Edgar Cayce often cited congestion in the large bowel as a primary etiological
factor in cases of essential hypertension. Colonic irrigation was
one of the most frequently recommended therapies in such cases.
Measure the effects
of colonic irrigation in patients with essential hypertension. A
series of three irrigations in a thirty day period is recommended.
Measurement of blood pressure and medication levels are compared to matched
controls not receiving colon hydrotherapy.
PATHOLOGY IN IDIOPATHIC EPILEPSY
Patients with idiopathic epilepsy exhibit significantly greater abdominal
features (abdominal temperature variations, abdominal symptoms, and history
of abdominal injury, etc.) than healthy controls.
Epilepsy is a group of serious neurological diseases including various
forms of seizure disorder. Some forms of epilepsy (symptomatic) are
linked to specific causes such as a blow to the head. However, the
cause(s) of most epilepsy is unknown (idiopathic). One subgroup of
idiopathic epilepsy is "abdominal epilepsy," known to exist in both children
and adults. Edgar Cayce consistently maintained that most cases of "true"
(idiopathic) epilepsy originated from the abdomen, specifically in the
lacteal ducts associated with the lymphatic nodes on the right side of
the abdomen. Decreased circulation, abdominal symptoms, and
aberrant nerve reflexes resulting in seizures were the result of adhesions
in the lacteal ducts. Hot castor oil packs and abdominal massage
were typical therapeutic modalities recommended in such cases. Furthermore,
the decreased circulation was said to produce a "cold spot" on the right
side of the abdomen (between the liver and caecum) in all cases of idiopathic
epilepsy. Thermographic measurements in several cases of epilepsy
with abdominal features has documented temperature anomalies in several
patients in preliminary studies.
symptoms and history of abdominal features (including insult or injury
to abdominal organs) in a group of patients with epilepsy and matched controls
Measure and compare
abdominal temperatures for both groups via thermography. Also, look
for possible correlations between abdominal temperatures, symptoms and
history in epileptic group.
OF THE LEYDIG GLAND
and research of the Leydig gland will provide insights into psychological
processes, especially psychopathology.
Franz Von Leydig was a famous and well-respected biologist who discovered
the cells of leydig in 1850 and the leydig gland in 1892. The cells
of leydig are interstitial cells located primarily in the reproductive
glands and are best known for the production of testosterone.
to Leydig, the leydig gland is located in the mesonephros tissue in vertebrates.
Its function is unknown - Leydig thought its role was to stimulate movement
of spermatozoa. Leydig's discoveries laid dormant for decades as
it was almost 100 years before medical science rediscovered the cells of
leydig. Now there are hundreds of articles on Medline documenting
the functions of these cells. The leydig gland has yet to be rediscovered.
Edgar Cayce often spoke of the leydig gland, describing it as a small gland
lying above the reproductive organs. In one instance, he said the
leydig gland (which is normally about the size of a small pea) had become
engorged to the size of a wren's egg. The person was suffering from
schizophrenia. From Cayce's perspective, pathology of the leydig
gland was sometimes associated with psychiatric and neurological conditions
such as schizophrenia, manic-depressive disorder, and epilepsy. Cayce
also linked the leydig gland to psychological and spiritual development
Obtain a copy
and translation of the Leydig's original paper documenting the discovery
of the leydig gland.
Locate the anatomical
position of the leydig gland.
Analyze the tissue
from the leydig gland to determine biochemical and physiological attributes.
to do further research on the leydig gland to determine its relevance to
THERAPY FOR LEUKEMIA
investigate the therapeutic potential of intravenous iodine in the treatment
Leukemia is a form of blood cancer of unknown causation. Leukemia
is the most common form of malignant disease in children, but is more common
in adults. There are several types of leukemia, some more responsive
to treatment than others. Medical intervention usually involves
anti-cancer medications and frequent transfusions of red blood cells and
component solutions. In reading 2208-1, Edgar Cayce made the remarkable
statement that with the use of iodine transfusions in cases of leukemia,
"there will be the ability to reduce the percentage of such cases more
than fifty percent." He noted that the effects would have to be closely
monitored and adjusted. He suggested that the initial research be
done on laboratory animals to determine therapeutics dosages.
with laboratory animals to determine toxicity levels and therapeutic dosage
for tincture of iodine.
Having set parameters
for iodine therapy, test iodine transfusion efficacy in treatment resistant
HYPOTHESIS: Asthmatics exhibit greater levels of somatic dysfunction
of the upper spine compared to health controls.
BACKGROUND: Edgar Cayce often cited somatic dysfunction (i.e.,
"osteopathic lesion" or "chiropractic subluxation") as a common etiological
factor in asthma. The upper thoracic and lower cervical spine were
particularly noted in these cases. Similarly, the osteopathic literature
has focused on somatic dysfunction in this region of the spine in asthma.
Investigate the role of somatic dysfunction in asthma via standard manual
therapy assessment and physiological parameters such as heart rate variability
and mucosal blood flow to bronhial vessels.
If somatic dysfunction is deemed a possible factor in asthma, provide manual
therapy in a controlled study to measure the efficacy of this treatment
ALKALIZATION WITH ORANGE JUICE
HYPOTHESIS: Ingestion of 1 1/2 gallons of orange juice within
30 minutes will produce increased alkalinity of urine compared to baseline.
Cayce suggested that alkalizing the system with citrus (especially
orange juice would be a preventative for colds and other systemic conditions
that result from hyperacidity. Cayce stated that systemic pH could
be monitored via urine pH. Aberegg studied Cayce's recommendations
with several individuals who were told to "take 11/2 to 2 quarts of orange
squeeze the juice of two lemons into it; drink it within ½ hour,
then rest - go to bed if possible." Aberegg reported notable success
in preventing colds with this technqiue.
Measure urine pH to establish a baseline pattern of sytemic pH.
Measure urine pH for several hours after ingesting a large quantity of
Compare baseline urine pH to that after ingesting orange juice.
Aberegg, D. Acid-base balance and the common cold. A.R.E. Journal.
January, 1981, Volume 16, No. 1, p25.
BRANDY FUMES IN CHARRED OAK KEG FOR PULMONARY TUBERCULOSIS
HYPOTHESIS: Apply brandy fumes from an charred oak keg will provide
significant therapeutic efficacy for treatment-resistant pulmonary tuberculosis.
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB), a chronic bacterial infection,
causes more deaths worldwide than any other infectious disease - killing
more adults each year than AIDS and malaria combined. TB is spread through
the air and usually infects the lungs (pulmonary TB), although other organs
are sometimes involved. Some 1.7 billion people - one-third of the
world's population - are infected with the predominant TB organism, Mycobacterium
tuberculosis. This includes between 10 and 15 million people in the
United States. Each year, 8 million people worldwide develop active
TB and 3 million die. For pulmonary TB, Edgar
Cayce typically recommended therapy with apple brandy fumes from a charred
oak keg. Several successful outcomes were reported in the during
Cayce's lifetime, including his wife who was given up for dead, but made
a remarkable recovery using this therapy.
Study therapeutic potential of apple brandy inhalant therapy in treatment-resistent
TB patients in a complementary medicine model.
THERAPY FOR CANCER
HYPOTHESIS: Plantain therapy will provide significant symptomatic
relief from pain produced by cancer.
Cayce stated that the juice of the plantain (a common plant), could
be used relieve the symptoms of cancer. The plantain may be used
externally as a poultice or internally as a tea.
Provide plantain therapy to cancer patients with significant pain and monitor
patient reports of symptom severity before and after therapy.
(CALCIUM IODATE) FOR ACUTE ASTHMA
HYPOTHESIS: Calcidin (calcium iodate) is an effective treatment
for symptomatic relief from acute asthma.
BACKGROUND: Calcidin was an over-the-counter medication available
during Edgar Cayce's lifetime. Cayce
often recommended Calcidin for respiratory conditions such as asthma.
Most often it was to be taken only for symptomatic relief at the first
sign of distress or during the asthmatic attack. Cayce said that
Calcidin produced less side-effects on the system than other medications
available at that time.
Measure effectiveness of Calcidin for symptomatic relief from asthma in
a complementary medicine model.
SODA AND SPIRITS OF CAMPHOR FOR INGROWN TOENAILS
HYPOTHESIS: Baking soda/camphor compound is an effective treatment
for ingrown toenails.
Cayce often recommended a mixture of baking soda and spirits of camphor
for ingrown toenails.
Recruit individuals suffering from ingrown toenails.
After application of the baking soda/spirits of camphor compound compound,
record reports from participants.