Epilepsy Research Report
- Appendix A - The Cayce
Readings on the Abdominal Cold Spot in Epilepsy
- Appendix B - Case Study
Series (Adobe Acrobat, 521kb)
- Appendix C - Infrared Control
Group Images (Adobe Acrobat, 8.95mb - note: large file)
- Appendix D - Infrared Epilepsy
Group Images (Adobe Acrobat, 1.16mb)
- Appendix E - Research Data
Forms (Adobe Acrobat, 483kb)
- Appendix F - Conceptual
This report documents the process and outcomes of an
epilepsy research program begun in 1992 by Meridian Institute.
The research has focused on information provided by Edgar Cayce with a primary
focus on the pathophysiology of the disorder. Thus far the program has
gone through three stages: 1) background research and literature review; 2) liquid
crystal thermography (LCT) measurements; and 3) infrared thermography (IT). Early
results using LCT to confirm the presence of a hypothesized cold spot on the
right side of the abdomen in epilepsy patients were promising, although some
variability was noted. More extensive follow-up with IT did not support
the hypothesis, perhaps due to the necessity of the thermography sessions being
in close temporal relation to seizure activity. A discussion focusing on
the challenges of researching Cayce’s approach is provided that includes
suggestions for future studies.
Overview of Epilepsy
Epilepsy is not a single disease, but rather to a
group of symptoms with numerous causes. The common factor in all forms
of epilepsy is an excessive electrical excitability of the brain resulting
in a "seizure." There are many kinds of seizures that can affect
almost any part of the body. Seizures also tend to alter consciousness
in various ways, such as altered perception and loss of consciousness.
The muscles of the body may become rigid or relaxed, producing convulsions.
Although the rest of the body may be affected by an epileptic seizure, medical
science considers epilepsy to be essentially a disease of the brain.
The numerous forms of epilepsy that can be categorized
into two broad groups: (1) symptomatic epilepsy and (2) idiopathic epilepsy. Symptomatic means
that the cause of the seizures is known. For example, seizures caused
by an injury to the head (which can be documented by history or examination)
would be classified as symptomatic epilepsy.
In at least one-half of all cases epilepsy the cause
is unknown. (Pedley, 1985) This predominant category of epilepsy
is classified as idiopathic, which means "disease without recognizable
cause." (Thomas, 1973)
Historically, idiopathic epilepsy has been
called by several names. "Cases of epilepsy in which no cerebral
lesion can be demonstrated are labeled as idiopathic, cryptogenic, essential,
pure, primary or true." (Epilepsy Foundation of America, 1975,
p. 17) The historical designation of idiopathic epilepsy
as "true" epilepsy is important because it was the term used by Edgar
Cayce in his psychic readings on epilepsy.
Cayce on Epilepsy
Edgar Cayce (1877-1945) was a prominent figure in
the development of the holistic medicine movement in America.
Practicing as a medical clairvoyant, Cayce is reported to have voluntarily
entered an altered state consciousness (trance) in which he gave psychic dissertations
on various subjects including the health status of individuals who sought his
assistance. Cayce gave over 14,000 of these psychic readings including
over two hundred that discuss various aspects of epilepsy.
In contrast to mainstream medicine that focuses almost
entirely on the brain as the dysfunctional organ in epilepsy, Cayce focused
on peripheral systems (especially the autonomic nervous system, digestive tract,
and lymphatic system) which in turn produce reflexes resulting in brain seizures.
Specifically, Cayce insisted that most cases of epilepsy
were caused by "adhesions" in the lacteal ducts that line the intestinal
tract along the right side of the abdomen. Lacteal ducts are part of
the lymphatic system that absorb nutrients from the small intestine as digested
food passes through the gastrointestinal tract. An adhesion is "a
holding together by new tissue [i.e., scar tissue], produced by inflammation
or injury, of two structures which are normally separate." (Taber's
Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary)
Presumably adhesions in the lacteal ducts can interfere
with absorption of nutrients (particularly fats and proteins).
Generally speaking, adhesions interfere with the circulation of blood and lymph. Cayce
insisted that adhesions in the lacteal ducts can also cause the nervous system
to be thrown out of balance or "coordination."
Thus nervous system incoordination is a primary factor cited in the Cayce readings
Cayce cited various causes of abdominal lacteal duct
adhesions in epilepsy, including: Injury or trauma directly to the abdomen,
fever, spinal injuries (with reflexes to the abdomen), and pregnancy and birth
complications. The treatment rationale that underlies Cayce's therapeutic
approach flows naturally from his premise that most cases of epilepsy were
caused by adhesions in the lacteal ducts of the abdomen.
Treatment is directed at breaking up adhesions in the lacteal ducts located
along the right side of the abdomen with hot castor oil packs. Cayce
frequently recommended various other therapies in the treatment of epilepsy,
including spinal adjustments, diet, hydrotherapy, medicines, and mental/spiritual
Meridian Institute Epilepsy Research Program
Researchers at Meridian Institute have been engaged
in research efforts to explore Cayce’s approach to epilepsy since 1992.
The first step was to study the Cayce readings themselves to understand Cayce’s
model. Weekly meetings of a study group from October 1992 to March 1996
provided the foundation for a series of feasibility studies that followed. Three
Meridian researchers participated in this initial background research phase.
A literature review of the medical literature with special
emphasis on medical texts of Cayce’s era was also conducted.
The early osteopathic literature and Byron Robinson’s book The Abdominal
and Pelvic Brain (Robinson, 1908) were useful in understanding Cayce’s
model. Modern medical articles on the enteric nervous system, abdominal
epilepsy, and reflex epilepsy were also extremely helpful (see Appendix
F). The results of this scholarly background research eventually culminated
in an article titled “The Abdominal Brain and Enteric Nervous System” (McMillin
et al, 1999) that reviews the visceral components of abdominal epilepsy, abdominal
migraine, and autism.
Cold Spot Hypothesis
In one particular reading Cayce noted that
“From every condition that is of true epileptic nature there will be
found a cold spot or area between the lacteal duct and the caecum.” (567-4)
The anatomical region specified by Cayce is located on the right side of the
abdomen between the point of the last rib and point of the hip.
Instructions for applying the hot castor oil packs (that were a primary treatment
recommended by Cayce for epilepsy) invariably covered this region. Appendix
A contains nine readings in which Cayce discusses the cold spot in epilepsy. Appendix
A also includes a summary of key points (such as the precise location,
timing, and detection of the thermal variation) related to the hypothesized
In addition to the specific linkage of an abdominal
cold spot in “true” epilepsy, the Cayce readings contain numerous
references to variations in surface thermal patterns that can be indicative
of underlying anatomical and physiological dysfunction for diverse syndromes.
Such thermographic anomalies have also been noted extensively in the chiropractic
and osteopathic literature, particularly with regard to temperature variations
along the spine.
For general research purposes we obtained a used Flexi-Therm
liquid crystal thermography (LCT) unit from a local osteopathic physician. Thermograms
were made by placing the Flexi-Therm liquid crystal sheet on the exposed skin
of a reclining subject, and photographing the resulting pattern when it stabilized
using an attached Polaroid camera.
We routinely took images of the back and abdomen of all the participants in
our residential research programs. Over an eight-year period we evaluated
79 adults using LCT. This data set includes the diverse medical diagnoses of
our residential research studies, healthy individuals, and several epilepsy
patients that are discussed below.
Case Study Series
As word of our research interest spread, we made
contact with a local individual with epilepsy who volunteered for thermographic
analysis using the Flexi-Therm liquid crystal thermography (LCT) system. Over
a period of sixteen months twenty-eight LCT images were obtained that documented
a cold spot on the right side of the abdomen consistent with the description
given by Cayce.
The images and background information on this case
series is contained in Appendix B.
The abdominal cold spot varied somewhat from session to session, but was always
present, as were other abdominal thermal features.
Based on our background research and the evidence
from the case study series documented in Appendix
B, a feasibility study exploring the efficacy of the Cayce treatment approach
to epilepsy was conducted in 1996. Three individuals were recruited via
ads in the A.R.E. membership magazine (Venture Inward).
This small group consisting of two females and one male participated in a six-day
live-in instructional/treatment program in March, 1996, in which they were
taught the elements of the Edgar Cayce therapies for epilepsy.
The therapies included dietary changes, colonic irrigations,
castor oil packs, and psycho-spiritual modalities such as prayer, meditation,
and purposeful living. The participants then returned home to continue
these therapies for six months, submitting daily logs of compliance with the
protocol. Epilepsy symptoms were evaluated at the beginning of the program
and after 6 months.
Only one participant followed the protocol consistently
and reported improvement in symptoms. There were no adverse effects of
treatment reported by any of the participants in this project.
This epilepsy study was conducted as part of a series
of residential research programs for various disorders (including psoriasis,
migraine, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease, asthma, chronic fatigue
syndrome, and hypertension). Two important findings in the epilepsy study
were consistent with the other studies: Recruiting research participants is
difficult and getting participants to follow complex treatment plans is even
A third realization specific to epilepsy research
is that even if participants consistently follow the treatment plan, it is
difficult to determine experimental treatment effects due the confounding influence
of anti-seizure medication taken by most patients. Going off medication
can mean the loss of driving privileges and adverse effects on other significant
quality of life factors. With a very large pool of participants, such
factors can sometimes be reliably sorted out.
Crystal Thermography Research
In recognition of the problems associated with recruitment,
treatment compliance, and medication effects, we decided to focus our limited
research resources on the distinctive thermal pattern (abdominal cold spot)
that the Cayce readings insisted were at the etiological core of “true” (idiopathic)
epilepsy. We were able to recruit a couple more epilepsy volunteers without
advertising. Thus our LCT data set included thermal images of six adult
Technically, the LCT phase of our epilepsy research
project could be described as an exploratory, descriptive study comparing abdominal
thermograms of epilepsy patients with thermograms of patients with other conditions
and healthy normals. We utilized retrospective analysis of data, requiring
no intervention. The outcome variables were variations in abdominal thermographic
images in epilepsy patients as compared to controls (healthy normals and patients
with other conditions).
Analysis of the abdominal LCT images were via qualitative
assessment. The goal was to determine whether there were visually apparent
variations in the epilepsy patients with regard to increased coldness on the
right side of the abdomen as compared to the left side in the epilepsy patients
when compared to nonepileptic controls. Also, the assessment considered possible
thermal configurations that were relatively unique to epilepsy patients.
Although there was some variability in the abdominal
thermograms of the six epilepsy patients obtained using LCT, there was a clear
tendency for a notable cold area on the right side of the abdomen as compared
to the left side. This pattern seemed to be more common in epilepsy patients
than with other illnesses or for healthy individuals. In four of the six cases
of epilepsy the abdominal cold spot was a distinct circular pattern that occured
slightly below the navel. In two other cases of epilepsy the cool spot was
less prominent. In contrast, in non-epileptic control subjects, no consistent
pattern was noted. Table 1 provides graphic documentation of the four epilepsy
cases with distinctive thermographic anomalies as compared to four nonepilepsy
cases (2 normal, 1 asthma, 1 chronic fatigue syndrome).
Abdominal thermograms of four cases of epilepsy
and four nonepilepsy cases.
Note the distinctive cold spot on the right side
of the abdomen in the epilepsy patients
(circled with white outline).
Epilepsy Case 1
Epilepsy Case 2
Epilepsy Case 3
Epilepsy Case 4
In summary, the LCT phase of our epilepsy research
project yielded promising, albeit tentative positive results with a small group
of epilepsy patients compared to normal individuals and patients with other
diverse conditions. We reported the findings of the LCT phase at the
Thirteenth Annual ISSSEEM Conference in Boulder, Colorado on June 22, 2003
(McMillin, el al, 2003). Based on this preliminary data, we felt that
the investment in more expensive equipment (digital infrared camera and software)
and recruitment of a larger sample was warranted.
Through the generous donation of an individual who
had become aware of our research efforts we were able to purchase an Inframetrics
740 infrared camera and software well suited to researching the Cayce cold
spot hypothesis. We spent several months becoming familiar with the operation
of the camera prior to formal data collection.
The protocol of this study was approved by a human subjects research committee.
Epilepsy patients were recruited by presentations
on epilepsy at support group meetings and via newspaper ads. Prior to
the recruitment of epilepsy patients, 60 nonepileptic controls were recruited
for evaluation of abdominal thermographic patterns and the presence and severity
of abdominal symptoms for later comparison with the epilepsy participants. Images
obtained from the 60 control participants in June of 2003 are documented in Appendix
Fourteen adult epilepsy patients were recruited during
the summer of 2004. Whenever possible, documentation of the epilepsy
patients was obtained from neurologists with the written permission of the
Thermography of the surface of the abdomen was performed
using the Inframetrics 740 infrared camera. The 740 produces a thermal image
of the abdomen with a temperature range of 5 degrees C and a resolution of
0.1 degrees C.
We generally followed the Quality Assurance Guidelines
established by the International Academy of Clinical Thermology (Standards
and Protocols in Clinical Thermographic Imaging - Current Revision August 2001)
although for a few sessions the room temperature slightly exceeded the IACT
guidelines (18-23 degrees C.). The temperature of the room was maintained
so that the participant’s physiology was not altered to the point of
shivering or perspiring. Any room temperature changes during the course of
an assessment was gradual so that steady state physiology was maintained and
all parts of the body could adjust uniformly.
Ambient room temperature thermometer was monitored and recorded at the time
of all measurements.
The sequence of measurements was for an initial image
to be taken followed by a twenty-minute equilibration period with the patient
resting calming in a reclining chair with bare abdomen.
Then another thermal image was taken at room temperature, the skin of the abdomen
was briefly swabbed with rubbing alcohol, and an additional picture was taken
to look at the effect of slightly more cooling. Images obtained from
the epilepsy patients are documented in Appendix D. During
the equilibration period, the participants were asked questions about history
and symptoms of epilepsy as documented in the questionnaires in Appendix
Thermal variations represent autonomic vasomotor activity
in terms of average temperatures in selected areas, and of temperature differentials.
The thermographic images were analyzed using FLIR ThermaCAM Researcher 2002
software. This software allows the average temperature and standard deviation
to be calculated for any selected area of the image, and can calculate differential
comparisons. Using the navel (identifiable as a hot spot) as a reference point,
we measured four rectangular areas (8 cm x 8 cm, above and below and to either
side of the navel) based on the areas covered by the cold spots in Table
1. We compared the average temperatures on the right side to the corresponding
areas on the left side. We performed intra-individual comparisons of the four
quadrants of the abdomen (subtracting the average temperature on the right
side from the average temperature on the right side) and also located the coldest
spots on the abdomen of each individual.
Table 2a. Control subject abdominal temperatures
in degrees C,
baseline, n = 64.
Table 2b. Epileptic subject abdominal temperatures
in degrees C,
baseline, n = 15.
Table 3a. Control subject abdominal temperatures
in degrees C,
after 20 minutes equilibration, n = 63.
Table 3b. Epileptic subject abdominal temperatures
in degrees C,
after 20 minutes equilibration, n = 15.
Table 4a. Control subject abdominal temperatures
in degrees C,
after alcohol wipe, n = 63.
Table 4b. Epileptic subject abdominal temperatures
in degrees C,
after alcohol wipe, n = 15.
The results of the infrared study failed to confirm
the cold spot hypothesis in epilepsy. As expected, the control group displayed
considerable thermal variation with hot and cold spots scattered around the abdomen. There
does not appear to be a consistent cold spot on the right side of the abdomen
in this nonepiletic sample.
Thus if a consistent cold spot were documented in a subgroup of epilepsy patients,
this anomaly could not be considered as simply a variant of normal abdominal
However, we were unable to document a consistent cold
spot within the epilepsy group. Like the control group, there was considerable
variability with some coolness on the right side of the abdomen.
However, statistical analysis failed to detect any significant differences in
the right and left side of the abdomen, or in the location of the coldest spots
on the abdomen.
It is noteworthy that all the average temperatures for
the epileptics are about 1 degree C higher than those of the controls. This is
likely to have been an artifact of the temperature of the room, and not a real
difference between epileptics and nonepileptics. The controls were almost all
measured in a 20 degree C air-conditioned room, during a 1-week period in June.
The epileptics were measured in two different rooms, where there was less control
over the temperature, at various times during the year; the average room temperature
was around 22 degrees C. Although most measurements were made within the standard
18-23 degree range, even a small temperature change appears to have a substantial
effect on superficial skin temperature. Variations in humidity during the year
would add to this variability. This difference in means does not affect the intraindividual
left/right comparison, but it means that caution is needed in interpreting any
absolute measurements of temperature.
Anticipating a possible effect of constipation, we had
each subject fill out a constipation scale. Very few subjects had any constipation,
and there did not appear to be any relationship to abdominal temperature. Average
temperatures were somewhat related to body mass index (BMI); lower skin temperatures
were found in more obese people. In addition, obese people had more complex patterns
of cold and warm spots, probably due to subcutaneous fat distribution.
Most of our epilepsy research has focused on Cayce’s
cold spot hypothesis due to the problematic nature of doing clinical research
with this population. In particular, difficulties with recruitment, treatment
compliance, and medication effects pushed us in the direction of basic physiological
research. Our strategy was to see if the abdominal cold spot hypothesis
could be verified. If the cold spot could be reliably documented, this
could increase motivation by participants to follow the treatment plan (especially
the hot castor oil packs) to see if the cold spot could be diminished or eliminated. With
these two condition met (detection of a cold spot and therapeutic elimination
of the cold spot), patients and physicians could have a basis for determining
the need for constant anti-seizure medication. So eventually, if justified
by solid research, our epilepsy research program could cycle back to the full
treatment regimen that we attempted in our initial epilepsy research conference.
Although documenting the presence or absence of this
type of thermal anomaly may seem to be a simple matter, we have found this
not to be the case. At the core of the issue is the difficulty in understanding
exactly what Cayce meant when he described the abdominal cold spot in epilepsy.
The Cayce readings explicitly discussed a cold spot in epilepsy in nine readings
(see Appendix A).
Numerous other readings are consistent with this pattern in recommending hot
abdominal castor oil packs which the readings recommended to break up adhesions
or lesions in the lacteal ducts along the right side of the abdomen that were
said to cause the cold spot.
Let us review the evocative quote on this subject: “From
every condition that is of true epileptic nature there will be found a cold
spot or area between the lacteal duct and the caecum.”
(567-4) Here are some observations on the cold spot based on this quote
and other readings on the subject of surface thermal anomalies:
- Reading 567-4 (and other related readings) does not rule out that there
may be cold spots on other portions of the abdomen in addition to the right
side in cases of epilepsy. Even in our best-documented epilepsy case
(Appendix B – Case Study Series), cold
areas could be noted at times on the left side of the abdomen.
- The readings do not specifically rule out the presence of a cold spot
on the right side of the abdomen in conditions other than “true” epilepsy.
In other words, having a cold spot on the right of the abdomen does not necessarily
mean that the person with will have a seizure disorder.
The presence of cold spots on the right abdomen among the nonepileptic controls
in both the LCT and infrared phases of our thermography program confirm this
point. The images in Appendix C clearly
illustrate the presence of an abdominal cold spot on the right side of the
abdomen in several nonepileptic individuals.
Given the abundant amount of “noise” (i.e.,
variability) in abdominal thermography of both epilepsy and nonepilepsy volunteers
in our studies it becomes clear that for any positive outcome in this area there
must be a very strong signal-to-noise ratio. The early studies with LCT
suggested that we were dealing with a fairly strong signal (i.e., obvious cold
spot). The more sensitive infrared data did not detect such a strong signal.
- Given that some readings encourage the determination of the cold spot
in close temporal relation to a seizure (i.e., immediately before, during,
or after), one may presume that the cold spot would not be present (or present
to a lesser degree) at other times. Hence one would naturally expect
variability in the presence of this feature among cases of “true”
(idiopathic) epilepsy that may fit Cayce’s model. Hence a single
session may not rule out the pattern, particularly if some coolness is noted
along the right side of the abdomen. Appendix
D illustrates this point with regard to several of the individuals with
epilepsy who presented with at least some coolness on the right side, that,
when analyzed as part of the entire data set, is not statistically significant.
The last point concerning timing of the cold spot may
be the source for much of the variability in our findings.
If the cold spot is only present as a strong signal in close temporal proximity
to a seizure, the odds of detecting this thermal anomaly in most epilepsy patients
is greatly reduced.
Anti-seizure medication effects can further complicate
this problem. If the Cayce approach to the pathophysiology of idiopathic
epilepsy is accurate, the physiological process can be compared to a chain reaction
in which the sedating properties of anti-seizure medication breaks the chain
of effects at the level of brain involvement. Perhaps the underlying abdominal
pathology in the lacteal ducts (and associated cold spot due to disturbed circulation)
still continues in cycles of activity, but no brain seizure is produced. This
could explain the variability documented in the LCT case series (Appendix
At the times when an obvious cold spot was recorded, the system could have been
involved in the abdominal stage of a seizure that did not manifest due to medication
effects. Since the full seizure does not take place, there is no way of
determining the temporal proximity of the thermal image and a seizure episode.
For epilepsy patients who experience few seizures when
not taking medication, the chances of detecting a significant cold spot when
on medication are very low. In contrast, a patient who has frequent seizures
without medication, would be more likely to exhibit the abdominal cold spot even
when on medication. The cold spot would be a background thermal anomaly
associated with the underlying pathophysiology of idiopathic epilepsy that is
unaffected by medication. This could explain the presence of a prominent
cold spot in the case series (Appendix B) on some
days and not others. It could also explain the relative absence of an abdominal
cold spot in most of our infrared epilepsy participants who seldom have seizures
when not medicated.
Although infrared thermography is now the standard for
measuring skin temperature, one possible drawback in our application is that
it is very sensitive to small variations in superficial temperature (such as
on the surface of hairs on the abdomen), which may obscure deeper, more stable
features. The older LCT, which has a thermal sink in the form of the liquid crystal
sheet, may actually give a better picture of deeper features.
Another potentially confounding factor that may account
for some of the differences in the infrared and LCT data relates to the infrared
protocol that we used to conform to the International Academy of Clinical Thermology
standards. Specifically, the infrared data collected immediately after the twenty-minute
equilibration period was used as the primary data point in our analysis. As the
images in Appendix D illustrate, thermal data
collected at baseline and/or following the alcohol rub sometimes displayed the
most interesting effects in terms of a cold spot on the right side of the abdomen.
Perhaps the process of thermoregulation of bare skin to a cool room temporarily
overrides deeper endogenous thermal patterns in an attempt to equilibrate to
the much cooler environmental conditions. For example, the baseline and post
alchohol images for Participant #25 (Appendix D)
show a notable cold spot on the right side of the abdomen which is lacking in
the twenty-minute equilibration image. Participant #25 is the individual docummented
in Appendix B. The infrared baseline and alcohol
rub images for this participant are consistent with the extensive LCT series
collected previously and images taken at the conclusion of the infrared session.
One of the obvious implications of the importance
of timing in detecting an abdominal cold spot is that research should seek
to focus on participants who are actively having seizures in close temporal
relation to the thermography sessions. Patients with intractable epilepsy
(i.e., not responding to medication) may be a good source of research participants
for studying Cayce’s cold spot hypothesis. At least it would be
easy to determine if any thermographic images are obtained in close temporal
proximity to a seizure. One of the challenges of doing thermographic
studies of this population would be safely getting cooperation immediately
before, during, or after a seizure. Another potential problem is that
by the very fact that the seizures are not responsive to medication the pathophysiology
of the disorder may not fit within Cayce’s definition of “true” epilepsy.
Another approach to recruiting participants who are
actively experiencing seizures would be to study childhood epilepsy.
Parents who are concerned about putting their child on anti-seizure medication
might be willing to participate in an epilepsy thermography project.
Research with this population could also decrease some of the other problems
that we encountered with researching adult epilepsy populations.
Parents are more likely to be highly motivated and committed to following a
treatment plan for the sake of their children. Since children do not
drive automobiles, it would be easier and safer to evaluate the outcome of
alternative treatments with periods without medication.
Researching the cold spot hypothesis in childhood
epilepsy could be done in a less invasive and more informal way by following
Cayce’s advice of simply putting a warm hand on the abdomen during a
This is something that a parent or health professional could easily accomplish.
Although the data would have less empirical value, if this type of informal
preliminary study had positive outcomes, it could precede the use of the formal
thermographic protocol developed by Meridian Institute. Parents who are
able to detect a cold spot with their own hands will be highly motivated to
overcome whatever obstacles may need surmounting to participate in such a study.
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- Appendix A -
The Cayce Readings on the Abdominal Cold Spot in Epilepsy
- Appendix B -
Case Study Series (Adobe Acrobat, 521kb)
- Appendix C -
Infrared Control Group Images (Adobe Acrobat, 8.95mb - note: very large
- Appendix D -
Infrared Epilepsy Group Images (Adobe Acrobat, 1.16mb - note large file)
- Appendix E -
Research Data Forms (Adobe Acrobat, 483kb)
- Appendix F -