The Cayce Herbal 
 A Comprehensive Guide to the  
Botanical Medicine of Edgar Cayce
A Manual of Materia Medica and Pharmacology
by David M. R. Culbreth, Ph.G., M.D. (1927)

    Baptis'ia tincto'ria, Baptisia, Wild (False) Indigo,  N.F. -- The dried root with not more than 10 p.c. of stem-bases and overground parts nor 2 p.c. of other foreign organic matter; N. America.  Plant .6-1 M. (2-3 degrees) high, smooth, succulent, glaucous, disagreeable odor, when bruised -- repellent to insects, etc.; flowers yellow.  Root (most active), fleshy, .5-4 Cm. (1/5-1 3/5') thick,usually cut into elongated cylindrical pieces; crown 5-8 Cm. (2-3 1/5') thick, warty, stem- scars, dark brown, wrinkled, corky layer, few branching rootlets; fracture tough, whitish, radiate, porous; nearly odorless, bark bitter, acrid, wood nearly tasteless.  Powder, light grayish -- numerous starch grains, tracheae, lignified fibers, medullary ray tissue, parenchyma, cork cells; solvent: 75 p.c. alcohol; contains cytisine (baptitoxine--acrid, poisonous), baptisin (non-active bitter glucoside), baptin (purgative glucoside), ash 5 p.c.  Hepatic, nervous and intestinal stimulant antipyretic, emeto-cathartic -- death by respiratory paralysis; typhus, enteric and scarlet fevers, epidemic dysentery; locally -- aphthous stomatitis, chronic ulcers, gangrene.  Dose, gr. 5-15 (.3-1 Gm.); 1. Fluidextractum Baptisiae (75 p.c. alcohol): Prep.: 1.  Dentifricium, .875 p.c.  Infusion, Tincture, Baptisin, gr. 2-6 (.13-.4 Gm.).


    Barosma betulina, (Thunberg) Bartling et Wendland crenulata, (Linne') Hooker serratifolia, (Curtis) Willdenow.  The dried leaf with not more than 8 p.c. stems nor 2 p.c. other foreign organic matter.
    Habitat.  S. Africa, Cape Colony (Cape of Good Hope, Cape Town); mountains.
    Syn.  Bookoo, Buku, Bucku, Bucco; Br. Buchu Folia, Folia Bucco, Diosmae or Barosmae; Fr. Feuilles de Bucco (Booko, Buchu); Ger. Bucco or Buchublatter.
    Ba-ros'ma.  L. Fr. Gr. ..., heavy + odor -- i.e., its powerful smell.
    Be-tu-li'na.  L. betulinus, fr. Celtic betu, their name for birth -- i.e., leaves resembling   birch leaves.
    Cren-u-la'ta.  L. crenulatus, crena, notched, notch;  i.e., leaf margins crenulate.
    Ser-ra-ti-fo'li-a.  L. serratus, notched like a saw, + folium, a leaf -- i.e., leaves with  margins saw-like, serrated.
    Buchu (bu'ku).  African plant name; Diosma, old name, meaning "divine odor.
    PLANTS. -- Woody shrubs, .3-1.2 M. (1-4 degrees) high, branches many, stiff, angular, bark smooth, purple; young twigs covered with immersed oil-glands; flowers solitary, pink; calyx 5 segments, deeply cut; petals 5, glandular-punctate; stamens 5; fruit 5-coccus capsule, adherent by inner margins, 9 Mm. (3/5') long, 12 Mm. (1/2') broad, 5-seeded.  Leaves, Leaf, (B. Betulina + B. Crenulata: Short, rhomboidally oval, obovate, 9-30 Mm. (3/5-1 1/5') long, 4-20 Mm. (1/6-4/5') broad, apex obtuse, rounded, recurved, base wedge-shaped (cuneate), or obtuse, dentate, glandular-punctate, oil gland at the base of each tooth, papillose, longitudinally striate beneath, coriaceous, petiole 1 Mm. (1/25') long, yellowish-green; odor aromatic, mint-like; taste camphoraceous; (B. Serratifolia): long, linear, lanceolate, 12-40 Mm. (1/2-1 3/5') long, 4-10 Mm. 1/6-2/5') broad; apex acute, rounded, serrate, otherwise resembling the preceding.  POWDER, light green--epidermal cells with sphero-crystals, crystal aggregates of hesperidin, rosette aggregates of calcium oxalate, few simple hairs, numerous stomata, oil secretion cavities, oil globules, fragments of fibro-vascular bundles.  Solvents: Alcohol; boiling water partially.  Dose, gr. 15-30 (1-2 Gm.).
    ADULTERATIONS. -- Leaves, branchlets, flowers and non-aromatic capsules of allied species, also leaves of Empleurum serrulatum, which are yellowish-green, acute, different odor and taste, less mucilaginous and contain volatile oil 1 p.c., without any crystalline content. Karoo buchu (B. Pulchel'la), leaves 6 Mm. (1/4') long, half as broad, thick, ovate, acute, nearly entire, apex recurved, oil gland not superficial; another variety (Agathos'ma varia'bile), leaves strong anise odor; Psora'lea obli'qua, leaves minutely dentate, hairy, brown dotted.

[ILLUSTRATION] Barosma crenulata: 1, calyx; 2, style and stigma; 3, fruit; 4, seed; 5, dots on leaf.

    Commercial. -- Grows in stony, hilly valleys; cultivated in gardens, since 1774, for persistent attractive flowers.  There are two varieties: 1, Short (B. betulina, B. crenulata), and 2, Long (B. serratifolia); the latter usually containing less of the active constituent--volatile oil .66 p.c., which is without diosphenol.  Imported chiefly in large bales.

[ILLUSTRATION] Buchu: a, b, Barosma crenulata; c, d. B, betulina; g, h, B. serratifolia; e, f, Empleurum serrulatum; b, c, f, g, natural size.

CONSTITUENTS. -- Volatile oil 1-1.6 p.c., bitter glucoside (barosmin), hesperidin, resin, gum salts, ash 4-7 p.c.
    Volatile Oil, C10H16O.--This gives the medicinal properties, and is obtained by distillation and rectifying over sodium; sp. gr. 0.969; contains some C10H18O (a body having peppermint-like odor), and upon cooling separates 30 p.c. barosma camphor, or phenol diosphenol, C10H16O2, a stearoptene occurring in white needle-like crystals, blackish-green with ferric salts.
    Barosmin (diosmin, rutin).  Soluble in ether, volatile oils, dilute acids and alkalies, sparingly in alcohol, crystallizes in microscopic needles.
    PREPARATIONS. -- 1.  Fluidextractum Buchu.  Fluidextract of Buchu.  (Syn., Fldext. Buchu, Fluid Extract of Buchu; Fr. Extrait fluide de Bucco; Ger. Buchufluidextrakt.).
    Manufacture: Similar to Fluidextractum Sarsaparillae, page 126, menstruum: alcohol.  Dose, msv-30 (1-2 cc.).
    PREPS.: 1.  Elixir Buchu, N.F., 12.5 p.c.: Preps.: 1.  Elixir Buchu et Potassii Acetatis, N.F., 8.5 p.c. (pot. acet.).  2.  Elixir Buchu, Juniperi et Potassii Acetatis, 15 p.c , + fldext. Junip, 7.5, pot, acet   5.
    2.  Fuidextractum Buchi Compositum, N.F., 62.5 p.c., + cubeb, juniper berries, uva ursi, aa 12.5 (80 p.c. alcohol).
Dose, mxv-30 (1-2 cc.): Prep.: 1.  Elixir Buchu Compositum, N.F., 25 p.c. + aromatic elixir q.s. 100.  Dose, 3j-2 (4-8 cc.).
 Unoff. Preps.: Infusum Buchu (Br.), 5 p.c., 3ss-2 (15-60 cc.).  Tinctura Buchu (Br.), 20 p.c., (60 p.c. alcohol), 3j-2 (4-8 cc.).
    PROPERTIES. -- Diuretic, tonic, stimulant, carminative, diaphoretic; increases the fluids and solids of the urine, imparting peculiar odor; acts as a tonic, astringent, and disinfectant to the urinary tract, diminishing secretions.  Large doses emetic, cathartic, causing burning in stomach, strangury; eliminated by the kidneys and bronchial mucous membrane.
    USES. -- Gravel, lithemia, vesical catarrh, irritated urethra, gonorrea, gleet, chronic bronchitis, inflamed prostate, dropsy, retention or incontinence of urine, feeble digestion, flatulency; should not be given when inflammation is severe; often combined with alkalies, potassium hyroxide, etc.  The native Hottentots, from whom the English and Dutch physicians learned its virtues, use an ointment as vulnerary, and a vinous tincture in gastric and vesical affections; they also value it as a perfume, rubbing the powdered leaves upon their greased bodies. B. Ecklonia'na, leaves oval, 2.5 Cm. (1' long, rounded at base, crenate, growing from pubescent shoots, have similar properties.

[ILLUSTRATION] Berberis vulgaris

Berberis (Mahonia)

    Ber'beris Aquifo'lium, Berberis, Oregon Grape Fruit, N.F. -- The dried rhizome and roots with not more than 5 p.c. of overground parts or other foreign organic matter -- rejecting pieces over 45 Mm. (1 4/5') thick, or with bark removed; United States, Oregon, California, mountains.  Tall shrub, 1.5-2 M. (5-6 degrees) high; leaves coriaceous, evergreen, shining, flowers small, numerous,yellowish-green; fruit purple berry with acid pulp.  Rhizome cylindrical, knotty, branched, cut into pieces of varying length, up to 45 Mm. (1 4/5') in thickness, splitting on drying, yellowish-brown, wrinkled; fracture hard, tough; bark 1 Mm. (1/25') thick, separable into layers, wood yellow, radiate, pith small, sometimes eccentic, odor slight; taste distinctive, bitter, on chewing--saliva yellow.  Powder, yellowish-brown--medullary rays, wood-fibers, few tracheae, starch grains; solvent: diluted alcohol; contains (bark) berberine 2.35 p.c., oxyacanthine 2.82 p.c., resin, tannin, phytosterin.  Alterative, diuretic antiperiodic, tonic, laxative; scrofulous and syphilitic cachexia, chronic eczema, psoriasis, uterine diseases, dyspepsia with constipation.  Dose, gr. 10-30 (.6-2 Gm.); 1.  Fluidextractum Berberidis (diluted alcohol), dose, mx-30 (.6-2 cc.).  2.  Fluidextractum Trifolii Compositum, 10.8 p.c.


    B. vulga'ris (canaden'sis). -- The fruit, U.S.P. 1830; the bark of the root, 1860-1870.  Spreading shrub, 1-2 M. (3-6 degrees) high, thorny branches, bark gray, wood yellow, leaves toothed, spiny; flowers, yellow racemes; fruit, oval, scarlet berry; root-bark yellowish-gray, separable into laminae, bitter, astringent; contains berberine, resin, tannin, fat.  Used in febrile diseases, diarrhea; bark in dysentery, dropsy, dyspepsia, to lessen size of spleen; similar to calumba.  Dose (bark, gr. 2-10 (.13-.6 Gm.); infusion decoction, fruit juice sometimes made into syrup, preserves, etc.

Betula alba

    Bet'ula al'ba, White Birch. -- Betulaceae; Olcum Betulae Empyreumaticum, Rectificatum, Rectified Oil of Birch Tar, N.F.  The pyroligneous oil obtained by dry distillation of the bark and wood, rectified by steam distillation; Europs, Asia, N. Ameriaca.  Large handsome tree.  Oil is a limpid, dark brown liquid; odor penetrating, empyreumatic--resembling Russia leather; soluble in ether, chloroform, glacial acetic acid, amyl alcohol, oil of turpentine, benzene, carbon disulphide, dehydrated alcohol (3); mixed with alcohol (3) or purified petroleum benzene (3)--slight turbidity, but with methyl alcohol--decided turbidity, sp. gr. 0.918; aqueous filtrate 4 cc. + a drop of dilute ferric chloride solution (1 in 100)--green coloration, then brown, turbid (dist. from oil of cade); contains guiaiacol, creosol, cresol, xylecrol, phenol.  Antiseptic counter-irritant; sore and stiffened muscles, joints; 1.  Unguentum Resorcinolis Compositum, 6 p.c.  B.  Len'ta, Sweet Birch -- is one of the sources (bark) of U.S.P.  Methyl Salicylate, see page 460; B. Papyrif'era, Paper (Canoe) Birch, white Birch; Canada, New York, has cordate leaves, tough white bark which separates into papery layers, and was used by the Indians in making canoes.


    Bol'du Bol'dus, Boldus, Boldo, Boldo Leaves, N.F. -- Monimiaceae.  The dried leaf with not more than 2 p.c. of stems or other foreign organic matter, yielding not more than 6 p.c. of acid-insoluble ash; S. America, Chile.  A large aromatic evergreen diocecious shrub.  Leaves ovate, 3-7 Cm. (1 1/5-3') long, 1-4 Cm. (2/5-1 2/5') broad, base and apex rounded or indented, entire, revolute, thick coriaceous, rigid, brittle, pale green, papillose, petiole stout; odor peculiar, disagreeable (crushed) chenopodium-like; taste bitter, warm, pungent, camphoraceous, terebinthinate.  Powder, greenish -- parenchyma, volatile oil cells, calcium carbonate cystoliths, hairs, numerous stomata; contains volatile oil, resin, boldine, boldoglucin (glucoside -- liquid), tannin.  Sedative, hypnotic; tonic; atonic dyspepsia, nervousness, hepatitis, rheumatism, urethritis.  Dose, gr. 5-10 (.3-.6 Gm.); 1.  Fluidextractum Boldi (alcohol).  Tincture, 20 p.c. mv-20 (.3-1.3 cc.), boldine -- local anesthetic, gr. 3 (.2 Gm.).


    P. (Bole'tus) fomenta'rius, Agaric of the Oak (Touch Wood). -- The fungus, U.S.P. 1830; Europe, on Quercus and Fagus species.  It is formed by an additional layer of fibers each year; is collected Aug-Sept., and resembles the horse's hoof, being 15-25 Cm. (6-10') wide.  When young is soft, velvety, but becomes hard and ligneous; when deprived of outside ligneous portion, brownish above and yellowish-white beneath, porous, fibrous, tough, inodorous, tasteless; when for use is deprived of harder rind, sliced, boiled in lye, washed, beaten, until soft and pliable, then absorbs twice its weight of water; contains extractive, resin, nitrogenous matter, KCl, CaSO4; the ash -- Fe, Ca, Mg, phosphate.  Used locally with pressure to arrest hemorrhage.  Agaric steeped in nitre solution yields spunk or tinder.


    Boswel'lia Carte'rii, Olibanum, Frankincense. -- E. Africa, S. Arabia.  This gum-resin exudes from incisions made in the bark; occurs in yellowish-brown tears covered with white dust; odor balsamic, terebinthinate; taste balsamic, bitter; partly soluble in alcohol; yields with water milk-white emulsion; contains volatile oil 4-7 p.c. (mostly olibene, C10H16), resin 56-72 p.c., gum (resembles arabin) 30 p.c., bitter principle, ash 3. p.c.  Stimulant, expectorant, Dose, gr 15-30 (1-2 Gm.), in emulsion, plaster, or fumigation.

Brassica (Sinapis) nigra

    Brassica nigra, (Linne') Koch, juncea, (Linne') Cosson and related varieties.  The dried ripe seed, with not more than 5 p.c. other seeds or other foreign organic matter, yielding not less than .6 p.c. volatile oil (allyl isothiocyanate.
    Habitat.  Asia, S. Europe, Africa, cultivated in gardens; wild in United States.
    Syn.  1.  Sinap, Nig., Brown Mustard, Cadlock, Kerlock; Sinapis Nigrae Semina; Fr. Moutarade noire (grise); Ger. Semen  Sinapis, Schwarzer Senf, Senfaamen.  2.  Sarepta, Indian or Russian Mustard.
    Si-na'pis.  L. Fr. Gr. ..., Celtic nap, a turnip.
    Bras'si-ca.  L. For cabbage, fr. Celtic bresic, cabbage -- i.e., the fruit resemblance.
    Jun'ce-a.  L. Juncus, a rush, reed -- i.e., from resemblance to rush (bulrush).
    Ni'gra.  L. Niger, black -- i.e., the seed.
    Mus'tard.  L. Mustrum, must -- i.e., seeds were once pounded with must or vinegar.
    PLANTS. -- Brassica nigra, erect annual, 1.3 M. (4 degrees) high, smooth above, branched; leaves irregularly pinnatifid, faintly toothed; flowers 6 Mm. (1/4') broad, yellow ; fruit silique, 18 Mm. (3/4') long, 1 Mm (1/25') broad, appressed, somewhat quadrangular, beak short, tapering 3-7-seeded; B. Juncea, glabrous or pubescent, glaucous, upper leaves oblong, subentire, attenuate at the base, lower lyrate, pedicels slender spreading, smaller than preceding; flowers (1.2-1.8 Cm. (3/5-4/5') broad, not appressed; fruit (pod) 2-5 Cm. (4/5-2') long.  SEED, spheroidal, irregularly spheroidal, 1-1.6 Mm (1/25-1/16') broad; testa dark reddish-brown, sometimes yellowish-brown, with grayish tinge, minutely pitted or reticulate; embryo greenish-yellow, dark, yellow, oil, 2 large cotyledons; odor slight (dry); when crushed and moistened, very irritating, strongly pungent, characteristic; taste strongly pungent, acrid.  POWDER, light brown, greenish-brown--tissues of embryo, the cells containing small aleurone grains and fixed oil, the latter forming in large globules on adding chloral hydrate T.S.; fragments of seed-coat conspicuous, with yellow areas and small yellowish stone cells, few or no starch grains.  In preparing powdered black mustard, some of its fixed oil may be removed to facilitate reduction.  Should be kept, when powdered, in tightly-closed containers.  Solvents: water; alcohol slightly.  Dose, gr. 15-60 (1-4 Gm.).
    ADULTERATIONS. -- SEEDS: Those of allied species--radish, turnip, rape, the latter most common, but easily recognized by larger size and peculiar bluish-red tint; POWDER: Flour, starchy substances (blue with iodine), turmeric -- rendering white mustard whiter (reddish-brown with borax or boric acid), red pepper (increasing pungency), sawdust (microscope); out of 27 samples examined only 8 were free of admixtures; white mustard recognized by not giving pungent fumes when mixed with water unless heated; OIL: Alcohol, carbon disulphide, castor oil, petroleum, artificial allyl isosulphocyanate, etc.

[ILLUSTRATION] Brassica nigra: 1, flower; 2, pistil and stamens; 3, pistil; 4, silique; 5, cross-section of same; 6, seed; a, stamen; st, stigma; g, pistil carpels; d, nectar tubes; r, replum.

    Commercial. -- Plants are cultivated largely in England, United States, etc., and grow wild--the white (Sinapis alba), occasionally, the black commonly.  The seed of each on grinding and sifting yield a yellow powder of characteristic odor and taste, and by mixing equal quantities of the two we obtain mustard, flour of mustard (Sinapis, Br.), which by trituration with water (vinegar) and spices yields the semi-solid French mustard.

[ILLUSTRATION] Sinapis, magnified: a, transverse section; b, embryo; c.  entire seed.

    CONSTITUENTS. -- Fixed oil 30-35 p.c., Sinigrin (potassium myronate) .7-1.3 p.c., Sinapine sulphocyanide, lecithin, albumin 30 p.c., gum and mucilage 20 p.c. (mainly in testa), myrosin, other proteins, starch 1-2.5 p.c., ash 4-9 p.c.
    Fixed Oil. -- Usually termed "oil of mustard" is obtained by crushing seeds and expressing; it is yellowish-green, non-drying, sp. gr. 0.916, congeals at -18 degrees C. (0 degree F.), slight odor, bland, mild taste; consists of glycerides of oleic, stearic, erucic (brassic) and behenic acids.
    Sinapine. -- Alkaloid, here only as sulphocyanide, in colorless, bitter prisms, soluble in water, alcohol.  Sinapine boiled with alkalies gives choline or sinkaline, C5H15O3N, and sinapic acid, C11H12O5.
    Myrosin. -- This ferment is an albuminoid body that becomes inert at 70 degrees C. (158 degrees F.), hence mustard heated to this point will not yield the volatile oil, owing to which the plasters should not be moistened with water warmer than the body temperature.
    Sinigrin, C10H18KNS2O10.--Silky, white needles, or golden-yellow crystals, soluble in water, slightly in alcohol, insoluble in ether, chloroform; with water and the ferment myrosin it splits into glucose, acid potassium sulphate, and allyl sulphocyanide (isosulphocyanate -- volatile oil of mustard) .5-1 p.c.
    Oleum Sinapis Volatile.  Volatile Oil of Mustard, U.S.P. -- (Syn., Ol.  Sinap. Vol., Mustard Oil Oleum Sinapis Aethereum, Oil of Mustard; Fr. Essence de Moutarde; Ger. Oleum Sinapis, Senfol, Aetherisches Senfol.)  This oil, like oil of bitter almond and to a great extent oil of gaultheria, does not preexist in the plant, being obtained by macerating with warm water the crushed black mustard seeds (B. Nigra, B. Juncea), after the removal of fixed oil by expression, when a reaction (fermentation) sets in between sinigrin (potassium myronate) and myrosin (albuminoid ferment), provided the temperature does not exceed 70 degrees C. (158 degrees F.), at which the ferment becomes inert and ceases to act--C10H16KNS2O9 (sinigrin) + H2O = C3H5CNS (volatile oil of mustard) + C6H12O6 (glucose) + HKSO4; also have formed allyl cyanide, carbon disulphide, allyl thiocyanate, and higher boiling compounds, which are always in the oil; when fermentation is completed the mixture is distilled with steam; this oil also is produced to a large extent synthetically by decomposing allyl iodide, C3H5I, with potassium sulphocyanate in alcoholic solution.  It is a colorless, pale yellow, strongly refractive liquid, very pungent, irritating odor, acrid taste (in both exercise great caution, examining it only when highly diluted), optically inactive, sp. gr. 1.017, soluble in alcohol, carbon disulphide, volatile at 150 degrees C. (302 degrees F.); contains at least 93 p.c. of allyl isothiocyanate (isosulphocyanate), with traces of allyl cyanide, carbon disulphide, etc.  Tests: 1.  Distils completely between 148-154 degrees C. (298-310 degrees F.)first and last 10 p.c. portions have nearly the same sp. gr. as original oil (abs. of alcohol, chloroform, petroleum, fatty oils).  2.  Dilute 1 cc. of oil with alcohol (5) + 1 drop of ferric chloride T.S.--no blue color (abs. of phenols).  The label must indicate definitely its specific source, whether from black mustard or made synthetically.  Should be kept cool, dark, in well-stoppered, amber-colored bottles.  Dose, m 1/8-1/4 (.008-.016 cc.).
    PREPARATIONS. -- SEEDS:  1.Emplastrum Sinapis.  Mustard Plaster.  (Syn., Emp. Sinap., Mustard Paper; Charta Sinapis, Fr. Papier moutarde (Sinapise), Moutarde enfeuilles; Ger. Charta sinapisata, Senf papier.)
    Manufacture: Percolate black mustard 100 Gm. with petroleum benzin until percolate gives no greasy stain on blotting paper, dry the powder; dissolve  rubber 10 Gm. in petroleum benzin and carbon disulphide each 100 cc., and with this mix the purified mustard to produce a semi-liquid magma, spread on paper, cotton cloth, or other fabric; it is a uniform mixture of black mustard, deprived of its fixed oil, and a solution of rubber, spread on paper, cotton cloth, or other fabric; 100 Cm. contain 2.5 Gm. of black mustard deprived of its fixed oil.  Before applying to the skin moisten thoroughly with tepid water, when it will produce a decided warmth and redness within 5 minutes.  Should be kept in tightly-closed containers
    OIL: 1.  Linimentum Sinapis Compositum, N.F., 3 p.c. + fldext. mezereum 20 p.c., camphor 6, menthol 2, castor oil 15, alcohol q.s. 100.  2.  Spiritus Sinapis, N.F., 2 p.c. + white wax 15, lard 83.
    Unoff. Preps.: SEED: Infusion, 5 p.c., dose, ad libitum.  OIL: Linimentum Sinapis (Br.), 3.5 p.c.
    PROPERTIES. -- Stimulant, emetic, tonic, diuretic, laxative, rubefacient, irritant, epispastic, carminative, condiment, vesicant; dilates the vessels, causing redness, warmth, and irritates sensory nerves, giving burning pain.
    USES: -- Atonic dyspepsia with constipation, delirium tremens, atonic dropsy, hiccough, narcotic poisoning. Externally -- rheumatism, gout, atrophy, neuralgia, colic gastralgia, inflammation of throat or lungs, toothache, earache, headache, vomiting, diarrhea, dysentery, amenorrhea, dysmenorrhea, stimulant to heart respiration, and vascular system.
    For mild action: Dilute mustard with equal quantity of flaxseed meal or flour, and make with water into a pasty plaster -- poultice, cataplasm, or sinapism; should be applied enveloped in very thin muslin to prevent sticking, and is superseded almost entirely by the whole- and half-strength mustard leaves, which, in order to use, should be dipped into warm water for 15 seconds and applied for 1/2-1 hour.  The volatile oil may be used locally, well diluted (3ss; 2 cc.) + Stokes' liniment, alcohol, or almond oil 3ij; 60 cc.  Good in scabies, hysteria, swooning convulsions.
    Mustard foot-baths, valuable in headache, cerebral and other internal congestion, pneumonia, amenorrhea, for diaphoresis.
    The infusion, made by stirring a tablespoonful to a cream with warm water, is a popular emetic in poisoning, etc., giving the entire mixture.


    Brunfel'sia Hopea'na, Manaca, Mercurio Vegetal, N.F. -- The dried root; S. America, Amazon valley.  A large shrub.  Root nearly cylindrical, tortuous, variable length, 3 Cm. (1 1/5') thick, dark brown, wrinkled, yellowish cork patches easily removed from thin cortex adhering closely to hard yellowish wood; fracture short, very tough; odor slight; taste bitter.  Powder, pale yellow--lignified fibers, medullary ray cells, tracheae, few cork cells, cortical parenchyma with brownish amorphous content, starch grains, stone cells, calcium oxalate rosettes; solvent: diluted alcohol; contains resin, alkaloid (manacine).  Motor depressant (spinal centers); full doses--difficult breathing, profuse sweating, depression, nausea, vomiting, urination, purgation; over-doses--acrid depressing poison; chronic muscular rheumatism, syphilis (substitute for mercury).  Dose, gr. 15-30 (1-2 Gm.); 1.  Fluidextractum Manacae (75 p.c. alcohol), dose, mxv-30 (1-2 cc.):  Prep.: 1.  Elixir Manacae Compositum, 16.5 p.c., + sodium salicylate 14, lithium salicylate, 1.75, salicylic acid, 5.5 potassium bicarbonate 3.97 +, dose, 3j-2 (4-8 cc.).


    Bryo'nia al'ba or B. Dioi'ca, Bryonia, Bryony, N.F. -- The dried root with not more than 2 p.c. of foreign organic matter; C. and S. Europe.  Perennial climbers, the former monoecious, the latter dioecious; leaves heart-shaped, 5-lobed; flowers small, greenish-white or yellowish; fruit, berries, size of a pea, the former black, the latter red (hence names black and red bryony).  Root, spindle-shaped, .3-.6 M. (1-2 degrees) long, lactescent, fleshy, usually in circular slices 1.5-10 Cm. (3/5-4') broad, 3-15 Mm. (1/8-3/5') thick, yellowish, whitish, rough, striate, thin cortex, wood with projecting fibro-vascular bundles in concentric zones; fracture short, mealy, whitish; odor faint, distinct, characteristic, taste bitter, nauseous.  Powder, light yellow--starch grains, central cleft, tracheal pores, large yellow cork cells; with sulphuric acid--reddish-brown, then brownish-purple; contains alkaloid (amorphous), bryonol (dihydric alcohol)--both purgative, volatile oil; resin, glucoside (inactive), enzyme, sugar, phytosterol; solvents: alcohol, hot water.  Hydragogue cathartic, emenagogue, vesicant, emetic (large doses).  Used in dropsy, epilepsy, hysteria, bronchitis, whooping-cough, rheumatism, swollen glands, scabies; large doses poisonous.  Dose, gr. 10-60 (.6-4 Gm.); 1.  Tinctura Bryoniae, 10 p.c. (alcohol), dose, mxv-60 (1-4 cc.).  Infusion, 5 p.c., 3j-2 (30-60 cc.).  Mother Tincture (Homeopathic), mv-40 (.3-2.6 cc.); Bryonin, gr. 1/6-1/3 (.01-.02 Gm.).

[ILLUSTRATION] Bryonia dioica.


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