The Cayce Herbal 
 A Comprehensive Guide to the  
Botanical Medicine of Edgar Cayce
A Manual of Materia Medica and Pharmacology
by David M. R. Culbreth, Ph.G., M.D. (1927)


    Calen'dula officina'lis, Calendula, Marigold, N.F. -- The dried ligulate-florets with not more than 2 p.c. of foreign organic matter; S. Europe, Levant, cultivated as ornament (flowers).  Annual herb .3-.6 M. (1-2 degrees) high, roughish-hairy; leaves toothed, oblanceolate; flower-heads terminal, 5 Cm. (2') broad, involucre hemispherical, 2-rowed; disk-florets tubular, 5-cleft, yellow.  Ligulate (ray) florets 15-25 Mm. (3/5-1') long, 3-6 Mm. (1/8-1/4') broad, yellowish, 1-3-toothed, short-hairy tube occasionally enclosing remnant of filiform style and bifid stigma; odor slight, somewhat heavy; taste slightly bitter, faintly saline.  Powder, yellowish -- few non-glandular hairs, double row of thin-walled cells; elongated epidermal wavy-walled cells with chromoplasts and oil-like globules; pollen grains with spinose projections, 3-pored; tracheae; calcium oxalate rosettes or prisms; solvents: alcohol, boiling water partially; contains volatile oil, bitter principle, calendulin (analagous to bassorin), fat, resin, sugar, gum ash 8-11 p.c.  Stimulant, tonic, febrifuge, anthelmintic, resolvent; jaundice, amenorrhea, scrofula, low fevers, vomiting; cancer, ulcers, wounds, otitis -- Homeopathic remedy instead of tincture of arnica or myrrh.  Dose, gr. 15-60 (1-4 Gm.); 1.  Fluidextractum Calendulae (67 p.c. alcohol), dose, mxv-60 (1-4 cc.); 2.  Tinctura Calendulae, 20 p.c. (alcohol), dose, 3ss-2 (2-8 cc.).


    Cinnamomum Camphora, (Linne) Nees et Ebermaier.  The dextrorotatory ketone (concrete violatile oil.)
    Habitat.  China, Japan, Formosa.  Tree cultivated in Italy as an ornament, and may  yield profitably in California, Florida, etc., wherever frosts are light.
    Syn.  Camph., Camphor Laurel, Gum Camphor Tree; Fr. Camphre du Japon--droit;  Ger. Kampfer, Kampher, Campfer.
    Cam'pho-ra.  L. Fr. Ar. Kafur or kapur, chalk, lime -- i.e., its resemblance.

[ILLUSTRATION] Cinnamomum Camphora.

    PLANT. -- Handsome evergreen tree, 9-12 M. (30-40 degrees) high, .3-.6 M. (1-2 degrees) thick, much branched above, fragrant; bark smooth, green; leaves 7.5-15 Cm. (3-6') long, 2.5-7.5 Cm. (1-3') broad, attenuated toward both ends, entire, smooth, shining, ribbed, bright yellowish-green above, paler and glaucous beneath, thick; flowers, June-July, small, whitish; fruit, Nov.-Dec., purple berry, 6 Mm. (1/4') thick, 1-seeded.  DEXTROROTATORY KETONE (camphor), in white translucent, tough masses, granules, penetrating, characteristic odor, pungent, aromatic taste, soluble in alcohol (1) chloroform (1), ether (1), carbon disulphide, petroleum benzin, fixed or volatile oils, water (800), sp. gr. 0.990; readily pulverized with a little alcohol, chloroform, ether, and liquified with equal quantity of chloral hydrate, menthol, phenol, thymol; volatilizes at ordinary temperature, melts at 175 degrees C. (347 degrees F.).  Tests: 1.  Heat 2 Gm. -- sublimes without carbonization, leaving about .05 p.c. of non-volatile matter.  2.  Solution in petroleum benzin (1 in 10) -- clear (abs. of water).  3.  A copper spiral 6 Mm (1/4') in diameter and 6 Mm. (1/4') long held in flame until it glows without coloring flame green, then dipped into camphor; ignited, burned outside of flame; then in lower outer edge -- no green color -- (abs. of chlorinated products); alcoholic solution precipitates with water.  Impurities: Chlorinated products, water.  Should be kept cool, in well-closed containers.  Dose, gr. 1-5 (.06-.3 Gm.).
    Commercial. -- Tree, resembling sassafras and linden, is of slow growth but flourishes up to 600 M. (2,000 degrees) elevation in the tropics -- Cape of Good Hope, Brazil, Jamaica, Madeira, Mediterranean region, etc.  The wood is valuable, being white, fragrant and repellent to insects, and while all parts contain camphor, along with its strong odor, it is obtained only from the root, trunk, and branches of trees fifty or more years old -- by sublimation.  In Japan roots and small branches are chipped and put, with some water, in large vessels surmounted by earthen domes lined with rice-straw; on applying heat the camphor, volatilized by steam, rises to the domes and condenses upon the straw -- flowers of camphor -- from which it is shaken and packed in double-tubs, 100 pounds (45 Kg.).  In China the comminuted plant is boiled with water until camphor adheres to the ladle and the strained liquid concentrates upon cooling, which then is sublimed with alternating layers of earth.  In Formosa (island) a long wooden trough, coated with clay and fixed over a crude furnace, is half-filled with water and, upon a perforated board luted to the top, chips are placed, that in turn are covered with inverted pots; on applying heat steam is produced, which, rising, passes through the perforations and chips, thereby becoming camphor-vapor that condenses in the upper part of the pots -- flowers of camphor -- from which it is scraped every few days.  This industry here has been monopolized and revolutionized by Japan since her last war with China, to the effect of improving quality, the government purchasing from all producers their product of a recognized standard, and refining it at Taihoku, using several thousand pounds at a charge -- the oil and water being first driven off at low heat, then the camphor sublimed at higher temperature, and pressed hydraulically into blocks for exporting.  The crude is forwarded often in leaf-lined baskets, 70 pounds (32 Kg.), to Tamsui, Takow, etc., there stored in vats, or packed in chests, tubs (lead- or tin-lined, 100 pounds (45 Kg., which prior to shipping, are saturated with water to prevent loss of weight by evaporation in transit, causing it to reach us somewhat moist.  When in vats a yellowish-brown volatile oil -- oil of camphor -- drains out, the amount increasing with pressure.  There are two varieties: 1, Japan (Tub, Dutch -- they being the first to introduce it), lighter pink, larger grained, higher priced, cleaner, dryer; usually from Batavia; 2, China (Formosa), cheapest, most abundant; usually from Canton.  As such "crude camphor" contains 2-10 p.c. of impurities--vegetable matter, gypsum, salt, sulphur, chips, ammonium chloride, chlorinated products, etc. -- which must be removed before suitable for medicine.
    Refining. -- Formerly done exclusively in Europe, but now largely in Formosa and our country, by mixing crude camphor with 1/50 part of quicklime (iron filings, sand, or charcoal) to remove resin, empyreumatic oil, moisture, etc., then resubliming at 175-204 degrees C. (347-400 degrees F.) In iron, copper or glass retorts, and pressing into rectangular blocks or circular cakes.
    ADULTERATIONS. -- Rare: Stearic acid 25-50 p.c., insoluble in alcohol except when hot, crystallizing therefrom upon cooling; cane-sugar (sucrose) 20 p.c.
    CONSTITUENTS. -- C10H12O5;When heated with zinc chloride yields cymol, C10H14; with nitric acid yields camphoric acid, C10H16O4, and camphoronic acid, C9H12O5; the former acid forms colorless, inodorous prisms (see page 232); the latter acid melts at 136 degrees C. (277 degrees F.) With decomposition and is freely soluble in water or alcohol.
    PREPARATIONS. -- 1.  Aqua Camphorae.  Camphor Water.  (Syn., Aq. Camph., Aqua Camphorata, Mistura Camphorae; Fr. Eau camphre' Ger. Kampferwasser.)
    Manufacture: 1. 1/5 p.c.  Triturate powdered camphor .2 Gm. With purified talc 1.5 Gm. + distilled water 100 cc., agitate well, set aside 24 hours, filter repeatedly until clear; it is a saturated solution.  Dose, 3j-8 (4-30 cc.).
    2.  Linimentum Camphorae.  Camphor Liniment.  (Syn., Lin. Camph., Camphorated Oil, Linimentum Camphoratum; Fr. (Liniment) Huile camphre; Ger. Oleum Camphoratum, Kampferol, Kampferliniment.)
 Manufacture: 20 p.c.  Heat in a flask on water-bath cottonseed oil 80 Gm., add camphor 20, stopper container and agitate occasionally until dissolved without further heating; used externally.
    Prep.: 1.  Ceratum Camphorae, N.F., 10 p.c.
    3.  Spiritus Camphorae.  Spirit of Camphor.  (Syn., Sp. Camph., Tinctura Camphorae, Tincture of Camphor, Alcohol Camphoratus; Fr. (Esprit de) Alcohol camphre; Ger. Spiritus camphoratus, Kampferspiritus.)
    Manufacture: 10 p.c.  Dissolve 10 Gm. Camphor in alcohol 80 cc., add alcohol q.s. 100 cc., sp. gr. 0.825.  Test: 1.  To 5 cc. add .05 Gm. of anhydrous potassium carbonate -- latter does not liquefy or adhere to bottom of container (abs. of added water).  Dose, mv-60 (.3-4 cc.).
    PREPS.: 1.  Lotio Ammoniacalis Camphorata, N.F., 1 p.c.  2.  Mistura Opii et Chloroformi Composita, N.F., 20 p.c.  3.  Mistura Opii et Rhei Composita, N.F., 20 p.c.  4.  Tinctura Opii et Gambir Composita, N.F., 4 p.c.
    4.  Linimentum Saponis, 4.5 p.c.  5.  Linimentum Chloroformi, 3.15 p.c.  6.  Tinctura Opii Camphorat a, 2/5 p.c.  7.  Ampullae Camphorae, N.F., 3 ½ gr.  8.  Chloral Camphoratum; N.F., each, 50 p.c.  9.  Emplastrum Fuscum Camphoratum, N.F., 1 p.c.  10.  Linimentum Saponato-Camphoratum, N.F., 2.5 p.c.  11.  Menthol Camphoratum, N.F., 47.5 p.c. 12.  Petroxolinum Chloroformi Camphoratum, N.F., 20 p.c.  13.  Petroxolinum Phenolis Camphoratum, N.F., 37.2 p.c.  14.  Pilulae Opii et Camphorae, N.F., 2 gr.  15.  Unguentum Camphorae, N.R., 22 p.c.  16. Linimentum Belladonnae, N.F., 5 p.c.  17. Linimentum Opii Compositum, N.F., 1.75 p.c.  18.  Linimentum Sinapis Compositum, N.F., 6 p.c.  19.  Nebula Aromatica, N.F., 8/10 p.c.  20.  Nebula Mentholis Composita, N.F., 1 p.c.  21.  Pilulae Antiperiodicae, N.F., 1/8 gr. 22. Tinctura Antiperiodica, N.F., 1/5 p.c.
    Unoff. Preps.: Linimentum Camphorae Ammoniatum (Br.) 12.5 p.c., + stronger ammonia water 25 p.c.; Vinum Camphoratum. Camphora Phenolata, Camphora Salicylata, etc.  Enters universally into camphorice, dentifrices, etc.
    PROPERTIES. -- Antispasmodic, stimulant, carminative, stomachic, (an) aphrodisiac, antipyretic, nervine, sedative, diaphoretic, rubefacient, resolvent, antiseptic.  Has great healing powers; dilates vessels, increases flow of gastric juice and peristalsis.
    USES. -- Camphor was not known to Greeks or Romans, we having derived it from the Arabians, who use it solely as a refrigerant and to lessen sexual desire.  Now employed in hysteria, dysmenorrhea, nervousness, diarrhea, colic, flatulence, rheumatism, gout, tenesmus, asthma, cough, coryza, toothache, headache, spasms, chorea, epilepsy, nausea, typhoid condition, mania.  Externally as a wash, liniment, or ointment for ulcers, gangrene, scabies, sprains, bruises, rheumatic pains, convulsions.
 Poisoning: Have burning pain, vomiting, weak pulse, giddiness, debility, pallor, cold, clammy skin, faintness, confused ideas, delirium, convulsions, death from collapse; does not kill healthy adults.  Give water at once if camphor taken in alcoholic solution, induce vomiting, following with alcohol in small but frequent doses, coffee, cold, arterial sedatives, ether, artificial heat, castor oil; opium and bromides for the convulsions.
    Incompatibles: Antispasmodics, alcohol, opium, narcotics, aromatics, all in small quantity.
    Synergists: Antispasmodics, alcohol, opium, narcotics, aromatics, all in small quantit.
    Allied Products:
    1.  Camphora Monobromata.  Monobromated Camphor, C10H15BrO. -- This ortho-monobromcamphor is obtained by heating together in a flask or retort camphor and bromine in molecular proportions (preferably with a little water or chloroform) until reaction ceases, allowing yellowish solution to crystallize, heating until mass becomes white, recrystallizing from alcohol or petroleum benzin.  It is in colorless prismatic needles, scales, or powder, mild, characteristic, camphoraceous odor and taste, permanent, decomposed by exposure to sunlight, soluble in alcohol (6.5), chloroform. (.5), ether (1.6), almost insoluble in water; melts at 75 degrees C. (167 degrees F.).  Nervous sedative in nervous irritation, insomnia, headache--no advantages over camphor.  Dose, gr. 1-5 (.06-.3 Gm.), in pill, emulsion.
    2.  Acidum Camphoricum, Camphoric Acid, C10H16O4, U.S.P. 1900.--This dibasic organic acid is obtained by oxidizing camphor 150 Gm. with hot nitric acid 2000 cc., until crystallization takes place, dissolving crystals in water (5) containing sodium carbonate, allowing solution of sodium camphorate to crystallize, dissolving crystals in water (10), decomposing with hydrochloric acid, when camphoric acid crystallizes out.  It is in colorless, odorless, monoclinic prismatic crystals, plates, acid taste, melting at 187 degrees C. (369 degrees F.), soluble in alcohol, ether, chloroform, fatty oils, water (125).  Antihydrotic, antiseptic, intestinal disinfectant, anticatarrhal; bronchitis, catarrh, cystitis, night-sweats of phthisis, diarrhea, sore throat, pyelitis, eczema, acne.  Dose, gr. 5-30 (.3-2 Gm.); locally in 2-6 p.c. aqueous solutions, with 11 p.c. of alcohol to each 1 p.c. of acid.
    3.  Borneol, Borneo, Sumatra, or Barus Camphor (Dryobal'anops aromat'ica (Camphora), C10H15O, has different odor from official camphor, heavier than water, less volatile, with nitric acid yields ordinary camphor.
    4.  Ngai Camphor (Blu'mea balsamif'era). -- This is a tall weed of India, China, Formosa.  Its camphor has same composition as Borneo, but is levorotatory, and natively is prized higher than our official.
    5.  Artificial Camphor. -- Although this can be made by oxidizing camphene, C10H16, with chromic acid mixture, yet the more recent process is based upon the interaction of anhydrous turpentine and anhydrous oxalic acid at 120-130 degrees C. (248-266 degrees F.), yielding pinyl oxalate and formate, which treated with lime gives borneol, and this by oxidation becomes camphor; however, the products terpin hydrate and terpene hydrochloride are recognized generally under this name--the latter being prepared by saturating oil of turpentine, dissolved in twice its volume of carbon disulphide, with hydrochloric acid gas, distilling with lime to form calcium chloride and camphene, oxidizing latter with nitric acid yielding camphor.
    6.  Oleum Camphorae, Camphor Oil, U.S.P. 1860-1870. -- This is a yellowish-brown volatile oil obtained from camphor by sublimation and expression; has camphor odor and taste, sp. gr. 0.940, dextrorotatory; contains pinene, phellandrene, cineol, dipentene, terpineol, safrol, eugenol, cadinene--at low temperature deposits camphor; used by Chinese for rheumatism, etc.  Should not be confounded with Linimentum Camphorae, U.S.P., which also often is called oil of camphor (Ger. Oleum Camphoratum).


    Cana'rium commu'ne, Manila Elemi, Elemi. -- Philippine Islands.  The oleoresin exudes from incisions in the bark of a tall tree; it is soft, yellowish, granular crystalline, when cold friable; odor strong, resembling fennel and lemon, terebinthinate; taste bitter, pungent; contains volatile oil 10-15 p.c., amorphous resin (brein) 60 p.c. (soluble in cold alcohol), crystalline resin (amyrin) 25 p.c., bryoidin, breidin, elemic acid, C35H40O4 (crystalline).  Stimulant, irritant; in plaster and ointment.


    Canel'la Wintera'na (al'ba), Canella, Canellae Cortex, White Cinnamon, N.F. -- Canellaceae.  The dried rossed bark with not more than 2 p.c. of foreign organic matter; W. Indies.  Tree 9-15 M. (30-50 degrees) high, recognized by whitish bark, leaves thick; flowers whwite, aromatic; fruit, berries 12 Mm. (1/2') long, blackish.  Bark, in quills, usually 5-15 Cm. (2-6') long, 1-4 Cm. (2/5-1 2/3') broad, irregular fragments, periderm mostly removed, pale orange-brown, scaly, shallow fissures, ridges; inner surface pale yellow, smoothish; fracture short and sharp; odor slight; unless heated--cinnamon-like; taste aromatic, warm, bitter, mucilaginous.  Powder, light brown--numerous stone cells, calcium oxalate rosettes, starch grains, oil cells; solvent: diluted alcohol; contains volatile oil (having eugenal) 1 p.c., resin 8 p.c., bitter principle, calcium oxalate, starch.  Aromatic stimulant, tonic, condiment; atonic dyspepsia, menorrhagia, amenorrhea--due to anemia.  Dose, gr. 5-30 (.3-2 Gm.); 1.  Pulvis Aloes (80) et Canellae (20), Hiera Picra, dose, gr 5-10 (.3-.6) Gm.)


    Cannabis sativa, Linne.    The dried flowering tops of pistillate plants with not more than10 p.c. fruits, large foliage leaves, stems over 3 Mm (1/8') thick, nor 2 p.c. other foreign organic matter, yielding Not more than 5 p.c. acid-insoluble ash.
    Habitat.  Asia, Persia, hills of N. India; cultivated in India, Europe, C. And S. Russia, Brazil, W. And S. United States.
    Syn.  Cannab., Cannabis Indica, U.S.P. 1900, Guaza, Ganjah, Indian Hemp, Black Indian Hemp, Tristram's Knot, Bangue, Hashish, Halish, Gallow Grass Hemp, Neck or Nick Weed, S. Andrew's-lace, Welsh Parsley, Bang, Bhang, Gunjah Churrus Charas, Ganja (dried flowers); Fr. Chanvre (Indien); Ger. Hanf, Indischer Hanf.
    Can'na-bis.  L. Gr...., hemp, fr. ganch, its Arabic name.  Celtic can, reed + ah, small -- i.e., its slender stems.
    Sa-ti'va. L. Sativus, that which is sown or planted -- i.e., in the gardens and fields for use.
    In'di-ca. L. Indicus.  Gr...., pertaining to India -- i.e., its habitat.
    PLANT. -- Annual herb; stem 1-3 M. (3-10 degrees) high, angular, tomentose; leaves palmate-compound; leaflets 5-7 linear-lanceolate, serrate; flowers dioecious, yellow spikes, FLOWERING TOPS, separate, or in more or less agglutinated masses, fragments consisting of short stems with leaf-like bracts, pistillate flowers or somewhat developed fruits, greenish-brown; odor agreeable, heavy, narcotic; taste acrid, pungent.  POWDER, dark green -- leaf epidermis with oval stomata beneath, numerous non-glandular hairs usually with calcium carbonate masses, glandular hairs 2 kinds, yellowish -- brown laticiferous vessels, calcium oxalate rosette aggregates, tracheae and phloem, embryo and endosperm tissues with numerous oil globules, aleurone grains (crystalloids, globoids); on slide -- effervesces with diluted hydrochloric acid; alcoholic solution bright green; alcoholic extractive 8 p.c.  Should not be kept longer than 1 year, when it usually is only one-fourth as strong as the fresh, and in 2 years it practically is inert.  Solvent: alcohol.  Dose, gr. 1-5 (.06-.3) Gm.).
    Commercial. -- Plant was known to the Romans, but not to the Egyptians, and has been cultivated universally many centuries for fiber, seed, and medicine -- that for the latter at present being grown mostly in the two districts, Bogra and Rajshabi, north of Calcutta, in rows, the richest in resin at 1,800-2,400 M. (6,000-8,000 degrees) elevation.  When mature (indicated by brown color and falling of leaves) the flowering branches are cut off, May-June, cured by wilting, pressing, rolling, and shaking out leaves and fruits (if any of the latter have developed), and as such is recognized natively by the Hindustani      names, ganja, gunjah; the rolling and treading are performed by human feet, an art demanding training, the object being possibly to work resinous matter from stems into inflorescence tips.  There are two kinds: 1, Round ganja, requiring 4 days for kneading each branch into a cylindrical or terete mass; 2, Flat ganja, requiring 2 days for working into a flat form; the Bengal (Calcutta) ganja (best) is brownish or dusty, the Bombay bright green.  Variability in the drug may be due to the presence of staminate flowers, leaves, fruits, cold weather, inopportune collecting (not later than 4 days after maturing), intentional removal of resin, excessive age (losing most of its properties within a year).  Great care is taken to prevent the flowing tops becoming fertilized by suppressing the male plants, as a single one is claimed to spoil an entire field; however, when for fiber or seed both male and female plants are cultivated together.  Our plant, often called Cannabis america'na, having escaped from native country, may possess slight variations owing to colder climate, but under proper cultivation and care may be as active as the India product, in spite of which it is regarded generally as being about one-fourth weaker.
    CONSTITUENTS. -- Cannabinol, Cannabin 15-20 p.c., choline (bilineurine--trimethylamine), volatile oil (chiefly sesquiterpene -- cannabene), C10H16, .3 p.c., bitter principle, paraffin, C29H60, chlorophyll, gum, sugar, potassium nitrate, ash 5-15 p.c.
    Cannabinol, C21H2602. -- This, to which the activity of the drug is due, may be obtained by exhausting cannabis with petroleum benzin, reclaiming latter, evaporating residue to dryness, and subjecting it, under pressure to fractional distillation at 210-240 degrees C. (410-464 degrees F.), when the distillate contains cannabinol and paraffin, the latter being removed with alcohol.  It is a poisonous, yellow or brownish syrupy liquid, darkening on exposure to air into inert, brittle pitchy mass, consequently must be kept, as well as preparations of the drug, in sealed containers; possibly same as Kobert's cannabindon.
    Cannabin. -- Resin constituent (resinoid), to which formerly was attributed all of the drug's activity, that now known to be due solely to its contained cannabinol; it may be obtained by treating cannabis with water and a solution of sodium carbonate, washing residue with ware, drying, exhausting with alcohol, treating tincture with milk of lime, precipitating lime with sulphuric acid, adding animal charcoal to filtrate, filtering, concentrating, and precipitating with water; it is a brown, amorphous resin, burning without ash, soluble in alcohol, ether, from the former being precipitated white by water.
    PREPARATIONS. -- 1.  Extractum Cannabis.  Extract of Cannabis.  (Syn., Ext. Cannab., Extract of (Indian) Cannabis (Hemp); Fr. Extrait de Chanvre (Indien); Ger. (Indisch) Hanfextrakt.)
    Manufacture: Macerate, peracolate 100 Gm. With alcohol until exhausted, reclaim alcohol, evaporate residue at 70 degrees C. (158 degrees F.), stirring frequently, to pilular consistence, mix thoroughly; after assay add enough storax or substandard extract of cannabis for biological standard; yield 12-14 p.c.  Dose, gr. 1/6-1 (.01-.06 Gm.): Prep.: 1.  Mistura Chloralis et Potassii Bromidi Composita, N.F., 1/5 p.c.
    2.  Fluidextractum Cannabis.  Fluidextract of Cannabis.  (Syn., Fldext. Cannab., Fluid Extract of Cannabis; Fr. Extrait fluide de Chanvre (Indien); Ger. (Indisch) Hanffluidextrakt.)
    Manufacture: Similar to Fluidextractum Colchici, page 111; menstruum: alcohol; after dissolving soft extract in the reserve, assay and adjust finished volume to its biological standard--amount producing incoordination in a dog; .1 cc. for every 2 pounds (1 Kg.) Of body weight.  Dose, mij-5 (.13-.3 cc.): Preps.: Collodium Salicylicum Compositum, N.F., 10 p.c.  2.  Mistura Chloroformi et Morphinae Composita, N.F., 1.85 p.c.
    UNOFF. PREP.: Tincture, 10 p.c. (alcohol), mv-30 (.3-2 cc.).  These preparations give varying results, but usually their value can be recognized by the color of the precipitate formed when added to water; if olive-green, it is active; if yellowish-brown, it is inert; thus, whatever there is that destroys chlorophyll injures the active principle.
    PROPERTIES. -- Anodyne, nervine, sudorific, narcotic, aphrodisiac, increases appetite.  It excels even belladonna in perverting perception, condition, and relation of objects; some subjects become pugnacious, others have delightful intoxicating dreams, in which time, distance, and sound are magnified -- a few minutes'dream extends over weeks, near objects as in infinite space, whispering as cannonading.  Large habitual doses bloat the face, inject eyes, make limbs tremulous, weak, mind imbecilic, death by marasmus.
    USES: Neuralgia, distressing cough, quiets tickling in throat, does not constipate or depress like opium; gout, delirium tremens, tetanus convulsions, chorea, hysteria, mental depression epilepsy, morphine and chloral habits, softening of the brain, nervous vomiting.
    Poisoning: Have pleasurable intoxication, double consciousness followed by drowsiness, unconsciousness, collapse, insensibility, dilated pupils, rapid pulse, slow respiration, debility, pale clammy insensitive skin, catalepsis, excited passion; effects usually last 24 hours, and closely resemble those of opium, differing, however, in not constipating and in not lessening secretions; increases appetite.  Give emetics, lemon juice to neutralize its effects, tannin, coffee, ammonia, strychnine, atropine, electricity, spirit of nitrous ether, artificial respiration; similar to chloral hydrate and opium.
    Incompatibles: Strychnine, caustic alkalies, acids.
    Synergists: Alcohol, ether, bromides, cocaine, narcotics.
    Allied Native Products:
    These are mostly used for smoking, beverages, or electuaries, etc.
    1.  Bhang (Sidhee, Subjee, Siddhi). -- Consists of the dried coarsely broken leaves and fruit (dark green), resembles ganja in odor and taste; used by natives in their sweet-meat (majoon), also smoked with or without tobacco; its cold infusion (tea) as an intoxicant.
    2.  Churrus, Churras, Charas. -- This is the resin (practically the active constituent) which exudes spontaneously from the entire plant in minute drops.  It is collected in several different ways: 1.  By men, wearing leather suits, brushing forcibly against growing plants, whereby resin adheres and afterward is scraped off.  2.  By rubbing green portions between the hands and then scraping off adhering resin.  3.  By frequent stirring around that put away in barns to cure, thus causing the resin to rise in the form of dust, and to deposit upon the roof and sides of the building, from which it can afterward be collected.  Owing to this being more or less impure it is not used in medicine, but solely smoked in pipes; contains usually cannabinol 33 p.c.
    3.  Hashish (Hasish, Haschisch, Hasash, Hasheesh -- Majoon). -- The Arabic name for hemp, signifying "green intoxicating liquor" fr. Heb. shesh, to be joyous.  This may consist of the dried tops collected before seed ripen, thereby resembling ganja, gunjah, but usually is more complex, being prepared by heating tender leaves and tops 4 parts, butter 3, water 4, until latter is dissipated, straining, washing twice the greenish extract with water, adding this to syrup (sugar 16, water 32, little milk, boil), heating, mystifying by incorporating stramonium or nux vomica; in Bengal a small amount of rose oil, musk, cardamom seed, cantharides, or opium to which mostly is due the deliriums, manias, dreams, sensualism), boiling half an hour, allowing to solidify, cutting into cakes; the Russians prefer it formed into cakes with the resinous extract.
    4.  Hemp Seed (Cannabis Semen). -- These are achenes 3 Mm (1/8') long, roundish, smooth, greenish, taste sweet, oily.  Used for birds chiefly, but, owing to the fixed oil, an emulsion becomes a valuable demulcent and anodyne; contain protein 22-24 p.c., fixed oil 28-36 p.c., suitable for painting, varnishing, etc.
    5.  Hemp Oil. -- A greenish fixed oil, lighter and brownish on exposure; odor hemp-like, taste mild.  Demulcent, protective; chiefly extracted for its possible use in the domestic arts; neither this nor seed possess narcotic properties.
    6.  Hemp Fiber. -- Used for cordage, sacking, sail cloths, clothing, etc.  The colder climates produce the best fibers, and the tropics that which is most medicinal and intoxicating.  Russia produces most of the hemp fiber, but Italy the best; that grown in the United States and India is inferior to that of the other two countries.

Capsicum annuum

    Capsicum an'nuum (lon'gum). -- Fruit, U.S.P. 1820-1860;Fruit,  5-10 Cm. (2-4') long, 2.5-4 Cm. (1-1 3/5') thick, oblong, conical, sometimes curved or subglobular, yellow or red, brown when dry.  Known in England as pod pepper, but often sold as chillies or capsicums, and is the kind recognized by the Ger. Phar.  C.fastigia'tum.--Fruit, once official, and like that which is now official, 8-12 Mm. (1/3-1/2') long, 3-4 Mm (1/8-1/6') thick.  C. Cerasifor'me, fruit resembles a cherry.  All three sometimes used for purposes similar to official.

Capsicum frutescens

    Capsicum frutescens,  Linne'   The dried ripe fruit, grown in Africa, with not more than 3 p.c. stems, calyxes, nor 1 p.c. other foreign organic matter, yielding not less than 12 p.c. non-volatile, ether-soluble extractive, nor more than 1.25 p.c. acid-insoluble ash.
    Habitat.  S. And C. America (Cayenne in Guiana), introduced into E. Indies, Java (by  Portuguese), also into Africa; cultivated in United States, also in tropics.
    Syn.  Capsic., Cayenne Pepper, African Chillies, Spanish, Red, Bird, Garden, Cayenne  Pepper, Chillies; Piper Hispanicum; Br. Capsici Fructus (C. minimum); Fr. Capsique,  Piment (rouge) des jardins, Poivre de Cayenne-, Guinee or d'Inde; Ger. Fructus Capsici,  Spanischer Pfeffer, Schlotenpfeffer.
    Cap'si-cum.  L. Capsa, a box -- i.e., shape of the fruit; or from Gr..         To bite--i.e., from  its hot, pungent properties.
    Fru-tes'cens.  L. Frutex, shrub, bush -- i.e., somewhat shrub-like in habit and  appearance.
    PLANT. -- Small, spreading shrub, .6-1 m. (2-3 degrees) high; stem much branched; leaves alternate, 5-7.5 Cm. (2-3') long, entire, glabrous; flowers 2-3 together in the bifurcations, greenish-yellow, July-Aug.; ovary 2-celled, many ovules.  FRUIT, oblong, conical, usually compressed, 10-25 Mm. (2/5-1') long, 4-8 Mm. (1/6-1/3') broad, 2-3-locular, dissepiments united to placenta at base of fruit, brownish-red, orange (pericarp), glabrous, dull, thin, shriveled, striate, membranous, 6-21 yellowish flattened seed, pointed micropyle; odor characteristic, sternutatory; taste intensely pungent.  POWDER, yellowish-brown--thin-walled parenchyma with oil globules, epidermal cells of pericarp and seed-coat and stone cells of endocarp.  Tests:  1.  Fragments of pericarp with outer epidermis consisting of irregular cells not in rows but with strongly beaded radial walls and a hypodermis of angular cells with thickened, beaded walls--pres. of Japanese or East Indian capsicum.  2.  Macerate 1 Gm. + alcohol 50 cc., 4 days, in a stoppered flask; add to .1 cc. Clear supernatant liquid 140 cc. distilled water containing 10 p.c. of sucrose; 5 cc. of this dilution swallowed--at once the pungent sensation of capsicum in the throat of two out of three individuals.
    ADULTERATIONS. -- FRUIT: Fruits of allied species; POWDER: Red oxide of lead, colored sawdust, bran, etc.--the former recognized by adding diluted nitric acid to dissolve lead and precipitating same with sodium sulphate--the two latter by the microscope; corn meal, starch (iodine test), ash 15-18.4 p.c.
    Commercial. -- Plant largely cultivated in our country to supply demand.  Fruit is plucked, exposed to sun until dried, then packed in suitable shape for market; much imported from India, Africa -- Liberia, Zanzibar, Natal, Bombay, Penang, Pegu, Cayenne, etc.

[ILLUSTRATION] Capsicum frutescens.

    CONSTITUENTS. -- Capsaicin (capsacutin, capsicin) .02 p.c., Capsicine, Volatile oil, fixed oil, fatty acids (oleic, stearic, palmitic), resin, red coloring matter (cholesterin ester of the fatty acids), ash 7 p.c., of which 1 p.c. is insoluble in hydrochloric acid.
    Capsaicin, C18H28O3N. -- Considered the chief active constituent--identical with capsacutin, resides mostly in the pericarp and placenta, and is obtained by adding diluted caustic alkali to the petroleum extract, passing CO2 through this alkaline solution, when it crystallizes out in colorless form.  It is soluble in alcohol, ether, benzene, fixed oils, and its vapors are intenssely acrid and irritating.  It has also been obtained as an oleoresin (capsicin capsicol), amorphous resin-like acid, to which the red coloring matter persistently adheres.  Dose gr. 1/10-1/4 (.006-.016 Gm.).
    Capsicine. -- This occurs in small quantity; it is a volatile alkaloid, having odor of coniine -- devoid of pungency -- and is an oil liquid, not existing in the unripe fruit, but results from decomposition processes in ripening.
    Volatile Oil. -- Obtained by distillation and gives to the fruit its odor.
    PREPARATIONS. -- 1.  Oleoresina Capsici.  Oleoresin of Capsicuum.  (Syn., Oleores. Capsic.; Fr. Oleoresine (Extrait ethere) de Capsique; Ger. Spanisch-pfeffer-oelharz.)
    Manufacture: Percolate slowly, in a covered glass percolator, 100 Gm., with ether, added in successive portions, until 160 cc. of percolate obtained, reclaim most of the ether on water bath, transfer residue to a dish, allow remaining ether to evaporate spontaneously in a warm place, remote from a naked flame, pour off liquid portion, transfer remainder to a glass funnel with pledget of cotton; when separated fatty matter (which is to be rejected) has drained, mix liquid portions; yield 12-15 p.c.  Should be kept in wewll-stoppered   bottles.  Dose, m1/4-1 (.016-.06 cc.).

[ILLUSTRATION]  Capsicum   Fruit: magnified.  Fruit: cross-section, magnified annuum: fresh fruit one-half natural size.

    Prep.: 1.  Emplastrum Capsici.  Capsicum Plaster.  (Syn., Emp. Capsic.; Fr. Sparadra(pum) Capsici (de Capsique); Ger. Capsicumpflaster.
    Manufacture: Apply oleoresin of capsicum to the surface of rubber plaster so as to form a thin, even coating, leaving a margin around the edges; each 15 Cm. Of spread plaster contains .25 Gm. Of oleoresin of capsicum--requiring about 6m; .4 cc.
    2.  Tinctura Capsici.  Tincture of Capsicum.  (Syn., Tr. Capsic.; Fr. Teinture de Piment des jardins; Ger. Spanischpfeffertinktur.)
    Manufacture: 10 p.c.  Similar to Tinctura Veratri Viridis, page 104; menstruum: 95 p.c. alcohol.  Dose, mx-60 (.6-4 cc.).
 Preps.: 1.  Mistura Chloroformi et Morphonae Composita, N.F., 2.5 p.cv.  2.  Mistura    Opii et Chloroformi Composita, N.F. 10 p.c. 3. Mistura Opii et Rhei Composita, N.F.,    10 p.c.
    3.  Pulvis Aromaticus Rubefaciens, N.F., 20 p.c.  4.  Pulvis Myricae Compositus, N.F., 5 p.c.  5.  Tinctura Capsici et Myrrhae, N.F., 3 p.c. + myrrh 12, 90 p.c. alcohol q.s.  Dose, mx-60 (.6-4 cc.).
    Unoff. Preps.: Extract, gr. 1/2-2 (.03-.13 Gm.).  Fluidextract (alcohol), mj-5 (.06-.3 cc.).  Infusion, 5 p.c., 3ij-4 (8-15 cc).  Ointment (Br.), 20 p.c.
    PROPERTIES. -- Stimulant, stomachic, rubefacient, condiment diaphoretic; stimulates flow from salivary, gastric, and intestinal glands, also the stomach walls and heart.  Long continuance may produce -- chronic gastritis, abdominal pain; large quantity -- acute gastritis, renal inflammation, strangury.
    USES. -- Indigestion, dyspepsia, atonic gout, alcoholism, delirium tremens, intermittents; flatulent colic, low fevers, cholera, menorrhagia, seasickness, tonsillitis, scarlet fever, diphtheria, hemorrhoids; externally--lumbago, rheumatism, neuralgia, chilblains, relaxed uvula.  Was known to the Romans, and used in E. Indies from time immemorial.


    Car'ica Papa'ya, Pawpaw, Melon Tree; Papayotin, Papain, Caricin. -- An albuminous ferment from the fruit; Tropical America.  Tree 6 M. (20 degrees) high, stem 30 Cm. (12') thick, fruit approximates the size of one's head, and contains an acrid, astringent, bitter, milky juice, which soon separates into a coagulum and aqueous liquid, from which latter papayotin is precipitated upon the addition of alcohol.  It is a whitish, hygroscopic powder, inodorous, tasteless, soluble in water, glycerin, active in neutral, acid, but more so in alkaline solutions; it converts starch into maltose, albuminoids into peptones, and emulsifies fats; should digest 200 times its weight.  Papoid, Caroid, etc., are weaker forms (dried juice); slightly inferior to pepsin, greatly inferior to pancreatin.  Dose, gr. 2-5 (.13-.3 Gm.).


    Car'thamus tincto'rius, Safflower. -- The dried florets, U.S.P. 1820-1870, India, cultivated, in America, etc.  Annual herb, .3-.6 M. (1-2 degrees) high, branched; leaves spinose; flowers orange-red, corolla tubular, 2.5 Cm. (1') long, 5-lobed; odor slight, taste bitter; contains volatile oil, carthamin (red) .5 p.c., saffron yellow 24-30 p.c.  Diaphoretic (hot infusion), tonic, laxative; measles scarlatina (to promote eruption), catarrh, rheumatism; in infusion.  Dose, gr. 5-15 (.3-1 Gm.).

[ILLUSTRATION] Carthamus tinctorius.


    Carum Carvi (Carui), Linne.  (The dried ripe fruit, with not more than 3 p.c. of other fruits, seeds or foreign organic matter, yielding not more than 1.5 p.c. acid-insoluble ash.)
    Habitat.  C. And W. Asia, Himalayas, Caucasus, Europe, Siberia; cultivated in England,  Norway, Russia, Germany, Holland, Morocco, United States.
    Syn.  Caraway Seed (Fruit), Carawayseed, Caravies; Br. Carui Fructus; Fr. Carui, Carvi,  Cumin des Pres; Ger. Fructus Carvi, Kummel, Gemeiner Kummel.
    Ca'rum.  L. Careum, fr. Gr. Kapov, after Caria, in Asia Minor -- i.e., its original habitat.   Carui was the name used by medieval pharmacists for the drug.
    Car'vi.  L. For carvy, carvey.  Ar. Karawya, Eng. Caraway.  Here frequently the word  Carui is used, thus assimilating L. Gen., as though for Carui Semina.
    PLANT. -- Biennial herb; stem .3-1 M. 1-3 degrees) high, hollow; leaves bi-or tripinnate, deeply incised; flowers May-June, small, white, no involucre; root fleshy, fusiform, white.  FRUIT, cremocarp, usually in 2 separated mericarps; curved, tapering, toward both ends, 3-7 Mm. (1/8-1/4') long, 2 Mm, (1/12') broad, dark brown, 5 yellow filiform ribs, dorsal surface 4 vittae, commissural surface 2, endosperm large, oily; odor and taste aromatic.  POWDER, yellowish-brown--outer epidermal cells characterized by a waviness and striping of the cuticle; endosperm cells containing aleurone grains with the embedded rosette aggregates; tracheae, lignified fibers, oil tubes.  Solvents: alcohol; water partially.  Dose, gr. 10-30 (.6-2 Gm.).
    ADULTERATIONS. -- Allied and occasionally exhausted (drawn) fruits--having shriveled appearance; seeds of weeds--    usually yielding starch in the powder; dirt -- showing excess of ash.
    Commercial. -- Fruit ripens in the 2d year, August, when the plant is cut down, dried, and thrashed on cloth.  There are five varieties: 1, Holland (Dutch), finest; 2,  German; 3, English, shortest ; 4, Mogador, longest, lightest; 5, American, the result of home cultivation in gardens, being quite aromatic but smaller than the German, these two constituting nearly our total supply; yield 8-10 hundred-weight per acre; root, resembling that of parsnip, is employed as food in N. Europe.
    CONSTITUENTS. -- Volatile oil 5-7 p.c., fixed oil, resin, tannin, sugar, gum, ash 5-8 p.c.; no starch.
 Oleum Cari Oil of Caraway, U.S.P. -- (Syn., Ol. Cari., Caraway Oil; Br. Oleum Carui; Fr. Essence de Carvi; Ger. Oleum Carvi, Kummelol, Carvon.)  This volatile oil, obtained by steam distillation from the dried ripe fruit, should yield not less than 50 p.c. of carvone, and is a colorless, pale yellow liquid, characteristic odor and taste, soluble in 8 vols. of 80 p.c. alcohol, sp. gr. 0.905, dextrorotatory; contains a ketone -- carvone (d-carvone, carvol), C10H14O, at least 50 (50-65) p.c., a terpene -- carvene (d-carvene, citrene, hesperidene, d-limonene), C10H16, 35-50 p.c., and an alcohol, C10H17OH, etc.  Carvone may be obtained by treating the oil with alcoholic solution of ammonium sulphide, decomposing the resulting crystals with potassium hydroxide; it is a viscid, yellowish, oily liquid, creosote odor and taste, closely related to menthol and myristicol, identical with thymol, cuminic alcohol and carvacrol, this latter being the product of distilling a mixture of caraway oil and potassium or sodium hydroxide (thus expelling carvene), decomposing residue with sulphuric acid, rectifying; useful in toothache, by inserting it into cavity.  Should be kept cool, dark, in well-stoppered, amber-colored bottles.  Dose, mij-5 (.13-.3 cc.).
    PREPARATIONS. -- FRUIT: 1, Tinctura Cardamomi Composita, 1.2 p.c.  OIL: 1.  Mistura Caminative, N.F., 1/20 p.c.  2.  Spiritus Cardamomi Compositus, N.F. 1/20 p.c.
    Unoff.  Preps.:  FRUIT: Fluidextract, mx-30 (.6-2 cc.).  Infusion, 5 p.c., 3j-2 (30-60 cc.).  Water (Br.), 100 Gm. + water 2000 cc., distil 1000 cc.  OIL: Spirit.
    PROPERTIES. -- Carminative, stimulant, diuretic, stomachic.
    USES. -- Flatulent colic, especially of infants, corrective to nauseous purgatives, flavoring, toothache (carvacrol), as a spice in cakes, bread, etc.  The oil is used mostly, which acts externally like other essential oils, as an anesthetic, etc.


    Caryophyllus aromaticus, Linne'.  (The dried flower-buds with not more than 5 p.c. stems nor 1 p.c. other foreign organic matter, yielding not less than 15 p.c. volatile ether-soluble extractive nor more than 10 p.c. crude fiber nor .75 p.c. acid-insoluble ash.
    Habitat.  Molucca (Spice or Clove) Islands, five in number, N.E. of Celebes, now  mostly abandoned there, but cultivated in Indian Ocean islands, Amboyna group,  Sumatra, Malacca, Penang, etc., S. America, Brazil, Guiana, Cayenne, Africa, Zanzibar,  West Indies.
    Syn.  Caryoph, Cloves, Mother Cloves, Caryophylli Aromatica; Br. Caryophyllum; Fr.  Girofle, Clous (aromatiques) de Girofle; Ger. Gewurznelken; Flores Caryophylli,Nagelin.
    Car-y-o-phyl'lus.  L. Fr. Gr. ..., a nut, + ..., a leaf -- i.e., referring to the appearance  of flower buds.
    Ar-o-mat'i-cus.  L. Aromatic, fragrant -- i.e., its aromatic aroma, odor. Clove.  L. clovus,  a nail -- i.e., the resemblance of its dried flowers.
    PLANT. -- Handsome evergreen tree, 9-12 M. (30-40 degrees) high, much branched, forming a pyramidal crown; bark yellowish; leaves 10 Cm. (4') long, 5 Cm. (2') wide, entire, smooth, glandular, parallel veins to midrib, petiolate; flowers 15-20, rose-color, cymes; fruit berry-like.  FLOWER-BUDS (clove), tack-shaped, 10-17.5 Mm. (2/5-3/4') long, dark brown, consisting of a stem-like solid, inferior ovary, obscurely 4-angled, terminated by 4 calyx teeth, and surmounted by a nearly globular head, consisting of 4 petals enclosing numerous curved stamens and 1 style; odor strongly aromatic; taste pungent, aromatic, followed by slight numbness; pressed strongly between thumbnail and finger -- volatile oil visible; should not float horizontally on water; stems, separate or attached, sub-cylindrical, 4-angled, 25 Mm. (1') long, 4 Mm. (1/6') thick, simple, branched jointed, less aromatic than flower-buds.  POWDER, dark brown -- parenchyma fragments with large oil reservoirs, spiral tracheae, few bast-fibers, calcium oxalate rosette aggregates, numerous tetrahedral pollen grains. Tests: 1. Stone cells irregular or polygonal, with thick porous walls and large lumina, often filled with yellowish-brown amorphous substance -- few or absent (abs. of less than 5 p.c. of stems).  2.  No starch grains present (abs of clove fruit or cereals).  Solvents: alcohol (volatile oil, resin); water (odor--part of volatile oil but none of the pungent resin).  Dose, gr. 5-10 (.3-.6 Gm.).

[ILLUSTRATION] Caryophyllus aromaticus.  Caryophyllus: a, natural size; b, longitudinal section magnified.

    ADULTERATIONS. -- FLOWER-BUDS: Clove-stalks, 2 Mm. (1/12') thick, brown, contain volatile oil 4-5 p.c., for which they are imported as well as for their well-defined stone cells; mother clove (clove fruit, anthophylli) collected just before ripe, 2.5 Gm. (1') long, resemble clove, but thicker, lighter, weaker, with 4-lobed calyx, each cell 1-2-seeded, contain volatile oil 2-4 p.c.; exhausted clove, such as have undergone partial or complete exhaustion and distillation; pimenta, different shape and aroma; an artificial clove molded from a paste has been reported; POWDER: All of the above -- detected chiefly by peculiar starch grains, stone cells, and weakness of the preparations; cassia; ginger; sand; starch; flour; pepper shells.  OIL: That from which eugenol has been abstracted or foreign eugenol added; clove-stem oil, alcohol, oils of turpentine, cinnamon, pimenta and copaiba, petroleum, fixed oils, phenol.
    Commercial. -- Trees yield when 6 years old, reach perfection at 12 and thence decline until, at 20 they perish.  Clove (flowers, buds) at first are white, then green, pink, and bright red, being collected at the pink stage by hand-picking on ladders and platforms, or by beating the trees with bamboos and catching the falling buds upon outspread cloths, after which they are dried by sun or slowly by fire.  Each tree yields 5 pounds (2.3 Kg.), which are disposed of at 10 cents per pound (.5 Kg.).  Clove was unknown to the ancients, having been brought to Europe by the Arabians and Venetians, while the Portuguese and Dutch long monopolized the trade.  Now mostly from Zanzibar, the finest from Penang, some from Pemba, or via Bombay; however, much of our supply is from W. Indies, Cayenne, Guiana, etc.  There are three varieties: 1, Molucca (Amboyna), thickest, heaviest, darkest, most oily and aromatic; two annual harvest s, June, Dec., in the Moluccas; 2, Sumatra (Bencoolen), considered by some of equal high grade as the preceding; 3, S. American, usually not so fine, but the freshest, contain volatile oil 10-15 p.c.
    Clove(s) that are light (floating horizontally on water), small, soft, wrinkled, of pale color, feeble taste and smell, often without corolla bud or "head," are inferior from having been treated with a menstruum, or careless picking (including immature green and red buds) and drying (which should be done quickly and without exposure to bad weather), and should not be used direct or in obtaining the oil.
    CONSTITUENTS. -- Volatile oil 18 p.c., eugenol, eugenin (white pearly scales, isomeric with eugenol -- red with nitric acid), C10H12O2, caryophyllin, tannin 10-13 p.c., resin (tasteless) 6 p.c., gum 13 p.c., vanillin, furfurol, green wax, cellulose 28 p.c., water 18 p.c., ash 4-8 p.c. (Of which .5 p.c. is insoluble in hydrochloric acid).
    Oleum Caryophylli. Oil of Clove, U.S.P. -- (Syn., Ol. Caryoph., Clove Oil, Oil of Cloves; Fr. Essence de Girofle; Ger. Oleum Caryophyllorum, Nelkenol, Eugenol.)  This volatile oil distilled from the dried flower-buds (clove) with water or steam, and usually 3 p.c. of sodium chloride, to raise the ebullition-point possibly to 109.5 degrees C. (229 degrees F.), is a colorless, pale yellow liquid, darker and thicker by age and exposure, characteristic odor and taste of clove, soluble in 2 vols. of 70 p.c., alcohol, levorotatory, sp. gr. 1.038-1.060; contains at least 82 (80-90) p.c. of eugenol, C10H12O2 (heavy portion -- phenol), caryophyllene, C15H21 (light portion, polymeric with terpene, C10H16, sp. gr. 0.918--sesquiterpene), also 2-3 p.c. of eugenol acetate; methylamylketone (gives odor), vanillin, furfurol (causes oil to darken), methyl alcohol. Tests: 1.  Shake oil (1) with hot distilled water (20) -- shows only slight acid reaction; filtrate with 1 drop of ferric chloride T.S. -- transient grayish-green color, but not blue or violet (abs.of phenol).  Should be kept cool, dark, in well-stoppered, amber-colored bottles.  Dose, mj-5 (.06-.3 cc.).
    Eugenol.  Eugenol, C10H12O2, U.S.P. -- (Syn., Eugenolum, Eugenin, Caryophyllic Acid Eugenic Acid, Allylguaiacol, Ethylmethyl-pyrocatechol, Para-oxy-metamethoxyallyl benzol.)  This unsaturated, aromatic phenol (found also in oils of bay, canella, camphor, cinnamon (Ceylon), sassafras, pimento, Massoi bark) is obtained by shaking oil of clove with excess of
5-10 p.c. solution of sodium hydroxide in a separator, drawing off resulting solution of eugenol sodium, washing aqueous liquid with ether, decomposing with diluted sulphuric acid, washing separated eugenol with sodium carbonate solution (to remove adhering acid), distilling with steam or in vacuo.  It is a colorless, pale yellow, thin liquid, strongly aromatic odor of clove; pungent, spicy taste; darker and thicker on exposure to air; miscible with alcohol, chloroform, ether, fixed oils, soluble in 2 volumes of 70 p.c. alcohol; mixed with hot distilled water (1 in 20) very slightly acid, sp. gr. 1.067, boils at 253 degrees C. (488 degrees F.); optically inactive and strongly refractive.  Tests: 1.  Dissolve 1 cc. In sodium hydroxide T.S. (12), add distilled water (18)--clear solution, turbid on exposure to air (abs. of hydrocarbons).  2.  Shake 1 cc. With distilled water (20); to 5 cc. of clear filtrate add 1 drop of ferric chloride T.S. -- transient, grayish-green, not blue or violet (abs of phenol); upon eugenol alone the value of oil of clove depends.  Should be kept cool, dark, in well-closed containers.  Dose, mj-5 (.06-.3 cc.).
    Carophyllin, C10H16O. -- Obtained by treating ethereal extract of clove with water, filtering and treating the resulting precipitate with ammonia to purify; occurs in tasteless, inodorous silky needles, soluble in ether, slowly in alcohol, colored red with sulphuric acid, and by oxidation with nitric acid yields crystals of caryophyllinic acid, C10H22O6.
    PREPARATIONS. -- CLOVE: 1.Tinctura Lavandulae Composita, ½ p.c. 2.  Tinctura Rhei Aromatica, 4 p.c.  3.  Pulv. Arom. Rubefac., Rubefac.  Spice Powder, N.F., 30 p.c., + cinnam. 30, zingib. 20, capsic.20.  4. Pulv. Cret. Arom., N.F. 3 p.c.:   Prep.: 1.  Pulv. Cret. Et Opii Arom., N.F., 97.5 p.c.  5.  Pulv. Myric. Co., Composition Powder, N.F., 5 p.c.  6.  Syr. Senn. Arom., N.F., 2/5 p.c.  7.  Tr. Arom., N.F., 2 p.c.  8.  Tr. Opii Crocat., N.F., 3/5 p.c.  9.  Tr Viburn, Opul. Co., N.F., 5 p.c.  OIL: 1.  Acet. Arom., N.F., 1/10 p.c.  2.  Dentif., N.F. 1/20 p.c.  3. Fldglycer. Casc. Sagr. Arom., N.F., 1/10 p.c. 4.  Lavat. Ori., N.F., 1 p.c.  5.  Liq. Pepsin, Arom., N.F., 1/20 p.c.  6.  Nebul. Arom., N.F., 1/5 p.c.  7. Ol. Ricin, Arom., N.F., 1/10 p.c.  8.  Sp. Card. Co., N.F., ½ p.c.  9. Syr. Eriodict. Arom., N.F., 1/10 p.c.  EUGENOL: 1.  Mist. Ol.-Balsam, N.F., 2/5 p.c.
    Unoff. Preps.: Infusion (Br.)  2.5 p.c., 3ss-1 (15-30 cc.).  Inf. Aurant. Co. (Br.), .5 p.c. Tinct., 25 p.c. (Fr. alc.), 3ss-1 (2-4 cc.)
    PROPERTIES. -- Stimulant, stomachic, carminative, antiemetic, aromatic, antispasmodic, rubefacient, germicide, antiseptic.  Increases circulation, temperature, digestion, nutrition; excreted by kidneys, skin, liver, bronchi -- stimulating and disinfecting each.
    USES. -- Nausea, vomiting, flatulence, colic, indigestion, condiment, corrective; externally in rheumatism, neuralgia, toothache (oil + oil of peppermint + chloral hydrate, aa q.s.), in liniments, etc.; spice powder (poultice)--over stomach to expel gas, relieve colic, on nape of neck for infantile.

Cassia fistula

    C. Fis'tula, Purging Cassia, N.F. -- The dried fruit with not more than 2 p.c. of foreign organic matter; E. India, Egypt, nat. in S. America, W. Indies.  Handsome tree, 9-15 M. (30-50 degrees) high; bark gray; leaves paripinnate, leaflets 3-7 paira, 5-15 Cm. (2-6') long, ovate; flowers yellow.  Fruit cylindrical, 25-50 Cm. (10-20') long, 20 Mm. ( 4/5') thick, chestnut-brown, on one side a longitudinal groove (ventral), on the other a slight ridge (dorsal), indicating the 2 sutures, indehiscent, 25-100 transverse compartments, each with a brown seed, 8 Mm. (1/3') long, embedded in blackish-brown pulp (30 p.c.) having prune-like odor, mawkish sweet taste; contains (pulp) sugar 60 p.c., mucilage, pectin, albuminoids, tannin, volatile oil, butyric acid, calcium oxalate.  Laxative; costiveness, to promote bile flow; usually combined with other drugs (manna, tamarind, salines, etc.).  Dose, 3j-2 (4-8 Gm.); 1.  Confectio Sennae, 16 p.c.

[ILLUSTRATION]  Cassia Fistula: Part of pod, natural size.

Cassia marylandica

    C. Marylan'dica. -- Leaflets, U.S.P. 1820-1870; United States, New England to S. Carolina, west to the Mississippi.  Plant 1-1.5 M. (3-5 degrees) high; leaves alternate, leaflets paripinnate, 8 pairs 2.5-5 Cm. (1-2') long, 12 Mm. 1/2') wide; flowers August, yellow; fruit pod, 7.5 Cm. (3') long; in sandy soil, river banks, introduced into England in 1723, cultivated for ornament, collected Aug.-Sept.; contains cathartic acid, volatile oil, and is given in one-third larger doses than the official varieties; in infusion.

Cassia obovata

    Cassia obova'ta. -- Leaflets, U.S.P. 1830-1860.  This was the first senna known, being introduced by the Moors into Europe as early as the 9th century, where even in the 16th it became very largely cultivated.  Grows wild on sandy soil in Egypt, Nubia, Abyssinia, Tripoli, Senegal, Arabia, India; cultivated in Jamaica, being called Port Royal or Jamaica Senna; leaves 5-7 pairs, leaflets obovate, obtuse.  C. Pubes'cens (C. holoseric'ea), Aden Senna, Abyssinia, rarely met with now; leaflets 2.5 Cm. (1') long, ovate mucronate, hairy, sometimes mixed with Mecca senna.  C. brev'ipes, C. America; leaflets resemble Indian senna, but have 3 longitudinal veins; infusion non-purgative.

[ILLUSTRATION] Cassia obovata: a, legume; b, leaflet, about natural size.

Cassia senna

    Cassia senna, (Linne'), angustifolia(Vahl).  The dried leaflets, with not more than 10 p.c. of stems, nor 2 p.c. of pods or other foreign organic matter, yielding not more than 3 p.c. of acid-insoluble ash.
    Habitat.  E. And C. Africa, India.
    Syn.  Senn.; Br. Sennae Folia, Senna Leaves: 1.  Senna Alexandrina, Alexandrian  (Nubian, Tripoli) Senna; Fr.     Sene -- d'Alexandrie; Ger. Alexandrinische Senna.  2.  Senna  Indica, East Indian (Arabian, Bombay, Mecca, Mocha, Tinnevelly) Senna; Fr. Sene de  l'Inde--de Tinnevelly, Feuilles de Sene'; Ger. Folia Sennae, Sennesblatter, Indische  Senna.
    Cas'si-a.  L. fr. Gr. ..., fr. Heb. ..., to cut off, to peel off -- i.e., bark of  some species cut off and used; classical name of a bark allied to cinnamon.
    Sen'na.  L. fr. Ar. sana, sena.  Hind, sena -- i.e., native Arabian plant name; this is the  subgenus of Cassia, but should have held full generic rank.
    An-gus-ti-fo'li-a.  L. Angustus, narrow, + folium, leaf -- i.e., leaves narrow.
    PLANTS. -- Cassia Senna, small shrub, .6-1 M. (2-3 degrees) high; stem erect, woody, branching, whitish; flowers large, yellow, axillary raceme; fruit few, legume, 5 Cm. (2') long, 18 Mm. (3/4') broad, thin, broadly elliptical, reniform, dark green, membranous, smooth, indehiscent, 6-7-celled, each with a cordate, ash-colored seed; leaves alternate, 4-5 pairs; paripinnate, footstalks glandless, 2 small-pointed stipules at base; Cassia angustifolia, small shrub similar to preceding, except fruit a trifle longer and narrower, 8-seeded; leaves sessile, 5-8 pairs.  LEAFLETS (C. Senna): Alexandria, 2-3.5 Cm. (4/5-1/2/5') long, 6-10 Mm. (1/4-2/5') broad, inequilaterallly lanceolate, lance-ovate, short, stout petiolules, acutely cuspidate, entire subcoriaceous, brittle, pale grayish-green; hairs short, appressed, few on upper surface mor numerous on lower, spreading on the midrib; usually unbroken, occasionally  in fragments; odor characteristic; taste mucilaginous, bitter; (C. angustifolia): Tinnevelly, 2-5 Cm. (4/5-2') long, 6-15 Mm. (1/4-3/5') broad, yellowish-green, smooth above, paler beneath, slightly hairy, more abruptly pointed than, but odor and taste resembling closely the preceding.  POWDER, light green -- fragments of veins with lignified tracheae and crystal-fibers, isolated hairs, masses of palisade and mesophyll parenchyma, stomata, calcium oxalate rosettes, prisms; hairs more numerous in C. Senna.  Tests: 1.  Boil for 2 minutes .5 Gm. with alcoholic solution of potassium hydroxide (1 in 10) 10 cc., add water 10 cc., acidify filtrate with hydrochloric acid, shake with ether, then shake the ethereal layer with ammonia T.S. 5 cc. -- latter pinkish-bluish-red color.  Solvents: water or diluted alcohol extracts the active constituents (emodin, chrysophanic acid); water-soluble constituents 28 p.c.; a decoction made by long boiling is inert, being rendered more so by the addition of an alkali or acid; leaves by percolation with alcohol are deprived of their griping (resinous) content, odor, taste, and color, but still retain, slightly lessened, their pleasant cathartic power.  Dose, 3ss-3 (2-12 Gm.).

[ILLUSTRATION]   Cassia Senna: half natural size; A. Leaflets; B, legumes.

    ADULTERATIONS. -- Alexandria: 1.  C. Obovata, leaflets, called by Arabs Senna Ealadi (Wild Senna), and considered in Egypt less valuable than Senna Jebeli (Mountain Senna, C. Senna).  2.  Solenos-tem-ma Ar'gel, leaves which have lateral veins indistinct, leathery, wrinkled, bitter; flower buds present; fruit pear-shaped.  3.  Crac'ca Tephro'sia Apollin'ea, leaflets, S. Europe, uneven base, obovate, emarginate (poisonous).  4.  Coria'ria myrtifo'lia, leaves (poisonous), and Colu'tea arbores'cens, leaflets formerly used.  5.  Leaves of Ailan'thus glandulo'sa, Tree of Heaven, easily recognized, even in the powder.  6.  Pods, leaf-stalks, branches.  All these now are garbled out carefully.  The Arabians preferred the pods, as they contain 25 p.c. more cathartic principle than the leaflets, and no resin or volatile oil, hence do not gripe.  Six or eight pods infused in 3ij (60 cc.) of water will purge an adult.

[ILLUSTRATION]   Cassia Senna: a, legume; b, leaflet, about natural size.

    Commercial. -- Plants yield two annual crops of leaflets, the larger (best) in September, at the end of the rains, the smaller in April, during the dry season; the entire plants are cut down (by natives), exposed on rocks to the hot sun until dry, stripped of leaflets, which are packed in palm-leaf bags for transportation on camels to the market ports, where, after being garbled, the drug is put into large bales for exportation.  There are several varieties: 1.  Alexandrian (Nubian), chiefly from Nubia (Sennaar, Kordofan), some from Timbuctoo, being forwarded usually via Assouan, Darao, thence by the Nile to Cairo and Alexandria; its botanic source has receive various synonyms: Cassia Senna, C. Acutifolia, C. Lanceola'ta, C. Leniti'va, C. officinalis, C. aethio'pica, C. orientalis, etc.; Tripoli senna, from Tripoli (interior Africa), having no doubt the same botanic origin, is conveyed to market ports by caravans, being, as a rule, much broken, discolored, and mixed with legumes, stalks, and earthy matter, but no foreign leaves, and seldom reaches our country; it is restricted by some to C. Aethiopica (C. obovata, C. Ova'ta), and is not grown in Arabia or India. 1, Tinnevelly (Indian, Arabian, Mocha), originally indigenous to S. Arabia and interior of Africa, but entered market via India (Bombay, Calcutta); its botanic source has received several synonyms: Cassia angustifolia, C. Elonga'ta, C. Med'ica; now cultivated extensively from Arabian seeds, at Tinnevelly, S. India, where it becomes most luxuriant; and owing to freedom from legumes, stalks, etc., furnished the finest and purest leaflets; it is exported mostly from Tuticorin, and Madras; Bombab (E. India) Senna, sold frequently as Tinnevelly, has the same source, but is dried less carefully, often containing small and discolored leaflets; Arabian (Mecca) Senna, sold often as Bombay, is collected and dried even with less care, and contains many brown leaflets and legumes.

[ILLUSTRATION]  Cassia angustifolia: half natural size; A, leaflets; B, legumes.

    CONSTITUENTS. -- Anthraglucosennin, Emodin 1 p.c., Chrysophanic acid, Glucosennin, Isoemodin, Senna-rhamnetin, Sennanigrin, Kaempferol Kempferin, gum, resin, catharto-mannite (non-fermentable sugar), isomeric with quercite, sennapicrin, oxalic, malic, tartaric acids, combined with calcium, volatile oil (developing after drying), ash 10-12 p.c., of which 3 p.c. is insoluble in hydrochloric acid.
    Anthraglucosennin. -- Obtained (Tschirch)  by evaporating a weak ammoniacal percolate of senna; it is a complex brownish-black powder, partly soluble in ether, acetone, capable of being resolved into components by various solvents; the ether-soluble portion (emodin, chrysophanic acid, glucosennin) when boiled with toluene, to a partial solution, and poured into benzin gives a precipitate -- (senna-)emodin -- trioxymethylanthraquinone, melting at 223 degrees C. (434 degrees F.), while in the benzin mother-liquor remains -- (senna-) chrysophanic acid -- trioxymethylanthraquinone, obtained by evaporation; the ether-soluble portion insoluble in toluene is an emodin glucoside -- glucosennin, C22H18O8 (yellow amorphous powder).  The ether-insoluble portion (isoemodin, senna-rhamnetin) when treated with acetone and shaken with benzin yields -- (senna-)isoemodin, C15H10O5 (isomeric with (senna-)emodin, but differs in being soluble in benzin); the acetone solutin retains -- senna-rhamnetin (reddish-brown powder, differing from rhamnetin in not fluorescing in sulpuric acid solution); the anthraglucosennin residue left after treatment with ether and acetone is a black, amorphous powder, which treated with alcoholic potash yields -- (senna-emodin and senna-)chrysophanic acid.  From an aqueous percolate Tschirch extracted cathartic acid and a crystalline body, C14H10L5, having similar reactions as sennanigrin, but concludes that the cathartic action (peristalsis) is due solely to the emodin and chrysophanic acid, both being both being oxymethylanthraquinones.  Formerly senna was believed to contain: cathartic (cathartinic) acid, senna-picrin, sennacrol (resin causing griping), chrysophan and pheretin (yellow coloring matters), sennite (cathartomannite), mucilage, ash 10-12 p.c.

[ILLUSTRATION]  Cassia angustifolia  Cracca a, legume; b, leaflet, Argel leaf. Coriaria leaf. (Tephrosia) leaflet.
about natural size.

    PREPARATIONS. -- 1.  Fluidextractum Sennae.  Fluidextract of Senna.  (Syn., Fldext. Senn., Fluid Extract of Senna; Liquor Sennae Concentratus; Fr. Extrait fluide de Sene'; Ger. Sennafluidextrakt.)
    Manufacture: Similar to Fluidextractum Sarsaparillae, page 126; menstruum: 33 p.c. alcohol, reserving first 80 cc.  Dose, 3ss-2 (2-8 cc.).
    Preps.: 1.  Syrupus Sennae.  Syrup of Senna.  (Syn., Syr. Senn.; Fr. Sirop de Sene'; Ger. Sirupus Sennae, Sennasirup.)
    Manufacture: 25 p.c.  Mix oil of coriander .5 cc. With fldext.of senna 25, gradually add water 33, let stand 24 hours in cool place, shaking occasionally, filter, pass through filter water q.s. 58 cc. in which dissolve sucrose 63.5 Gm., add water q.s. 100 cc. Dose, 3ss-4 (2-15 cc.).
    2.  Syrupus Sennae Aromaticus, N.F., 12.5 p.c., + jalap 5, rhubarb 1.75, +. Dose, 3j-3 (4-    12 cc.).  3.  Syrupus Ficus Compositus, N.F., 20 p.c.
    2. Pulvis Glycyrrhizoe Compositus, 18 p.c.  3.  Confectio Sennae, N.F., 10 p.c., + cassia fistula 16, tamarind 10, prune 7, fig 12, water 65, digest, strain, add sucrose 55.5, evaporate to 89.5, add senna 10, oil of coriander .5.  Dose, 3j-2 (4-8 Gm.).  4.  Infusum Sennae Compositum, Black Draught, N.F., senna 6 Gm., manna 12, magnesium sulphate 12, fennel 2, boiling water q.s. 100 cc.; must be recently prepared.  Dose, 3j-3 (30-90 cc.). 5. Species Laxativae, St. Germain Tea, N.F., 40 p.c., + sambucus 25, fennel 12.5, anise 12.5, potassium bitartrate 10.  Dose, gr. 15-30 (1-2 Gm.).
    Unoff. Preps.: Extract, gr. 5-20 (.3-1.3 Gm.).  Infusion (Br.), 10 p.c. + ginger .5. Compd. Syrup 13.5 p.c.,+. Tinctura Sennae Composita (Br.), 20 p.c.
    PROPERTIES. -- Cathartic, acts on nearly the entire intestinal tract (especially colon), increasing peristalsis and intestinal secretion, except biliary; produces in 4 to 6 hours copious yellow stools, with griping and flatulence; does not cause hypercatharsis nor constipation.  Large dose vomits, purges, with severe tenesmus, but never poisons; the odor acts as a cathartic on very susceptible persons.
    USES. -- Arabians used it in skin affections; now employed for habitual constipation, hemorrhoids, fissura ani, fevers.  Its smell, taste, tendency to nauseate, injurious effects in hemorrhoids, intestinal hemorrhage, and inflammation, all lessen its popularity; its purgative action is increased by bitters, calumba, etc., while the griping and nausea are diminished by coriander, tamarind, manna, fennel, Epsom or Rochelle salt.  If leaves be macerated long in water, or if the mass be pressed tightly, much acrid, resinous principle will be obtained, causing griping, hence should exhaust by rapid percolation.


    Casta'nea denta'ta, Castanea, Chestnut Leaves, N. F. -- The dried leaves with not more than 5 p.c. of stems or other foreign organic matter; N. America, W. Asia, S. Europe.  Stately tree, 24-30 M. (80-100 degrees) high; wood light, durable; flowers in 3's, monoecious -- staminate and pistillate, involucre 4-lobed, becoming prickly; fruit, 4-valved involucre enclosing 1-3 l-seeded nuts.  Leaves entire, slightly broken, folded or matted together, 15-25 Cm. (6-10') long, 5 Cm. (2') wide, oblong-lanceolate, acuminate, sharply serrate, coriaceous, dark green above, lighter beneath, pinnately veined, petiole stout; odor slight; taste astringent; Powder, greenish -- non-glandular hairs numerous calcium oxalate crystals in rosettes, prisms, parenchyma cells with brown tannin masses which + ammonio-ferric alum T.S. -- blue; contains tannin 9 p.c., resin, fat, gum, albumin, ash 6 p.c.; fruit contains starch 35 p.c., fat 2 p.c., proteins 3-4 p.c., sugar 1-2 p.c.; solvents: boiling water, alcohol partially.  Tonic mild sedative, astringent; whooping cough, controlling paroxysms, dysentery; wood resists exposure greatly, nuts a delicacy, thoroughly edible.  Dose, gr. 15-60 (1-4 Gm.); 1.  Fluidextractum Castaneae (100 Gm., + boiling water to exhaust, evap. to 200 cc., add alcohol 60 cc., lastly glycerin 10, dose, mxv-60 (1-4 cc.).  Infusion.

Castanea pumila

    C. (Fagus) pu'mila, Castanea (Chinquapin). -- The bark, U.S.P. 1820-1850; Delaware-Mississippi.  Shrub or small tree, 6-15 M. (20-50 degrees) high, 25-27.5 Cm (10-15') thick, largest being South; leaves differ from chestnut in having underside white, downy; bark grayish, brownish inside; fruit rounded, conical, 12 Mm. (1/2') long, 9 Mm. (3/8') broad at base, same constituents and taste as chestnuts; bark contains tannin, resin, extractive.  Tonic, astringent; intermittents.

[ILLUSTRATION]  Castanea dentata.  Castanea: leaf, one-half Natural size.


    Caulophyl'lum thalictroi'des, Caulophyllum, Blue Cohosh, Papoose (Squaw) Root, N.F. -- The dried rhizome and roots with not more than 3 p.c. of foreign organic matter, yielding not more than 4 p.c. of acid-insoluble ash; N. America (Canada, United States).  Smooth, glaucous perennial, .6 M. (2 degrees) high, with large triternately compound leaf at summit, leaflets 3-5-lobed; flowers greenish-yellow.  Rhizome horizontal, 7-25 Cm. (3-10') long, 5-15 Mm. (1/5-3/5') thick, large cup-shaped stem-scars above, curved tortuous, thin, tough, tangled or matted roots below often concealing rhizome, yellowish-gray;      fracture tough, woody; odorless, sternutatory; taste bittersweet, acrid.  Powder, light brown -- numerous starch grains, fragments of cork, tracheae, wood-fibers, tracheids, parenchyma; contains caulophylline, caulophyllin (resins) 12 p.c., leontin (saponin-like glucoside -- active principle). Antispassmodic, diuretic, emmenagogue, demulcent, sternutatory, sedative, oxytocic; hysteria, amenorrhea, spasmodic dysmenorrhea, uterine subinvolution (causing muscular contraction), arrests or produces abortion; the aborigines believed the infusion their best parturient, drinking for several weeks prior to labor.  Dose, gr. 10-30 (.6-2 Gm.); 1.  Fluidextractum Caulophylli (75 p.c.alcohol): Preps.: 1.  Elixir Aletridis Compositum (fldext. 6.55 p.c.); 2.  Elixir Heloniadis Composibum (fldext. 3.2 p.c.).  Extract, gr. 2-5 (.13-.3 Gm.), Tincture, 25 p.c., 3j-2 (4-8 cc.); decoction, infusion, each 5 p.c., 3j-2 (30-60 cc.).


    Cetra'ria islan'dica, Iceland Moss. -- The dried plant, U.S.P. 1820-1890; N. hemisphere.  Thallus 5-10 Cm. (2-4') long, foliaceous, fringed, and channeled lobes, brownish above, whitish beneath, apothecia (fruits) brown, flattish, brittle, inodorous; taste mucilaginous, bitter; contains cetraric acid (bitter) 2-3 p.c., which removed leaves digestible food product containing proteins 2.8 p.c., fat .4 p.c., cellulose 4-6 p.c., lichenin (starch) 79.2 p.c., related substance, water 6 p.c., ash 6.99 p.c.  Demulcent (starch), tonic (cetraric acid), nutritive; chronic catarrhs, pulmonary affections (bronchitis, consumption), chronic diarrhea, dysentery; bread, instead of acacia.  Dose, 3ss-1 (2-4 Gm.); decoction, .5 p.c., 3j-4 (30-120 cc.).

[ILLUSTRATION] Cetraria islandica: ap, apothecium.

Ceylon Moss

    Ceylon Moss. -- Indian Ocean.  Mostly Sphaerococ'cus Lichenoi'des, 10 Cm. (4') long, 1.5 Mm. (1/16') thick, cylindrical, forked, filiform above; reddish--when dry whitish, brittle.


    Chamaeli'rium lu'teum, Helonias, False Uniforn, N.F. -- The dried rhizome and roots with not more than 5 p.c. of foreign organic matter; N. America.  Fragrant perennial herb; stem .3-.7 M. (12-18') high, from basal rosette of lanceolate leaves terminating in plume-like raceme -- pistillate greenish, staminate creamy-white; fruit capsule.  Rhizome .5-3 Cm. (1/5-1 1/5') long, 1 Cm. 2/5' thick, roundish, grayish-brown, annulate from scars of bud-scales, leaf bases above, many yellowish wiry roots beneath, 5-8 Cm. (2-3') long; fracture hard, horny, internally grayish-yellow, cortex 3-4 Mm. (1/8-1/6') thick, odor slight; taste bitter, astringent.  Powder, yellowish--parenchyma cells with unaltered starch grains, bundles of calcium oxalate raphides, lignified cork and fibers, tracheae; solvent: diluted alcohol; contains chamelirin (bitter saponin-like glucoside) 10 p.c.  Taenifuge, diuretic uterine tonic, emetic; tape-worm, atony of gastro-intestinal and genito-urinary mucous membranes, dropsy.  Dose, 3ss-1 (2-4 Gm.); 1.  Fluidextractum Heloniadis (diluted alcohol).  Preps.: 1. Elixir Heloniadis Compositum, 3.2 p.c. (fldext.), + fldext. of caulophyllum 3.2, fldext. of viburnum opulus 3.2, fldext. of mitchella 12.5, dose, 3ss-1 (2-4 cc.); 2. Elixir Aletridis Compositum, 6.5 p.c.  Helonin ("Eclectic" extract), dose, gr. 1-5 (.06-.3 Gm.).


    Chelido'nium ma'jus, Chelidonium, Celandine. -- The entire plant, collected when beginning to flower, U.S.P. 1880-1890; Europe, N. America.  Perennial light green plant, .6 M. (2 degrees) high, emitting when wounded a saffron-yellow, opaque juice; leaves pinnate, 10-20 Cm. (4-8') long; flowers yellowish; root reddish-brown, several-headed, branching; fruit capsule, linear, 2-valved; seed numerous; odor unpleasant when fresh; taste acrid; contains chelerythrine, chelidonine, a- and s-homochelidonine, chelidoxanthin, sanguinarine, protopine, chelidonic (jervic) acid, chelidoninic (ethylenesuccinic) acid, gum, chlorophyll; solvents: water, alcohol.  Cathartic, diuretic, diaphoretic, expectorant; used by ancients as now for jaundice, dropsy, intermittent fever, scrofula, skin diseases; externally -- warts, corns, eczema, urticaria, itching eruptions; fresh herb in amenorrhea, as a vulnerary.  Dose, dried plant, gr. 15-60 (1-4 Gm.); fresh plant, 3j-2 (4-8 Gm.).

[ILLUSTRATION] Chelidonium Majus: showing fruit, flowers, ovary, and seed.

    Oleum Chenopodii.  Oil of Chenopodium, U.S.P.
    Chenopodium ambrosioides, var. Anthelminticum, Linne'. (A volatile oil distilled with steam from the fresh,  overground parts of the flowering and fruiting plant yielding not less than 65 p.c. ascaridol (C10H16O2).
    Habitat.  W. Indies, C. And S. America, waste places, roadsides; naturalized in United  States, Europe, Africa; cultivated in Maryland for the oil.
    Syn.  American (Wild) Wormseed, Stinking Weed, Goosefoot, Jerusalem (Jesuit) Tea,  Jerusalem Oak (Jak), Fructus Chenopodii Anthelmintici; Ol. Chenopod., Oil of American  Wormseed; Fr. Anserine Vermifuge (plante fleurie), Essence de Chenopode  anthelmintique; Ger. Amerikanischer Wurmsamen, Wurmsamenol, Chenopodiumol.
   Che-no-po'di-um.  L. See etymology, above, of Chenopodisceae.
   Am-bro-si-oi'des.  L. Fr. Gr. A, priv., not, +  ..., mortal, + ..., like -- i.e., resembling  that which is immortal, once thought to effect that condition when taken.
   An-thel-min'ti-cum.  L. Fr. Gr. ..., against, + ..., a worm i.e., worm antagonizer or  destroyer.
    PLANT. -- Annual or perennial, .6-1.6 M. (2-5 degrees) high; stem angular, furrowed, branched; leaves toothed, yellowish-green, gland-dotted on under surface; flowers July-Sept., greenish-yellow, dense leafy spikes.  Fruit, 2 Mm. 1/12') thick, size of pin's head, depressed-globular, greenish-gray, integuments friable, containing a lenticular, obtusely edged, glossy, black seed; odor peculiar, terebinthinate; taste bitter, pungent.  All parts of the plant have this disagreeable odor and same medicinal properties when dry and fresh; grows best in rubbish, along fences, in village streets, vacant lots, and should be collected in October.
    CONSTITUENTS. -- Volatile oil 3-3.5 p.c., from fresh herb .5 -1 p.c.
    Oleum Chenopodii.  Oil of Chenopodium. -- This volatile oil, obtained by distilling with water or superheated steam, is a colorless, pale yellowish liquid, peculiar, disagreeable odor, bitte      burning taste, soluble in 70 p.c. alcohol (8), sp. gr. 0.967,      levorotatory; contains a terpene-- pinene, C10H16, and       a liquid oxygenated portion (C10H16O2), ascaridol.      Should be kept cool, dark, in well-stoppered, amber-     colored bottles.  Dose, mij-10 (.13-.6 cc.).
        PREPARATIONS.--(Unoff.).  FRUIT: Fluidextract, mxv-     30 (1-2 cc.).  Decoction (water or milk), 3j-2 (30-60) cc.).       FRESH PLANT: Expressed Juice, 3ij-4 (8-15 cc.), ter die.

[ILLUSTRATION] Chenopodium ambrosioides var. anthelminticum.       Chenopodium ambrosioides.

    PROPERTIES. -- Anthelmintic, vermifuge, round worms (Ascaris lumbricoides).
    USES. -- While mainly for worms, it has also been used in itermittents, hysteria, chorea, nervous affections, tenia.  May give the powder incorporated with molasses or syrup, but the oil is more popular, being well taken on sugar by children.  Should be given twice daily for several days on empty stomach, if possible, and follow with a dose of castor oil.  Fruit, U.S.P. 1820-1890.
    Allied Plants:
    1. Chenopodium ambrosioi'des, Herba Botryos Mexicanae, Mexican Tea.  The fruit, U.S.P. 1890 Europe, Asia.  This resembles very closely the preceding plant, the latter being, however, more strongly aromatic, leaves more deeply toothed, the lower ones often nearly pinnatifid, spikes more elongated, usually leafless; fruit of both alike .C. Bo'trys, Jerusalem Oak (Feather Geranium); Europe, Asia.  Strongly aromatic; catarrh, asthma.  C. Bo'nus Henri'cus, Good King Henry; Taste saline, mucilaginous.  C. Al'bum, Pig Weed (Lamb's Quarters); taste mucilaginous, saline.  C. Vulva'ria, Fetid Goosefoot; Europe; plant has fish-brint odor, due to trimethylamine.


    Chimaph'ila umbella'ta, Chimaphila, Pipsissewa, Princes' Pine. -- The dried leaves with not more than 5 p.c. of stems or other foreign organic matter; N. America, Europe, Asia -- dry woods.  Perennial evergreen herb, 10-25 Cm. (4-10') high; rhizome creeping, yellowish; flowers terminal umbel, eorymb, white tinged with red, fragrant.  Leaves, oblanceolate, 2.5-7 Cm. (1-3') long, 8-20 Mm. (1/3-4/5') broad, upper portion coarsely, sharply serrate, obtuse, lower cuneiform, nearly entire, coriaceous, dark green, paler beneath; odor slight; taste astringent, bitter.  Powder, greenish-brown--epidermal tissue, stomata, palisade and spongy parenchyma with chloroplastids, tracheae, reddish amorphous substance, calcium oxalate rosettes, starch grains, few stem and root-stock fragments; solvents: diluted alcohol, boiling water; contains chimaphilin, tannin, arbutin, ericolin, urson, volatile oil, resin.  Astringent, tonic, diuretic (similar to buchu, uva ursi,  pareira, scoparius), rubefacient; scrofula, rheumatism, dropsy, scanty urine, gravel, hematuria, gonorrhea, skin affections, diarrhea, gout, ulcers, tumors.  Dose, gr. 15-60 (1-4 Gm.); 1.  Fluidextractum Chimaphilae (diluted alcohol), dose 3ss-1 (2-4 cc.); 2.  Fluidextractum Stillingiae Compositum, 12.5 p.c.: Prep.: 1.  Syrupus Stillingiae Compositus, 25 p.c.  Decoction, Extract.
    C.  Macula'ta, Spotted Wintergreen (Pipsissewa). -- The leaves, U.S.P. 1830; N. America.  Herb, 7.5-15 Cm. (3-6') high, leaves 2.5-5 Cm. (1-2') long, 12 Mm. 1/2') wide, ovate-lanceolate, obtuse at base, toothed, upper surface variegated (spotted) with white along midrib and veins; flowers purplish-white.

[ILLUSTRATION] Chimaphila umbellata: upper part of flowering stem.


    Chionan'thus virgin'ica, Chionanthus, Fringe Tree Bark, N.F. -- The dried root-bark with not more than 5 p.c. of wood and other foreign organic matter, yielding to 70 p.c. alcohol not less than 25 p.c. of non-volatile extractive; S. United States, river banks.  Low tree or shrub, very ornamental in cultivation; leaves 5-6, oblong; fruit, purple ovoid drupe, 1-2 Cm. (2/5-4/5') long, Bark, usually in transversely curved pieces, occasionally single quills, 1-10 Cm. (2/5-4') long, 2-10 Mm. (1/12-2/5') thick, heavy, some pieces sink in water, reddish-brown, transverse wrinkles, scaly, pits and ridges, whitish cork patches, root-scars, inner surface yellowish-brown, striate, undulate; fracture short, hard, coarsely granular (stone cells); odor characteristic; taste bitter.  Powder, light brown--starch grains, numerous stone cells in groups or isolated, few short fibers, numerous resin masses, brownish cork cells, parenchyma tissue, prismatic crystals; solvent: water; contains bitter principle, tannin, ash 5 p.c.  Alterative, blood purifier; liver trouble, syphilis; popular with Eclectics, Homeopaths.  Dose, gr. 15-30 (1-2 Gm.); 1.  Fluidextractum Chionanthi (75 p.c. alcohol).  Decoction, Infusion, 5 p.c., 3ss-1 (15-30 cc.).

[ILLUSTRATION]  Pareira (brava): portion of a root and transverse section of the same.


    Chondroden'dron tomento'sum, Parei'ra, Parei'ra Bra'va, N.F. -- The dried root with not more than 5 p.c. of stems nor 2 p.c. of other foreign organic matter; Brazil, near Rio Janeiro, Peru.  Tall woody climber; stem 1-10 Cm. (2/5-4') thick, bark rough, with elevated prominences; leaves 12.5-30 Cm. (5-12') long, ovate, cordate, petiolate, smooth above, finely woolly beneath; flowers dioecious, panicles; fruit purplish-black drupe, 6 in a bunch like grapes.  Root subcylindrical, tortuous, in pieces 10-15 Cm. (4-6') long, 1-6 Cm. (2/5-2') thick, brownish, furrowed, hard, heavy, tough; internally brownish-gray, waxy luster (fresh), several successive concentric zones of fibro-vascular bundles, each 2-4 Mm. (1/12-1/6') wide, separated by zones of parenchyma and stone cells, prominent medullary rays; stems grayish, usually covered with lichens, without waxy luster; odor slight; taste bitter.  Powder, dark brown--numerous starch grains, tracheae, wood-fibers, stone cells, brownish cork; bluish-black with iodine T.S.; solvents:  70 p.c. alcohol, boiling water; contains pelosine (cissampeline--identical with bebeerine, buxine, paricine), tannin, starch, gum, ash 6-11 p.c.  Diuretic, tonic, laxative; cystitis, calculi, gonorrhea, leucorrhea, dropsy, rheumatism, jaundice; natively for bites of poisonous serpents (leaves to wound, vinous infusion internally).  Dose, 3ss-1 (2-4 Gm.); 1.  Fluidextractum Pareirae (diluted alcohol), dose, 3ss-1 (2-4 cc.).  Extract, gr. 10-20 (.6-1.3 Gm.).  Infusion, Decoction, each, 5 p.c., 3j-2 (30-60 cc.).

[ILLUSTRATION] Chondrus crispus: a, narrow form, with fruit; b, broad form; c, small form.


    Chon'drus cris'pus or Gigarti'na mamillo'sa, Irish Moss, Carrageen, N.F. -- Gigartinaceae.  The dried, bleached plants, with not more than 2 p.c. of foreign organic matter; Atlantic Ocean, New England, Irish coast.  Entire plants small, matted together, slender dichotomously branching stalk; segments flattened, emarginate, cleft at tips, 5-15 Cm. (2-6') long, 1-10 Mm. (1/25-2/5') broad, yellowish-white, transparent, somewhat cartilaginous, frequently coated with calcareous deposit which effervesces with hydrochloric acid; sporangia embedded (C. Crospus) or on short stalks (G. Mamillosa); odor slight, seaweed-like; taste mucilaginous, saline, solvent: water; contains mucilage (carrageenin--not precipitated by alcohol--gum, or by lead acetate--pectin, or blue with iodine--starch, only slightly adhesive) 55-90 p.c., minerals 14 p.c., albuminoids 9 p.c., water 18 p.c., ash 8-15 p.c.  Demulcent, nutrient, dietetic; bronchitis, diarrhea, kidney and bladder affections--diet instead of tapioca, sago, barley.  Plants green (fresh) or purplish (dry) are taken from the beach after storms, or are torn by boatmen with rakes from rocks, 3-6 M. (10-20 degrees) under water, then washed in sea water and spread high on shore for drying and bleaching--a process frequently repeated several times.  Dose, 3j-2 (4-8 Gm.); 1.  Mucilago Chondri, 3 p.c. -- emulsifier;  Decoction, 5 p.c. (Water or milk, sweetened and flavored), 3j-2 (30-60 cc.).  G. Acicula'ris and G. Pistilla'ta have similar appearance and properties.


    Chrysan'themum (Pyrethrum) ro'seum and C. Car'neum, Persian Pellitory -- Persian (Caucasian) Insect Powder; W. Asia, Persia.  Perennial plants, resembling chamomile; flower-heads 4 Cm. (1 3/5') broad; ray-florets rose-color with anthers included (roseum), or purple with anthers projecting (carneum); powder grayish-yellow, brownish (best), bright yellow (weakest), tea odor, bitter -- used only for killing insects, the toxicity being due to pyrethron (pyrethrotoxic acid -- cardiac depressant like veratrine), a neutral, amber-yellow syrupy ester (pyretol) soluble in alcohol, ether, splitting into pyrethrol, C21H34O), and several acids, pyrethresin.
    C. Cinerariaefo'lium, Dalmatian Insect Powder; Dalmatia.  These flowers are most valuable when collected immediately after expansion, and yield a more or less inferior insect powder -- greenish-yellow.  Plant cultivated in Algeria, Japan, Montenegro, and largely in California, where flowers are dried carefully (to preserve color and volatile oil) -- furnishing a superior powder, called "buhach."  Should not contain more than 5 p.c. flower-stems or 2 p.c. acid-insoluble ash.  Tests: 1.  Put 4 gr. (.25 Gm.) of the powder upon a fly in a vial -- it should be stupefied in 1 minute and dead in 2 or 3 minutes.  2.  With microscope can recognize scarcity of pollen and abundance of collenchymatous tissue when much stem and few flowers are used.  Powder often adulterated with turmeric (chloroform test), chrome alum (ash not more than 6 p.c.), and other compositous plant flowers, as Chrysanthemum Leucan'themum (Leucanthemum vulga're), white-weed, oxeye or field daisy, and C. Seg'etum.  Neither of these is an insecticide but will produce dermatitis in some persons.


    Cicho'riium In'tybus, Chicory. -- Europe, naturalized in United States.  Root with laticiferous vessels radiate, also is white, more woody, and has thinner bark than taraxacum.  July collection contains 36 p.c. of inulin, bitter principle, etc., and has properties similar  to taraxacum root, with which it often is mixed as an adulterant.  Roasted root is frequently to adulterate coffee. C. Endiv'ia, Endive; Levant; cultivated for its bitter leaves.

[ILLUSTRATION] Cichorium Intybus.   Cichorium: transverse section.


    Cimicifuga racemosa, (Linne') Nutfall.  The dried rhizome and roots with not more than 2 p.c. stems or other foreign organic matter, yielding not more than 4 p.c. acid-insoluble ash.
    Habitat.  United States, Canada; in shady, rocky places.
    Syn. Cimicif., Black Cohosh, Black Snakeroot, Macrotys, Bugbane, Bugwort,  Rattleroot,  Rattleweed, Richweed, Squawroot, Rattlesnake's Root; Cimicifuga  Rhizoma, Actaeae  Racemosae Radix; Fr. Racine d'Actee a Grappes; Ger. Schwarze  Schlangenwursel.
    Cim-i-cif'u-gaL. Cimex, bug, + fugare, to drive away -- i.e., from the fact of  Cimicifuga faetida being used for that purpose in Siberia and Kamtchatka.
    Ra-ce-mo'saL. Racemosus -- i.e., full of clusters, racemes -- i.e., the flowers.
    PLANT. -- Perennial; stem slender, unbranched, 1.5-2.5 M. (5-8 degrees) high; leaves irregularly ternately decompound, the rather small leaflets incised, 2.5-7.5 Cm. (12-3') long; flowers June-July, regular, numerous, small, white, in wand-like racemes, 20-50 Cm. (8-20') long, emit disagreeable odor.  RHIZOME, horizontal in growth, branched, 2-15 Cm. (4/5-6') long, 1-2.5 Cm. (2/5-1') thick, dark brown, grayish-black, slightly annulate from circular scars of bud scale-leaves; upper surface with numerous hard, erect, curved branches terminated by deep cup-shaped scars showing radiate structure; lower and lateral surfaces with numerous root-scars and few short roots; fracture horny; internally whitish and mealy or dark brown and waxy; bark thin, wood distinctly radiate and of same thickness as pith; odor slight; taste bitter, acrid; roots cylindrical, obtusely quadrangular, 1-3 Mm. (1/25-1/8') thick, 3-12 Cm. (1 1/5-4 4/5') long, brownish, blackish, longitudinally wrinkled, fracture short; internally cortex thin, brownish, wood yellowish 4-6-rayed.  POWDER,  light brown--numerous starch grains, .003-.015 Mm. (1/8825-1/1650') broad, fragments showing tracheae with bordered pores and lignified wood-fibers, fragments of suberized epidermis made up of tabular cells.  Solvents: alcohol, boiling water.  Dose, gr. 5-30 (.3-2 Gm.).

[ILLUSTRATION]  Cimicifuga racemosa

    ADULTERATIONS. -- Rare: Caulophyllum, podophyllum, each sometimes 1 p.c., comfrey, possessing similar blackish color, smaller amount.
    Commercial. -- Plant, also named actae'a  racemosa, emits when in bloom an odor resembling meadow-sweet, by many considered unpleasant.  Rhizome should be collected in autumn (most active), and used shortly thereafter, as it deteriorates with age; recognized readily by the microscope from black and green hellebore whose rhizomes have few and broad wood-bundles and roots with pentagonal or hexagonal wood-zone; rhizome of Actaea spica'ta, Europe, very similar, but its juicy berries are in marked contrast with the official plant's dry follicles.
    CONSTITUENTS. -- Cimicifugin, resins 3.5 p.c., amorphous resinous body (probably the active principle), racemosin, fat, starch, gum, tannin, volatile oil, sugar; ash 8-10 p.c.; latest investigators claim activity to depend upon: isoferulic acid, salicylic acid, palmitic acid, phytosterol, 3 crystalline bodies (alcohols?), alkaloids (trace).

[ILLUSTRATION] Cimifuga racemosa:  transverse section through a branch of the rhisome and through rootlets; natural size.

    Cimicifugin. -- Bitter, acrid crystalline principle, obtained by acting on the "Eclectic" resinoid, cimicifugin or upon the fresh rhizome with alcohol, precipitating (resin, tannin, coloring matter) with lead subacetate, removing lead with hydrogen sulphide, and evaporating; it is soluble in alcohol, chloroform, slightly in ether.
    Resins. -- There are two of these, one soluble in alcohol but not in ether, the other soluble in ether as well as alcohol.  These two are obtained as a mixture by exhausting powdered drug with alcohol, precipitating with water, drying precipitate, and as such constitutes the "Eclectic" cimicifugin (macrotin), a yellowish-brown hygroscopic powder.  Dose, gr. 1/2-2 (.03-.13 Gm.).
    PREPARATIONS. -- 1.  Fluidextractum Cimicifugae.  Fluidextract of Cimicifuga.  (Syn., Fldext. Cimicif., Fluid Extract of Cimicifuga, Fluidextract of Black Cohosh, Fluidextract of Black Snakeroot; Extractum Cimicifugae Liquidum; Fr. Extrait fluide d'Actee a Grappes; Ger. Cimicifugafluidextkt.).
    Manufacture: Similar to Fluidextractum Sarsaparillae, page 126; menstruum: alcohol.  Dose, mv-30 (.3-2 cc.).
    Prep.: 1.  Elixir Sodii Salicylatis Compositum, N.F., 3.2 p.c.
    2.  Tinctura Cimicifugae, N.F., 20 p.c. (alcohol).  Dose, 3ss-2 (2-4 cc.).
    3.  Elixir Tongae et Salicylatum, N.F. 3.5 p.c.
    Unoff. Preps.: Decoction, 5 p.c., 3ss-1 (15-30 cc.).  Compound Syrup, 4 p.c.
    PROPERTIES. -- Alterative (diuretic, diaphoretic, expectorant), antispasmodic, sedative (arterial and nervous), cardiac stimulant--safer than digitalis, emmenagogue.  Acts on the gastric secretion like any other bitter, slightly depresses the rate, but increases the force of the pulsse, like digitalis; contracts the uterus, increasing the menstrual flow and arterial tension.
    USES. -- It was introduced first into medicine in 1831 by Dr. Young.  Given as cardiac tonic in fatty heart, chorea, acute and chronic bronchitis, rheumatism, neuralgia, hysteria, phthisis, dyspepsia, amenorrhea, dysmenorrhea, seminal emissions.  Large doses cause vertigo, tremors, reduced pulse, vomiting, prostration.  Once, but not now, thought efficacious in snake bite, labor-pains, and ills of late pregnancy.
    Incompatibles: Iron preparations, stimulants, alcohol, ammonia.
    Synergists: Gold, digitalis, ergot, belladonna, etc.


    Cinnamomum Loureirii, Nees.  The dried bark, yielding not less than 2 p.c. of volatile ether-soluble extractive.
    Habitat.  Annam (Cochin China).
    Syn.Cinnam., Cinnamomum Saigonicum, Annam -- China -- God's Cinnamon, Annam  Cassia, Cortex Cinnamomi Saigonici; Fr. Cannelle de Saigon; Ger. Saigonsint.
    Cin-na-mo'mum. L. fr. Ar. Kinnamon, cinnamon, probably connected with aaneh, a  reed, cane -- i.e., resemblance of stems; or Malay koju manis, sweet wood, from its  aromatic odor and taste.
    Lou-rei'ri-i L. Loureiri-um in honor of Jean de Loureiro, 1710-1791 -- i.e., a celebrated  Portuguese botanist and writer, author of Flora Cochinchinensis, and other important works.
    Sa-i-gon'i-cumL. Belonging to Saigon, a country and city in Southern Annam -- i.e., its  native habitat.
    PLANT. -- Handsome evergreen tree, 6-9 M, (20-30 degrees) high, trunk .3-.5 M. (12-18') thick, young twigs slightly quadrangular; leaves coriaceous, 3-5-nerved, but only midrib reaches apex, bright glossy-green above, glaucous beneath, 10-20 Cm. (4-8') long; flowers Jan.-March, small, hermaphrodite or polygamous, fleshy, black, ovoid, size of small olive, adhering, like acorn, to cup-shaped perianth.  BARK, in quills, 30 Cm. (12') long, 4 Cm. (4/5') broad; bark .5-3 Mm (1/50-1/8') thick, light brown, dark purplish-brown with grayish patches of crustose lichens and numerous bud-scars, finely wrinkled, especially that of younger twigs, otherwise rough from corky patches surrounding the lenticels; inner surface reddish-brown, dark brown, granular, slightly striate; fracture short--inner bark porous from large oil and mucilage cells, and separated from the outer by a layer of stone cells; odor characteristic, aromatic; taste sweetish, aromatic, pungent; POWDER,  yellowish-brown--numerous starch grains; single and 2-4- compound, single grains .005-.025 Mm. (1/5000-1/1000') stone cells irregular, bast-fibers with slightly lignified walls; oil and mucilage cells.  Solvents: alcohol; hot water partially. Dose, gr. 5-30 (.3-2 Gm.).

[ILLUSTRATION] Cinnamomum twig, showing leaf venation.

    ADULTERATIONS. -- BARK: Saigon -- Cassia bark, and a closely resembling bark of unknown derivation, having lighter gray color and coarser structure identified by weak odor and taste; possibly unscraped Guava bark quills, and clove bark; Ceylon -- Scarcely possible in the entire state; POWDER: Neither Saigon or Ceylon found on the market, all so labeled being cassia, which is subject to endless admixtures -- chips, siftings, buds, walnut-shells, oil stone, flower, sand, beans, grains, starch, clove-buds--exhausted drug, by percolation, distillation; ash (sometimes) 8-10 p.c.; OIL: That distilled from flowers and roots, phenol, oil of clove, petroleum, colophony, lead.

[ILLUSTRATION]  Cinnamomum: a, flower; b, vertical section of the same.

    Commercial. -- Cinnamon was a very early favorite spice, being brought by Arabian navigators to the Phoenicians, Grecians, and Romans, the Chinese cassia being used first, the Ceylon not until 1275.  While there are about 50 species growing wild, only a few yield the commercial bark--this resulting mostly from cultivated plants.  At one time Ceylon excelled in the industry, but their coffee largely has replaced it, thus restricting to the neighborhood of Colombo the principal cinnamon gardens; however, S. China has become equally interested in the cultivation and as a result produces much valuable bark.  There are two important varieties:  1, Saigon, Annam Cassia (Cinnamon, U.S.P.), thought to be entirely from wild trees (C. Lourei'rii, and other species), growing in the mountainous districts of Annam.  While chips and thick trunk-bark sometimes reach us, most is from branches and small stems, all being of good quality--sweet ,aromatic, almost void of stringency and bitterness; some consider it high-grade cassia, but its own specific structure, area of growth, and absence of objectionable qualities in the corky layer seem to preclude such a possibility; certainly it is related more closely to cassia than to Ceylon, and may be an inferior grade (from one or more species distinct from C. Cassia) of that distinctive Chinese cinnamon so highly prized by the natives; 2, Ceylon (Cinnamon), formerly in U.S.P., considered best, being nearly all from cultivated plants through the process of pollarding, so that in 2-3 years many slender stems are produced with bark devoid of astringent and corky layer, this latter not yet having had time to form.  The cultivation of cinnamon begins with the planting of seed in prepared soil, 4-5 in each hill, from which, in 5-6 years, the straight stems due to continued pruning, 1.5-3 M. (5-10 degrees) high, are cut down with catty-knives, and by coppicing a new crop of twigs is formed every 2-3 years.  The barking (March-June, after which delicacy and aroma lessen) takes place under cover by making 2 equidistant longtudinal incisions and transverse ones every few feet apart, then teasing off easily with a mama-knife (Saigon); the bark may now be allowed to wilt or undergo partial fermentation for several days, becoming soft and pliable, thus facilitating epidermal separation, when it is laid concave downward and scraped to the layer of stone cells, thereby rejecting the bitter or astringent portion (Ceylon); congeries of quills are formed, which when dried (first by shade, then by sun) are made into 30-pound (14 Kg.) bundles and marketed as to quality in firsts, seconds, thirds, the inferior grades being distilled for oil; or each quill is dried separately (Saigon) and tied into bundles for exportation.  The bark is imported loose or in bundles with split bamboo bands from Canton, Hong Kong (Saigon), Calcutta, Colombo.

[ILLUSTRATION]  Cinnamomum:  a, b, c, from China: d, e, from Ceylon.

    CONSTITUENTS. -- Volatile oil .5-2 p.c., tannin 3-5 p.c., resin, bitter principle, sugar, mannite, starch, mucilage, ash 6 p.c., of which 2 p.c. is insoluble in diluted hydrochloric acid.
    Oleum Cinnamomi, Oil of Cinnamon, U.S.P. -- (Syn., Ol. Cinnam., Oleum Cassiae, U.S.P. 1910, Cassia Oil, Oleum Cinnamomi Cassiae, Oil of Chinese Cinnamon; Fr. Essence (Huile) de Cannelle de Chine; Ger. Zimtol, Zimtkassienol.)  This volatile oil distilled from the leaves, twigs, and waste bark of Cinnamomum Cassia (Chinese), and rectified by steam distillation, is a yellowish-brownish liquid, darker and thicker by age and exposure, characteristic odor and taste of cassia cinnamon, sp. gr. 1.055 soluble in alcohol (1), glacial acetic acid (1), 70 p.c. alcohol (2), optically almost inactive; contains at least 80 p.c. of cinnamic aldehyde, C9H8O (oxidizing into resin and cinnamic acid) upon which the value depends, also cinnamyl acetate, C9H9C2H3O2 (liquid of unpleasant acrid taste), and phenyl-propyl acetate, orthocumaric aldehyde, cinnamic acid, C9H8O2; this latter is not in fresh oil, and after being formed becomes, by further oxidation, benzoic acid.  Tests: 1. Shake oil (2) with purified petroleum benzin (5-10) -- decanted liquid is colorless and gives no green color when shaken with equal volume of (1 in 1000) copper acetate solution (abs. of rosin or rosin oils).  2.  Thoroughly wash a 1000 cc. beaker and a filter paper free of chlorides; place 3 or 4 drops of oil on a clean watch glass on triangle, ignite, immediately cover with moistened beaker; wash products of combusion through washed filter paper with 10-20 cc. distilled water, acidulate filtrate with 1 drop nitric acid, add 1 drop silver nitrate T.S. -- no turbidity (abs. of chlorinated products).  Should be kept cool, dark, in well-stoppered, amber-colored bottles.  The Ger.P. and U.S.P. recognize only the oil of Chinese cinnamon (cassia), while the Br. P. And Fr. Codex that of Ceylon cinnamon; the former is more abundant and cheaper, the latter of finer flavor and more delicate aroma, containing besides cinnamic aldehyde, some eugenol and phellandrene.  Dose, mj-5 (.06-.3 cc.).
    PREPARATIONS. -- BARK: 1.  Tinctura Cardamomi Composita, 2.5 p.c. 2.  Tinctura Gambir Composita, 2.5 p.c. 3.  Tinctura Lavandula Composita, 2 p.c.  Tinctura Rhei Aromatica, 4 p.c. 5.  Syrupus Cinnamomi, N.F., 10 p.c.  6.  Tinctura Cinnamomi, N.F., 20 p.c. (Glycerin 7.5 p.c., alcohol 67.5, water 25.  Dose, 3ss-2 (2-8 cc.):
    Preps.: 1.  Elixir Taraxaci Compositum, N.F., 3 p.c.  2.  Mistura Rhei Alkalina,N.F., 6.4 p.c.  7.  Pulvis Aromaticus, N.F., 35 p.c. + ginger 35, cardamom seed 15, myristica 15.  8.  Pulvis Aropmaticus Rubefaciens, N.F., 30 p.c., cinnamon 30, clove 30, ginger 20, capsicum 20.  9.  Pulvis Cretae Aromaticus, N.F., 8 p.c.  10.  Syrupus Sennae Aromaticus, N.F. 2/5 p.c.  11.  Tinctura Antiperiodica, N.F., 1/15 p.c.  12.  Tinctura Aromatica, N.F., 10 p.c. + ginger 4, galangal 2, clove 2, cardamom seed 2.  13. Tinctura Opii Crocata, N.F., 3/5 p.c.  14.  Tinctura Opii et Gambir Composita, N.F., 1/40 p.c.  15.  Tinctura Viburni Opuli Composita, N.F., 6.5 p.c.
    II. Oil: 1.  Aqua Cinnamomi.  Cinnamon Water.  (Syn., Aq. Cinnam.; Fr. Eau de Cannelle; Ger. (Einfaces) Zimtwasser.)
 Manufacture: 1/5 p.c.  Similar to Aquae Aromaticae; triturate oil .2 cc. with purified talc 1.5 Gm., recently boiled distilled water q.s. 100 cc., filter until clear.  Dose 3ss-1 (15-30 cc.).
    Preps: 1.  Infusum Digitalis (1.5 p.c.) -- 15 p.c.  2.  Mistura Cretae, 40 p.c. 3.  Liquor Ferri Albuinati, N.F., 20 p.c.  4.  Syrupus Ipecacuanhae et Opii, N.F., 3.2 p.c.  5.  Tinctura Rhei Aquosa, N.F., 12.5 p.c.
    2.  Spiritus Cinnamomi.  Spirit of Cinnamon.  (Syn., Sp. Cinnam.; Fr. Alcoolat de Cannelle;
Ger. Zimtspiritus.) Manufacture: 10 p.c.  Dissolve oil 10 cc. in alcohol q.s. 100 cc.  Dose, mv-30 (.3-2 cc.). Preps.: 1.  Syrupus Rhei, 2/5 p.c.  2.  Syrupus Ipecacuanhae et Opii, N.F., 2/5 p.c. 3.Taballae Phenolphthaleini, N.F. 1/50 m.  Acidum Sulphuricum Aromaticum 1/10 p.c.  4. Fluidextractum Cascarae Sagradae Aromaticum, 1/50 p.c.   5.  Acetum Aromaticum, N.F. 1/20 p.c.  6.  Dentifricium, N.F., .175 p.c.  7.  Fluidglyceratum Cascarae Sagradae Aromaticum, N.F., 1/10 p.c.  8. Lavatio Ori, N.F., ½ p.c.  9. Liquor Pepsini Aromaticus, N.F., 1/40 p.c.  10.Mistura Oleo-Balsamica, N.F., 2/5 p.c.  11. Nebula Aromatica, N.F., 1/5 p.c.  12. Nebula Mentholis Composita, N.F., 1/5 p.c.  13.  Odontalgicum, N.F., 17 p.c.  14. Oleum Ricini Aromaticum, N.F., 3/10 p.c. 15.  Spiritus Cardamomi Compositus, N.F., 1 p.c.  16.  Spiritus Vanillini Compositus, N.F., ½ p.c.  17. Syrupus Rhamni Catharticae, N.F. 1/50 p.c.
    Unoff. Preps.: BARK: Fluidextract, mc-30 (.3-2cc.).  Infusion, 3j-2 (30-60 cc.).
    PROPERTIES. -- Carminative, stomachic, stimulant, astringent, hemostatic, aromatic, antispasmodic, germicide.  The oil has no astringency.
    USES. -- Diarrhea, flatulence, nausea, vomiting, menorrhagia, parturient, to correct griping medicines; for flavoring preparations, chocolate, etc.
 Allied Products:
    1.  Cinnaldehydum, Cinnamic Aldehyde, C5H8O, U.S.P. 1900.--Obtained as a natural product by shaking oil of cassia with aqueous solution of acid sodium sulphite, filtering, washing crystalline magma with alcohol, decomposing with diluted sulphuric acid, or synthetically by oxidation of cinnamyl alcohol by dry distillation of a mixture of calcium cinnamate and formate, or as a condensation-product by acting on benzaldehyde (10), acetaldehyde (15) with hydrochloric acid gas, or with 10 p.c. solution of sodium hydroxide (10) + water (900).  It is a colorless liquid, cinnamon-like odor, burning, aromatic taste, sp. gr. 1.047, boils at 250 degrees C. (482 degrees F.) with partial decomposition, optically inactive, solidified with ice and salt should melt at -7.5 degrees C. (18.5 degrees F.), soluble in alcohol, ether, fixed or volatile oils, sparingly in water; contains at least 95 p.c. of pure cinnamic aldehyde.  Similar to oil of cinnamon, for which it may be substituted.  Should be kept in well-stoppered, small, amber-colored bottles.  Dose, mj-5 (.06-.3 cc.).
    2.  Cinnamomum Cassia (aromat'icum), Chinese Cinnamon. -- The dried bark of the shoots deprived of most of the corky portion, U.S.P. 1820-1890; China.  Plant -- handsome tree, but bark removed when 5-6 years old, occurring in quills 5-20 Mm. (1/5-4/5') broad, bark 1-2 Mm. (1/25-1/12') thick, deprived of corky layer, yellowish-brown, often with grayish patches, rough, inside nearly smooth, faintly striate, fracture nearly smooth; odor fragrant; taste sweet, aromatic, pungent, astringent.  The outer layers are simply imperfectly removed by curved knives or planes, those of iron being avoided, consequently can be recognized readily by having undergone this treatment, also by its more irregular zone of stone cells, the greater abundance of bast-fibers and tannin.  This bark is very irregular in quality, owing to its varied origin, and accordingly is recognized in commerce as Cassia, Cassia vera, Cassia lignea, etc.  C. Burman'ni is believed to yield the Sumatra, also a portion of the Java, Cina, Timor; C. Tam'ala, some of the Calcutta, N. India, Cochin China; C. I'ners, part of E. Indian archipelago.
    3.  Cassia Buds, Flores Cassiae. -- These are the small, stem-like immature fruits of various species, somewhat resembling, but smaller than clove, having fine cinnamon odor and taste; contain oil of cinnamon, tannin, etc.

Citrullus colocynthis

    Citrullus colocynthis, (Linne) Schrader. The dried pulp of unripe but fully-grown fruit with not more than 5 p.c. seed nor 2 p.c. epicarp, yielding not more than 2 p.c. extractive (purified petroleum benzin) nor  6 p.c. acid-insoluble ash.
Habitat.  S. And W. Asia, N. and S. Africa, in arid places, deserts; Arabia, Syria, Egypt,  Morocco, Cape of Good Hope, Greece, Spain, Japan; cultivated.
   Syn.  Colocyn., Colocynth Pulp, Bitter Apple, Colocynth Apple (Fruit), Cucumber, or  Gourd; Br. Colocynthidis Pulpa, Colocynth Pulp, Poma Colocynthidis; Fr.   Coloquinte; Ger. Fructus Colocynthidis, Koloquinthen, Coloquinthenapfel.
    Ci-trul'lusL. Citrus, an orange, Gr..., citron, Ar. Origin -- i.e., named after color of the fruit when cut -- orange-red.
    Col-o-cyn'this.  L. fr. Gr...., the classic name of the plant.
    PLANT. -- Perennial tendril-bearing vine; stem angular, hispid, herbaceous; leaves many-lobed, hairy, 2.5-10 Cm. (1-4') long, subpalmately cleft on long hispid petioles; tendrils, with which it climbs, short, branching; flowers large, monoecious, both kinds similar, solitary, yellow.  FRUIT, before removing seed, nearly globular, 4-7 Cm. (1 3/5-3') broad, size of a small orange, usually more or less crushed and in broken pieces, with occasional patches of nearly smooth epicarp; yellowish-white; light, spongy; separable longitudinally when entire into 3 carpels, each containing, near the outer surface, the ovoid, compressed, yellowish seed; odor slight; taste intensely bitter.  POWDER yellowish-white, buff and characteristically flaky -- fragments of parenchyma and vascular bundles, stone cells, aleurone grains, globules of fixed oil.  Solvents: alcohol; diluted alcohol; water.  Dose gr. 2-10 (.13-.6 Gm.); laxative, gr. 2-5 (.13-.3 Gm.); drastic purgative, gr. 5-10 (.3-.6 Gm.), repeated in 8-12 hours if necessary.
    Commercial. -- Plant resembles closely the watermelon (C. Citrullus -- an annual with larger, smoothish leaves, and much larger sweetish fruit), and has been cultivated in English gardens since 1551.  It is a very old medicine, the pulp, constituting 24.5 p.c. of the peeled fruit, being the portion that alone should be used; the separated and rejected seed possess slight bitterness, but also a fixed oil, 12.72 p.c., that, upon removal of testa, renders the kernels (one-half oil) somewhat prized in Africa for food, bread, etc.  There are two varieties: 1, Peeled (Turkey), the smaller, best, usually from the maritime plain between the mountains of Palestine and the Mediterranean; shipped chiefly from Jaffa, Trieste, that from Spain being smaller, darker, more compact, less pulp, blackish seed; 2, Unpeeled (Mogador), the larger, inferior, covered with smooth, yellowish-brown firm rind.  Fruit is gathered in autumn when turning yellow, peeled (or this, if to be done, may be deferred until after drying) and dried quickly by sun or fire; not known or used by native physicians as a cathartic, but simply as a protection against moths.
    CONSTITUENTS. -- Pulp 24.5 p.c., Seed 75.5 p.c.  Pulp contains colocynthin 2 p.c., Colocynthitin, pectin, gum (no starch), ash 15 p.c.; seed contain alkaloid (trace), fixed oil 12.72 p.c., albuminoids 6 p.c., ash 2-4 p.c. (whole fruit 4-5 p.c.).

[ILLUSTRATION] Citrullus Colocynthis.

    Colocynthin, C66H84O24. -- The chief cathartic principle; an amorphous glucoside (bitter principle), obtained by exhausting with water the alcoholic extract, precipitating filtrate with lead acetate and subacetate; the yellow filtered liquid is treated with H2S to remove lead, filtered, then precipitated with tannin.  This tannate of colocynthin is dissolved in alcohol, the tannin thrown down by lead subacetate, filtered liquid digested with animal charcoal, filtered, evaporated.  It is a yellow powder, soluble in water, alcohol, boiled with diluted acids splits into sugar and resinous colocynthein.  Dose, gr. 1/2-1 (.03-.06 Gm.) -- hypodermically, gr. 1/4-1/3 (.01-.02 Gm.), by which method it is painful, and should be associated with cocaine.  The "Eclectic" resinoid, colocynthin.  Dose, gr. 1/4-1 (.0l6-.06 Gm.).
    Colocynthitin (citrullin). -- A resin left after treating alcoholic extract with cold water in preparing colocynthin; occurs in white, tasteless microscopic prisms, soluble in ether, hot alcohol.
    PREPARATIONS. -- 1.  Extractum Colocynthidis.  Extract of Colocynth.  (Syn., Ext. Colocyn., Powdered Extract of Colcynth, Extractum Colocynthidis Alcoholicum; Fr. Extrait de Coloquinte; Ger. Koloquinthenextrakt.)
    Manufacture: Macerate, percolate 100 Gm. with diluted alcohol until exhausted (500 cc.), reclaim alcohol, evaporate residue to dryness, pulverize, add dried starch q.s. 25 Gm.; mix thoroughly, pass through fine sieve; 1 Gm. represents 4 Gm. of the drug.  Should be kept in small, wide-mouthed, tightly-stoppered bottles.  Dose, gr 1/2-2 (.03-.13 Gm.).

[ILLUSTRATION]   Peeled colocynth: transverse and longitudinal sections.

    Prep.: 1.  Extractum Colocynthidis Compositum.  Compound Extract of Colocynth. (Syn.., Ext. Colocyn. Co., Powdered Compound Extract of Colocynth; Fr. Extrait de Coloquinte compose'; Ger. Zusammengesetztes Koloquinthenextrakt.).
    Manufacture: Triturate together until No. 60 powder, extract of colocynth 16 Gm., aloe 50, cardamom seed 5, resin of ipomoea 14, soap (dried powder) 15, pass through fine    sieve.  Should be kept in small, wide-mouthed, tightly-stoppered bottles.  Dose, gr. 5-15    (.3-1 Gm.).
  Preps.: 1.  Pilulae Hydrargyri Chloridi Mitis Compositae, 1 1/4 gr. (.075 Gm.).  2. Pilulae Catharticae Vegetabiles, N.F., 1 gr. (.06 Gm.) -- ext. colocyn. co. 6 Gm., ext. hyosc.3, res. jalap 2, ext. leptand., res. podoph aa 1.5, ol. menth. pip. .8, alcohol dil. q.s. 100 pills, Dose, 1.3 pills.
    Unoff. Preps.: Fluidextract, dose, mij-10 (.13-.6 cc.).  Tincture, 10 p.c. (alcohol), 3ss-1  (2-4 cc.).
    PROPERTIES. -- Drastic and hydragogue cathartic, hepatic stimulant, diuretic; small doses bitter, stomachic; large doses emetic, irritant poison, causing violent griping, dangerous bowel inflammations -- gr. 90 (6 Gm.) have killed.
    USES. --  The Greeks and Arabians were unacquainted with its drastic effect, but prescribed it for its other properties.  Now used as an evacuant, dropsy, melancholia, coma, apoplexy, paralysis, but never in pregnancy, nor where gastric or intestinal inflammation is present.  It is very harsh and seldom used alone.
 Poisoning: Same as for aloe, etc.  Evacuate stomach, give demulcents, opium, stimulants.

Citrullus citrullus

    Citrul'lus Citrullus (vulgaris) -- Cucurbita (Cu'cumis) Citrullus, Watermelon Seed. -- S. Asia; cultivated.  Fruit edible, very large; seed flat, ovate, 12 Mm (1/2') long, blackish, marbled, or orange-brown, ungrooved, blunt on the edge, otherwise like pumpkin seed.  Kernels contain fixed oil 7.4 p.c., petroleum benzin extract 19 p.c., proteins, sugar, resin (cucurbitol--closely related to grindelol and ipurganol); diuretic, tenifuge, anthelmintic.  Dose, 3id-16 (8-60 Gm.)

Citrus aurantium, var. Amara

    Aurantii Amari Cortex  Bitter Orange Peel, U.S.P.
    Oleum Aurantii Florum.   Oil of (Neroli) Orange Flowers, N.F.
    Citrus aurantium, var. Amara, Linne'. 1. The dried rind of the unripe fruit.  2.  The volatile oil distilled from the fresh flowers.
    Habitat.  N. India, cultivated near the Mediterranean Sea, Spain, W. Indies, Madeira,  China, S. and S. W. United States, Florida, California, etc.
    Syn.  Aurant. Amar. Cort., Curacao (Wild) Orange, Aurantii Pericacarpium, Cortex  Pomorum Aurantii; Br. Aurantii Cortex Recens, Aurantii Cortex Siccatus; Fr. Ecorce  (Zeste) d'Orange amere, Ecorce de Bigarade; Ger. Cortex Aurantii Fructus,  Pomeranzenschale.
    Cit'rus.  L. fr Gr...., after the town of citron in Judea, where it formerly flourished.
   Au-ran'tium.  L. aurum, gold -- i.e., yellow color of fruit.
   A-ma'raL. amarus, bitter -- i.e., the decided bitter taste of the fruit.
   Orange.  Eng. Fr. Skr. nagarange through the Arab. naranj.
    PLANT. -- Small tree 3-4.6 M. (10-15degrees) high; stem branched; bark shining, smooth, greenish-brown; leaves 7.5-10 Cm. (3-4') long, ovate, evergreen, faintly serrate, with oil-vesicles, fragrant, petioles 12-25 Mm. (1/2-1') long; flowers May, 2.5 Cm. (1') broad, white; fruit 5-10 Cm. (2-4') in diameter, round, red or yellow, 9-11-celled, each several-seeded.  RIND (zest), in thin, irregular bands (ribbons) or quarters, yellowish, greenish-brown, numerous minute pits and fine reticulate ridges; inner surface whitish, many slight conical projections, fine anastomosing lines formed by vascular bundles; fracture hard, short; odor fragrant, aromatic; taste aromatic, bitter.  POWDER, yellowish-gray, light brown--many parenchyma fragments with thick cell walls, tracheae very small, calcium oxalate prisms; with potassium hydroxide T.S.--yellowish.  Solvents: alcohol; water.  Dose, gr. 15-30 (1-2 Gm.).  OIL (flowers), a pale yellow, slightly fluorescent, neutral liquid, distinctive fragrant odor, similar to orange blossoms, and an aromatic sweet then bitter taste; soluble in alcohol (1) with violet flourescence, neutral reaction, in 80 p.c. alcohol (2), with excess--cloudy; sp. gr. 0.874, dextrorotatory.  Should be kept cool, dark, in small, well-stoppered, amber-colored bottles.

[ILLUSTRATION]   Citrus Aurantium (var. Amara): 1, the end of a flowering twig; 2, flower, vertical section of ovary; 3, longitundial section of ovary; 4, seed; 5, longitudinal section of seed; 6, diagram of flower.

    Commercial. -- This bitter fruit grows mostly in Spain, Madeira, India, China, being known as Seville or Bigarade Orange, and is not in the fresh state a commercial article with us.  The Mandarin (C. sinen'sis), S. Europe, is much smaller, having flattened ends, very thin rind, and pleasant taste.  The celebrated Bizarria, of Italy, produces on the same stem oranges, lemons, and citrons, and these often in mixed parts.  The oil is distilled from fresh flowers, when it floats upon the water, and may easily be separated.  There are four commercial grades: 1.  Ne'role (Essence de) Pe'tale, most delicate -- from flowers of C. Aurantium.  2.  Ne'role (Essence de) Bigarade -- from flowers of C. amara (Bigaradia), N.F. 3.  Ne'role (Essence de) Portugal -- from immature fruits of C. Aurantium, 4.  Ne'role (Essence de) Petit Grain -- from immature fruits and leaves of C. amara.  Imported mostly from Grasse, Cannes, Messina, Nice.

[INTRODUCTION] Orange peel: transverse section, magnified 65 diam.

    CONSTITUENTS. -- RIND: Volatile oil, naringin (aurantiin) very bitter glucoside, aurantiamarin 1.5-2.5 p.c., leading bitter glucoside, isohesperidin .4-3 p.c., aurantiamaric acid .1 p.c., hesperidin, hesperic acid, (fixed oil, resin, gum, albumin, tannin, ash 4-7 p.c.).  OIL (flowers): Linomene, linalool, linalyl acetate 7-18 p.c., geraniol, methyl anthranilate (to which odor and fluorescence are due.).
    Oleum Auranti Amari, N.F. -- A volatile oil obtained by expression from the fresh peel.  It is a pale yellow liquid, with characteristic, aromatic odor of Seville orange, and aromatic, bitter taste, soluble in alcohol (4), solution neutral, in all proportions of dehydrated alcohol, in glacial acetic acid (1); sp. gr. 0.845, dextrorotatory.  Should be kept cool, dark, in small, well-stoppered, amber-colored bottles.
    PREPARATIONS. -- I.  RIND: 1.  Tinctura Aurantii Amari.  Tincture of Bitter Orange Peel.  (Syn., Tr. Aurant. Amar.; Br. Tinctura Aurantii; Fr. Teinture e'Ecorce d'Oranges ameres; Ger. Pomeranzen-(schalen) tinktur.).
 Manufacture: 20 p.c.  Similar to Tinctura Veratri Viridis, page 104, menstruum: 60 p.c. alcohol.  Dose, 3j-2 (4-8 cc.).
    Prep.: 1.  Elixir Aurantii Amari, N.F., 2 p.c.
 2.  Tinctura Cinchonae Composita, 8 p.c.  3.  Tinctura Gentianae Composita, 4 p.c., 4.  Infusum Gentianae Compositum, N.F., 4/5 p.c.  5.  Tinctura Amara, N.F., 6 p.c.
    II. FLOWERS: 1. Aqua Aurantii Florum.  Orange Flower Water.  (Syn., Aq. Aurant Flor.,Aqua Aurantii Florum Fortior, Triple Orange Flower Water.)
 Manufacture: Obtained as a by-product in distilling oil of orange flowers, or by collecting 3 parts of distillate from 2 of flowers.  It is a saturated solution of the odoriferous principles of the fresh flowers obtained by distilling with water and separating the clear, saturated portion of the distillate; it is nearly colorless, clear or faintly opalescent, strong pleasant odor, and taste of orange blossoms; must be free from empyreuma, mustiness, or fungoid growths, and is best preserved by allowing a limited access of fresh air to the container.  Tests: 1.  Evaporate 100 cc.--residue .001 Gm.; neutral, slightly acid.  2.  With hydrogen sulphide T.S., or sodum sulphide T.S.--no reaction (abs. of metallic impurities).  Dose, 3j-4 (4-15 cc.).
    Preps.: 1.  Syrupus Aurantii Florum.  Syrup of Orange Flowers.  (Syn., Syr, Aurant. Flor.;    Fr. Sirop de Fleurs d'Oranges; Ger. Pomeranzenbluthensirup.)
    Manufacture: Dissolve by agitation sucrose 85 Gm. in a mixture of orange flower water and distilled water, each 22.5 cc., without heat, add of the latter q.s. 100 cc., mix thoroughly, strain.  Dose, ad libitum; as a flavoring vehicle  2.  Trochisci Acidi Tannici, q.s.  3.  Elixir Aurantii Amari, N.F., 2 p.c.  4.  Elixir Amygdaloe Compositum, N.F., 15 p.c.  5.  Elixir Glycyrrhizoe Aquosum, N.F., 20 p.c.  6.  Liquor Hypophosphitum Compositus, N.F., 3.5 p.c.  7.  Liquor Phosphatum Compositus, N.F., 12.5 p.c.  8.  Syr. Calc. Lactophos., N.F., 5 p.c.
    III. OIL (RIND): 1.  Elixir Aurantii Amari, N.F., 2/5 p.c.
    IV. OIL (Flowers): 1.  Spiritus Odoratus, N.F., 2/5 p.c.
    Unoff. Preps.: RIND: Fldext. (75 p.c. alc.).  Inf. (Br.), 5 p.c., 3 iv-8 (15-30 cc.).  Inf.  Comp. (Br.), 2.5 p.c. + lemon peel 1, clove .5.  Wine (Br.) -- fermenting saccharine solution + fresh bitter orange peel.
    PROPERTIES. -- Stimulant, tonic, carminative, stomachic, bitter; excessive doses of both peel and oil cause colic, convulsions, occasionally death.
    USES. -- In indigestion, flatulence, corrigent to purgatives; aromatic when in combination with gentian, calumba, quassia, cinchona, etc.; most of the preparations are used as flavoring agents.  Workmen employed among the fruit have skin eruptions, nervousness, headache, gastralgia, insomnia, muscular spasms.

Citrus aurantium var. Bergamia

    Citrus Aurantium, var. Bergam'ia, Bergamot; Oleum Bergamottae, Oil of Bergamot, N.F. -- The volatile oil obtained by expression from the rind of the fresh fruit with not less than 36 p.c. of ester, calculated as linalyl acetate; S. Italy, France; cultivated.  Small tree resembling the lemon and orange, flowers peculiar, delicious odor, fruit pale lemon color, pyriform or globose, with concave receptacles of oil in the rind.  Oil obtained as that of lemon and orange, and is a greenish-yellow liquid, neutral, faintly acid, characteristic fragrant odor, aromatic bitter taste; forms clear solution with alcohol (1/2), not turbid with further addition, soluble in glacial acetic acid, 80 p.c., alcohol (2), with slight cloudiness and no separation of oil globules; sp. gr. 0.877, dextrorotatory; 2 Gm. evaporated to soft green residue--corresponds to not more than 6 p.c. of the oil (abs. of fixed oils); contains limonene (citrene), dipentene (bergaptene, bergamot camphor), linalool, and linalool acetate 36-39 p.c., upon which the value chiefly depends.  Stimulant, excitant, aromatic; used exclusively as a perfume; 1.  Spiritus Odoratus, 1.5 p.c.

Citrus aurantium, var. sinensis

    Citrus Aurantium, var. sinensis, Linne'.  The fresh, outer rind of the ripe fruit.
    Habitat. Same as C. Aurantium (var. Amara).
    Syn.Aurant, Dulc. Cort., Curacao, Navel (Seedless) Orange, Forbidden Fruit, Golden  (Orange) Apple, Nerotia Flowers; Fr. Ecorce (Zeste) d'Orange Douce; Ger.  Apfelsinnenchalen.
    Si-nen'sis.  L. (Chinensis) Chinese, of or belonging to China--i.e., its chief  habitat.

[ILLUSTRATION] Citrus Aurantium, var. Sinensis

    PLANT. -- Small tree, 4.5-6 M. (15-20 degrees) high, identical with C. Aurantium (var. Amara), differing only in point of variety, but having leaves and flowers more fragrant, and the fruit sweeter, larger, deeper yellow.  RIND (zest), the outer orange-yellow layer recently separated by grating or paring, consisting of epidermal cells, parenchyma cells of sarcocarp with chromoplastids, oil reservoirs and globules of volatile oil; odor highly fragrant; taste pungently aromatic.  Solvents: alcohol; water.  Dose, gr. 15-30 (1-2 Gm.).
    Commercial. -- This sweet fruit grows only by cultivation; was unknown to the Greeks and Romans, being introduced first into Europe by the Portuguese in the 15th century.  There are now some fifty varieties cultivated in Spain, Portugal, Madeira, Azores, China, West Indies, S. and S. W. United States, many of which have been given commercial names after the districts of production, as China, Portugal, Havana, Florida, California, Messina, and Malta (blood-red).  These are imported in boxes of 100-200, having each orange wrapped in tissue-paper, the sweetest coming to us from Havana, Florida, and California.
    CONSTITUENTS. -- Volatile oil, herperidin, (fixed oil, resin, gum, tannin, ash 4-5 p.c.).
 Oleum Aurantii.  Oil of Orange, U.S.P. -- (Syn., Ol. Aurant., Oleum Aurantii Corticis, U.S.P. 1900, Orange Oil, Oil of Sweet Orange, Oleum Aurantiorum, Essence (Essential Oil) of Orange; Fr. Huile d'Orange; Ger. Pomeranzenschalenol.)  This volatile oil is produced mostly in S. Italy, Sicily, by expression from the fresh peel of the ripe fruit (sweet orange and its varieties), or rupturing the oil-glands mechanically and collecting the liberated oil, as with oil of lemon; if obtained by distillation the product is decidedly less fragrant.  It is a yellow liquid, characteristic odor and taste of the outer part of sweet orange peel, sp. gr. 0.844; soluble in dehydrated alcohol, carbon disulphide, glacial acetic acid (1); neutral reaction, dextrorotatory; contains limonene (citrene, hesperidene), C10H16, 90 p.c., odor bearers (citral, citronellal, methyl ester of anthranilic acid).  Tests: 1.  With 90 p.c. alcohol (2) -- does not form clear solution (dif. from washed citrus oils).  2.  Evaporate 25 Gm. To dryness -- residue not less than 2 p.c. (dif. from washed citrus oils).)  3.  Should not have a terebinthinate odor or taste (abs. of oil of turpentine); must meet requirements for heavy metals.  The oil from the peel of bitter orange (N.F.) though chemically indistinguishable, has a superior flavor, but a limited production, and usually is mixed with this oil (sweet orange).  Oil having a terebinthinate odor must not be dispensed.  Should be kept cool, dark, in small, well-stoppered, completely filled, amber-colored bottles (to avoid developing terebinthinate odor).  Usually shipped in tinned-copper cans.  Dose, mj-5 (.06-..3 cc.).
    ADULTERATIONS. -- Oil of turpentine, alcohol, etc.
    PREPARATIONS. -- I. RIND: 1.  Tinctura Aurantii Dulcis.  Tincture of Sweet Orange Peel.  (Syn., Tr. Aurant. Dulc.; Fr. Teinture d'Orange douce; Ger. Apfelsinenschalentinktur.)
    Manufacture: 50 p.c.  Similar to Tinctura Cardamomi Composita, page 137--macerating 50 Gm. in alcohol 100 cc., filtering through purified cotton, and finishing with alcohol q.s. 100 cc.  Dose, 3j-2 (4-8 cc.); as a flavoring vehicle.
    Preps.: 1. Syrupus Aurantii.  Syrup of Orange.  (Syn., Syr. Aurant., Syrupus Aurantii Corticis, Syrup of Orange Peel; Fr. Sirop d'Encorce d'Orange; Ger.    Pomeranzen(Orangen-schalen)-sirup.)
    Manufacture: Triturate purified talc 1.5 Gm. with tincture of sweet orange peel 5 cc. And citric acid .5 Gm., and add gradually distilled water 40 cc., filter, add through filter distilled water q.s. 45 cc.: dissolve in this, by agitation, sucrose 82 Gm. (without heat), add distilled water q.s. 100 cc., mix thoroughly, strain; must not dispense when of terebinthinate odor or taste or shows other deterioration.  Dose, ad libitum -- flavoring.
    2.  Elixir Gentianae Gllycerinatum, N.F., 1.5 p.c. 3.  Elixir Pepsini et Rennini Compositum, N.F., 5 p.c.  4.  Elixir Taraxaci Compositum, N.F., 6 p.c.  5.  Elixir     Terpini Hydrastis, N.F., 2 p.c.
    II. OIL: 1.  Spiritus Aurantii Compositus,  Compound Spirit of Orange.  (Syn., Sp. Aurant. Co.; Fr. Esprit d'Orange composee; Ger. Zusammengesetzter Orangengeist.)
    Manufacture: 20 p.c.  Dissolve oil 20 cc., + oil of lemon 5, oil of coriander 2, oil of  anise .5 in alcohol q.s. 100 cc.  Should be kept in dark amber-colored bottles.  As a  flavoring vehicle.
    Preps.: 1.  Elixir Aromaticum.  Aromatic Elixir.  (Syn., Elix. Arom., Simple Elixir;  Fr. Elixir aromatique; Ger. Aromatisches Elixir.)
   Manufacture: 1 1/5 p.c.  To compound spirit of orange 1.2 cc., add alcohol q.s. 25, to this add syrup 37.5, in several portions with agitation, distilled water 37.5, purified talc 3 Gm., filter until clear, wash filter with 25 p.c. alcohol q.s. 100 cc. -- flavoring.
    Preps.: 1.  Elixir Glycyrrhizae, 87.5 p.c.  2.  Numerous Elixirs -- as a vehicle.
 2. Elixir Aletridis Compositum, N.F., 1 p.c., + 10 other N.F. Elixirs -- flavoring.  3.      Emulsa -- flavoring.
    2.  Elixir Ferri (Pyrophosphatis, Quininae et Strychninae, N.F., 1/15 p.c.  3.  Elixir Pepsini Compositum, N.F., 1/5 p.c.  4.  Liquor Ferri Peptonati, N.F., 1/66 p.c.  5.  Liquor Ferri Peptonati et Mangani, N.F., 1/66 p.c.  6.  Spiritus Cardamomi Compositus, N.F., 2 p.c.  7.  Spiritus Myrciae, N.F., 1/20 p.c.  8.  Spiritus Vanillini Compositus, N.F., 5 p.c.  9.  Syrupus Quinidinae, N.F., 1/50 p.c.  10.  Tabellae Sulphuris et Potassii Bitartratis, N.F., 1/20 m, (.003 cc.).  11.  Trochisci Eucalypti Gummi, N.F., 1/20 m. (.003 cc.).
    PROPERTIES AND USES. -- Aromatic; chiefly for flavoring and in perfumery.  Fruit deliciously edible.

Citrus medica

    Citrus medica, var. Limonum, (Risso) Hooker filius.  The outer yellow rind of the fresh ripe fruit.
    Habitat.  N. India; cultivated in subtropics, Mediterranean Basin, United States   (California, Florida), Australia, etc.
    Syn.  Limon. Cort.; Fr. Ecorce (Zest) de Citron (Limon); Citron, Limon; Ger. Cortex  Fructus Citri, Flavido Corticis Citri, Citronen Limonen)--schale; Limone, Citrone.
    Med'i-caL. Medicus, medical, curative -- i.e., properties useful in medicine.
    Li-mon'um.  L. a lemon, fr. Arab, limun, limu, taken from Skr. nimbuka.
    PLANT. -- Straggling bush or tree, 3-4.5 M. (10-15 degrees) high, more tender than the orange, having many angular branches and sharp spines in the leaf-axils; bark gray, that of branches green, of twigs reddish or purple; leaves evergreen, 5-6 Cm. (2-2 2/5') long, ovate, acute, serrate, 12 Mm. (1/2') petioles; flowers all the year round, sweet-scented, white to purplish-pink; fruit ovoid berry 7.5 Cm. (3') long with nipple-shaped extremity, smooth, depressed punctations over the oil-glands, structure like orange; pulp acid, yellow; seed as in orange, only smaller.  PEEL, the outer, lemon-yellow, dark yellow layer, recently separated by grating, paring, and consisting of an epidermal layer, numerous parenchyma cells containing yellow chromoplastids, and large oil reservoirs with globules of the volatile oil; odor fragrant, distinctive; taste aromatic; sections mounted in a fixed oil show epidermal layer (small tabular cells), hypodermal layer containing numerous plastids, a mesocarp with colorless, thin-walled parenchyma, large elliptical oil reservoirs, granular protoplasm, calcium oxalate crystals.  The inner spongy white portion should be removed and discarded.  Solvents: alcohol; wine; water.  Dose, 3ss-1 (2-4 Gm.).

[ILLUSTRATION] Citrus medica, var. Limonum: a, flower; b, fruit.

    Commercial. -- Lemons reach us from California, Florida, W. Indies, Mediterranean region (Sicily, Spain, etc.) packed in boxes, each lemon being wrapped in white or brownish tissue-paper.  Foreign varieties are known as wax, imperial, gaeta, and all, when kept several months, deteriorate, owing to the decomposition of citric acid, into sugar and carbon dioxide, in consequence of which, to insure preservation and permit long shipments, they must be coated with melted paraffin, dissolved shellac, or varnish.  The rind should be pared thinly from the fruit with sharp knives and carefully dried.
    CONSTITUENTS. -- Volatile oil, bitter principle, hesperidin, ash 4 p.c.
    Oleum Limonis.  Oil of Lemon. U.S.P. -- (Syn., Ol. Limon., Lemon Oil, Oleum de Cedro; Fr. Essence (Huile) de Citron -- Cedrat; Ger. Citronol, Limonenol.)  This volatile oil is produced mostly in Sicily, S. France, Italy (Calabria), by expression from fresh peel of the ripe fruit, using several processes that rupture mechanically the oil-cells thereby liberating the oil and rendering it easily collected: 1, spugna -- collecting by sponge the oil from ruptured cells of the quartered rind; 2, scorzetta -- of the halved rind; 3, machina -- substituting a complicated machine for manual labor of expression and collection; 4, ecuelle a piquer -- not much used but consisting of an instrument, bowl-shaped, 25 Cm. (10') wide, of tinned-copper, having a raised opening in the center which forms with the outer edge a broad channel; to this there is a heavy cover similarly shaped, whose inner surface as well as that of the machine is armed with concentric rows of short 6 Mm. (1/4') spikes or ridges; an opening in the bottom allows the escape of oil.  By a handle the cover is made to revolve rapidly one-half minute over the instrument, having between the two 5 to 8 fruits, after which they are replaced by fresh ones.  About 7000 fruits can be exhausted daily by each machine.  It is a pale yellow, greenish-yellow liquid, characteristic odor and taste of the outer part of fresh lemon peel, sp. gr. 0.853, dextrorotatory, soluble in alcohol (3), dehydrated alcohol, carbon disulphide, glacial acetic acid; neutral, slightly acid; contains at least 4 p.c. (7-8) of aldehydes calculated as citral, C10H16O, which gives the aroma and value (being also produced by oxidizing geraniol, C10H18O, with chromic acid), limonene (citrene), C10 H16, 76 p.c., little cymene, C10H14, citronellal, C10H18O, phellandrene, pinene, geranyl acetate, a sesquiterpene, octyl aldehyde, nonyl aldehyde, methyl heptenone, terpineol.  Should be kept cool, dark, in completely filled, well-stoppered, amber-colored bottles, and that having a terebinthinate odor must not be dispensed.  Dose, mj-5 (.06-.3 cc.).
    ADULTERATIONS. -- Oils of other Citrus fruits, fixed oils, alcohol, oil of turpentine.  The fragrant Oil of Petit Grain Citronnier, from immature fruits, leaves, and twigs, closely resembles Neroli Petit Grain, and may be used similarly.
    Hesperidin, C22H26O12. -- A glucoside (bitter principle) from the white, spongy part or rind by boiling water; bitter, yellowish-white powder or white needles; soluble in diluted alkalies or acetic acid, black with ferric salts, and by diluted sulphuric acid decomposed into hesperetin, C16H14O6, and glucose, C6H12O6.
    PREPARATIONS. -- I.  PEEL: 1.  Tinctura Limonis.  Tincture of Lemon.  (Syn., Tr. Limon., Tinctura Limonis Corticis; Fr. Teinture d'Ecorce de Citron; Ger. Citronenschalentinktur.)
    Manufacture: 50 p.c. Similar to Tinctura Cardamomi Composita, p. 137 -- macerating 50 Gm. in alcohol 100 cc., filtering through purified cotton, and finishing with alcohol q.s. 100 cc.  Dose, 3ss-2 (2-8 cc.).
    Preps.: 1.  Syrupus Acidi Citrici, 1 p.c.  2.  Emulsum Petrolati, N.F., 1.5 p.c.
    II. OIL: Liquor Magnesii Citratis, 1/10 cc. In 350.  2.  Spiritus Ammoniae Aromaticus, 1 p.c.  3.  Spiritus Aurantii Compositus, 5 p.c.  4.  Acetum Aromaticum, N.F., 1/10 p.c.  5.  Linimentum Terebinthinae Aceticum, N.F., 1.6 p.c.  6.  Mistura Oleo-Balsamica, N.F., 2/5 p.c.  7.  Spiritus Odoratus, N.F., 4/5 p.c.  8.  Syrupus Eriodictyi Aromaticus, N.F., 1/20 p.c.  9.  Syrupus Sennae Aromaticus, N.F., 1/7 p.c.
    Unoff. Preps.: PEEL: Spirit, 5 p.c., + oil 5 p.c. (alcohol), 3ss-2 (2-8) cc.).  Infusion.  Syrup.  Juice (from fruit--used alone,  neutralized by alkali, or made into syrup; soon spoils, but will keep a short time byletting stand until albumin is coagulated, straining into hot bottles, and covering with almond or sweet oil; flavor is preserved best by making it into concentrated syrup); yield 1/2-1 ounce (15-30 cc.) per lemon, dose, 3ij-5 (8-20 cc.).
    PROPERTIES AND USES. -- Stimulant, stomachic, added usually to infusions, tinctures, etc., chiefly for flavoring.  Juice refrigerant, relieves thirst, febrile inflammatory affections in agreeable beverages; diaphoretic (neutral mixture), scurvy (seamen on long voyages should take 3j (30 cc.) daily as a preventive, acute rheumatism; locally in sunburn, pruritus of scrotum, uterine hemorrhage after labor, gargle in diphtheria.
    Limones, Lemons.  The fruit, U.S.P. 1820-1850.  Limonis Succus, Lemon Juice, U.S.P.  1860-1900.

Citrus medica

    C. Med'ica, Citron. -- Small tree, but fruit very large, 20-22.5 Cm. (8-9') long,   resembling pineapple in shape.  The rind is popular as a dessert, essence in perfumery,  and juice for similar purposes as that of lemon and line fruits.  C. Medica, var. Acida.   Succus Citri, Lime Juice; contains citric acid 5-10 p.c.  Succus Citri et Pepsinum, lime  juice 60 p.c., + glycerite of pepsin 40.

Coal Tar

    Pix Carbonis, Coal Tar, Pix Lithanthracis, N.F. -- The tar obtained as a by-product in  the destructive distillation of coal for illuminating gas.  A nearly black, thick liquid or  semi-solid, heavier than water, odor characteristic, naphthalene-like, taste sharp burning;  soluble in benzene, carbon disulphide, chloroform, partly so in alcohol, acetone, methyl  alcohol, purified petroleum benzin, slightly so in water, imparting its characteristic odor  and taste; alkaline reaction; burns with reddish, luminous sooty flame, being consumed  by strong heat, ash 2 p.c.; 1.  Liquor Picis Carbonis, Liquor Carbonis Detergens, 20 p.c.  + quillaja 10 (70 p.c. alcohol).

Coffea arabica

    Caffeina.  Caffeine,  C8H10O2N4H2O, U.S.P.
    Coffea arabica, Linne'and Thea sinensis, Linne'.   A feebly basic substance (alkaloid) from the seeds of the former and leaves of the latter (Theaceae), also
occurring in other plants; or prepared synthetically.
    Habitat.  1.  Tropical Africa (Arabia, Abyssinia, Ceylon, Mocha); cultivated in tropical  countries (Java, W. Indies, S. America--Brazil (most), Guatemala (best), etc.).  2.  S. E.  Asia (upper Aseam, China, Japan, Java, S. United States; cultivated.
   Syn.  Caff., Semen Coffea; Fr. Cafe'; Ger. Kaffee (bohnen), Caffeia; Caffein, Ger.  Coffeinum, Koffein, Kaffein, Thein.
   Cof'fe-a.  L. For coffee, after Coffee, a province of Narea, in Africa, where it grows  abundantly; Arabic name of the decoction -- chaube', cave' cahua, caova.
   A-rab'i-caL. Arabian -- i.e., its chief habitat.
    PLANT. -- Handsome shrub or small tree 3-4.5 M. (10-15 degrees) high, by cultivation trimmed down to 1.5-2 M. (5-6 degrees); bark smooth, gray; leaves 10-15 Cm. (4-6') long; 2.5-5 Cm. (1-2') wide, ovate, alternate, coriaceous, glossy, entire; flowers small, fragrant, white, funnel-shape, cymes; fruit oval, 12 Mm. (1/2') long, scarlet, but purple when ripe, 2-celled, 2-seeded drupe, each seed in a parchment-like endocarp; pericarp with scanty, scarcely succulent pulp, dehiscent; seed large, solitary in each cell, rounded back, flat on ventral surface (by which they face each other), hard, bony, grayish, deep narrow fissure in center.
    ADULTERATIONS. -- SEED: Inferior grades: natural discolored (yellow and brown grain); artificial colored (Prussian blue, indigo, sugar, egg-albumen) -- removed by soaking in water; factitious coffee made of clay, kaolin, evaporated skimmed milk, etc. -- sink in ether, have little taste and no groove on flat side.  GROUND COFFEE: Sometimes roasted dandelion, chicory, amylaceous roots, corn, peas, beans, acorns, wheat, rye, sweet potatoes, coffee extract, etc.
    CONSTITUENTS. -- Caffeine (free and combined with caffeic acid) 1-2.3 p.c., caffearine, fat (olein, palmitin) 13 p.c., glucose, dextrin 15 p.c., proteins 13 p.c., caffeo-tannic acid, (chlorogenic, coffalic), volatile oil, citric acid, trigonelline, pectin, oxydase, moisture 12-15 p.c., ash 3-5 p.c., Mocha 7-8 p.c. -- K. Na, Mg, carbonates, phosphates.
    Caffeina.  Caffeine. -- While this is now prepared commercially -- chiefly synthetically, or from tea and tea-dust (sweepings), it may be obtained from a strong infusion of tea or unroasted coffee by adding lead acetate to precipitate tannin, coloring matter, etc., filtering, removing excess of lead by hydrogen sulphide, concentrating, crystallizing.  It is in white flexible, silky, glistening needles, usually matted together in fleecy masses, odorless, bitter, efflorescent, soluble in water (46), hot water (5.5), alcohol (66), chloroform (5.5), ether (530), benzene (100), boiling benzene (22), acetone (50); saturated aqueous solution neutral; melts, when anhydrous, at 236 degrees C. (457 degrees F.).  Tests: 1. Dissolve .01 Gm. In hydrochloric acid 1 cc.  add potassium chlorate .1 Gm., evaporate to dryness, invert the container over a vessel containing a few drops of ammonia T.S. -- residue purple, destroyed by fixed alkalies (murexide reaction).  2.  Aqueous solution + tannic acid T.S. -- precipitate, soluble in excess of reagent.  3.  Dry to constant weight -- loses 9 p.c.; incinerate -- ash .05 p.c.  4.  To .5 Gm. add sulphuric or nitric acid acid 5 cc. -- colorless, faintly yellow (abs. of readily carbonizable substances).  5.  Aqueous solution (1 in 50) + mercuric potassium iodide T.S. -- no precipitate (abs. of alkaloids).  Impurities: Alkaloids, readily carbonizable substances.  Dose, gr. 1-5 (.06-.3 Gm.).

[ILLUSTRATION]  Coffea arabica: A, blooming and fruiting twig; B, fruit; C, fruit, cross-section; D, fruit, longitudinal section; E, seed still partly enclosed in the parchment-like endocarp.

    Commercial. -- Tree resembles our cherry, although more delicate, grows in clusters in hilly woods, 300-600 M. (1,000-2,000 degrees) elevation; first known in Europe, 1652, as coming from Arabia, Abyssinia, where it was popular in the 15th century.  The Dutch first grew it in Europe, 1690, and introduced it into America at Surinam, 1718, Cayenne, W. Indies, 1725.  There are four varieties: 1, Mocha, best, smallest, dark yellow, growing on the Arabian hills around Mocha; 2, Java (E. Indian, Ceylon), largest, pale yellow; 3, Rio, Brazilian (W. Indian, Demerara), intermediate size, bluish or greenish-gray; 4, Liberian C. Liberica -- most hardy and resistent to diseases), larger berries, finer flavor.  The seeds are separated from papery endocarp by drying, passing between wooden rollers, and through a winnowing mill.  In roasting at 250 degrees C. (482 degrees F.), the fat, sugar, and tannin are destroyed, some caffeine volatilized, and an emphyreumatic volatile oil (coffeol, coffeone), or some other active principle, volatile or otherwise, is developed -- losing 8 p.c. water, 9 p.c. organic matter, becoming pulverizable, more aromatic, and more soluble in water.  Much care should be exercised in this process to use closed vessels and not too great heat.  Caffeine exists in all plants as a complex tannoid, and as such possesses decided but different physiological activity from the free base (alkaloid).  Decaffeinated coffee results from incipient germination, or dissolving out nine-tenths of the caffeine from raw beans, then roasting.
    PREPARATIONS. -- 1.  Caffeina Citrata.  Citrated Caffeine.  (Syn., Caff. Cit.; Br. Caffeinae Citras, Caffeine Citrate; Fr. Citrate de Cafeine; Ger. Koffeincitrat.)
 Manufacture: Dissolve citric acid 50 Gm. in hot distilled water 100 cc., add caffeine 50 Gm., evaporate to dryness on water-bath, constantly stirring toward the end, reduce to fine powder.  It is a white powder, odorless, slightly bitter, acid taste and reaction; forms clear syrupy solution with small quantity of water, but caffeine precipitates on dilution, being redissolved by additional water; compound unstable; contains 48-52 p.c. of anhydrous caffeine, C8H10O2N4.  1. Mix 2 cc. of aqueous solution (1 in 10) with lime water (50) -- clear in the cold, but turbid upon boiling.  2. Dry to constant weight -- loses 5 p.c.; incinerate -- ash .1 p.c.  3. Aqueous solution (1 in 100) 5 cc. + mercuric sulphate T.S. 1 cc., heat to boiling, add potassium permanganate T.S. 1 cc. -- white precipitate.  4.  Heat .25 Gm. + sulphuric acid 5 cc.in dish on water-bath for 15 minutes, protected from dust -- may be yellow, but not brown (abs. of tartrate).  5.  Aqueous solution (1 in 100) 10 cc., acidulated with hydrochloric acid, + barium chloride T.S. -- no turbidity (abs. of sulphate).  Impurities: Heavy metals, tartrate, sulphate, water.  Should be kept in well-closed containers.  Dose, gr. 2-10 (.13-.6 Gm.).
    2.  Caffeinae Sodio-Benzoas.  Caffeine Sodio-Benzoate.  (Syn., Caff. Sod.-Benz.; Fr. Soude benzoate de Cafeine; Ger. Caffeinum-Natrium benzoicum, Koffein-Natriumbenzoat.)
    Manufacture: Mix caffeine and sodium benzoate each 50 Gm., rub to smooth paste with alcohol q.s., dry in moderately warm place.  It is a white powder, odorless, bitter, soluble in water (1.1), some caffeine separating on standing, alcohol (30), partly in chloroform; aqueous solution (1 in 20) neutral, slightly acid or alkaline, not reddened by phenolphthalein T.S.; contains 47-50 p.c. of anhydrous caffeine and 50-53 p.c. of sodium benzoate, NaC7O2H5.  Tests:  1.  Heat -- decomposes with evolution of white vapors of caffeine -- carbonaceous residue effervesces with acids and colors flame yellow.  2.  Aqueous solution + ferric chloride T.S. -- salmon-colored precipitate; + diluted hydrochloric acid -- white precipitate (benzoic acid).  3.  Dry to constant weight -- loses 5 p.c.  Impurities: Heavy metals, water, chlorinated compounds, readily carbonizable substances.  Dose, gr. 2-10 (.13-.6 Gm.), in powder, capsule, effervescent draught, hypodermically (?).
    Prep.: 1.  Ampullae Caffeinae Sodio-Benzoatis, N.F.,8.5 gr. (.55 Gm.).  Dose, 2-4 ampuls.
    3.  Caffeinae Sodio-Salicylas, N.F., -- caffeine, sodium salicylate, aa, 50 p.c., alcohol q.s.  Dose, gr. 1-5 (.06-.3 Gm.)
    4.  Pulvis Acetanilidi Compositus, N.F., 10 p.c.
    5.  Sal Pot. Brom. Eff. Co., N.F., 4/5 p.c.
    Unoff. Prep.: Effervescent Citrated Caffeine, 1.9 p.c. of anhydrous caffeine, 3j-2 (4-8 Gm.).
    PROPERTIES. -- Tonic, stimulant, nervine, antiemetic, laxative, diuretic, antiperiodic, antiseptic.  Caffeine in small doses stimulates appetite, digestion, secretion of bile, quickens heart action, respiration, increases arterial tension, urine; normal doses, cerebral stimulant, causing nervous restlessness, wakefulness, increased mental activity; large doses (gr. 5-10 (.3-.6 Gm.) produce heaviness of head, insomnia, delirium, rapid, feeble pulse, cold extremities, elevated temperature, convulsions, paralyzes cardiac muscle, but death occurs from paralysis of respiration; valuable as a hydragogue diuretic; ordinary salts not suitable for hypodermic use as they decompose by the presence of water.  Caffeine sodio-benzoate as a diuretic, cerebral and cardiac stimulant has the advantage of being moderately stable and non-irritating.
    USES. -- Caffeine in neuralgia or nervous headaches, diarrhea of cholera, phthisis, cardiac and renal dropsies, lithemia, gout, insomnia of chronic alcoholism, adynamic fevers.  Coffee in intermittents, asthma paroxysms, opium narcosis, to antagonize general torpor of nervous centers; it is used mostly as a beverage, for which alone about 1,500,000,000 pounds (680,272 Kg.) are consumed annually, making 1 pound (.46 Kg.) to every living person; in the United States about 6-7 pounds (2.7-3 Kg.) per capita; in Holland 10 pounds (4.6 Kg.); an average cup contains 2.61 gr. (.2 Gm.) of caffeine.
    Derivative Products: 1. Coffea arabica or C. Liber'ica; Coffea Tosta, Coffee, Roasted Coffee, N.F. -- The dried ripe seed, deprived of most of the seed-coat, and roasted until a dark brown color and characteristic aroma are developed yielding not less than 1 p.c. of caffeine, 3-5 p.c. of ash, and 10 p.c. of fat.  Seed oval, variable size, one side convex, other flat with longitudinal groove showing papery seed-coat traces in cleft; characteristic aroma, pleasantly bitter taste.  Powder, deep brown -- many seed-coat fragments of parenchyma and stone cells, many endosperm cells with porous walls, oil and aleurone grains; starch grains few or wanting, no tracheae.  Dose, 3ss-1 (2-4 Gm.); 1.  Fluidextractum Coffeae (1st menstruum: glycerin 6.5 cc., alcohol 25, water 68.5; 2d: 25 p.c. alcohol q.s. 100, dose 3ss-1 (2/4 cc).  Decoction, Infusion.

Cola nitida

    Cola ni'tida, Kola, Cola,N.F. -- The dried cotyledon of this or other species with not more than 1 p.c. of foreign organic matter, yielding not less than 1 p.c. of caffeine; W. Africa, W. Indies; cultivated.  Tree 15-20 M. (50-65 degrees) high, smooth stem, leaves 15-20 Cm. (6-8') long, lanceolate-ovate, acuminate, flowers, staminate and pistillate, yellowish, fruit yellowish-brown, 5 segments, rough woody, follicle 10-13 Cm. (4-5') long, each segment 1-3-seeded.  Cotyledon (seed) irregularly plano-convex, broadly oval, circular, 2.5-5 Cm. (1-2') long, heavy, hard, tough; brown, outer surfaces wrinkled, inner lighter and smoother, slightly incurved and sharp; odorless; taste slightly astringent.  Powder, reddish-brown--numerous starch grains, some altered, many show lamellae and circular hilum or a central fissure, many parenchyma cells; solvent: diluted alcohol; contains caffeine (kola-tannate) 2.7-3.6 p.c., theobromine, starch 34-42 p.c., tannin, kola-red, kolatin, volatile oil--kolanin is a mixture of kola-red and caffeine, kolatine (only in fresh nuts, which should not be used, action opposite to caffeine).  Stimulant, tonic, nervine, diuretic, astringent, similar to coffee, but resembles coca in aiding the endurance of fatigue without food; neuralgia, headache, migraine, diarrhea, indigestion, weak and irregular heart.  Dose, gr. 15-30 (1-2 Gm.); 1, Fluidextractum Kolae (67 p.c. alcohol), dose, 3ss-1 (2-4 cc.).  Elixir, 8 p.c., 3j-3 (4-12 cc.); Tincture, 15 p.c. (diluted alcohol), 3j-2 (4-8 cc.).

[ILLUSTRATION]  Cola nitida: a, leafy branch, ½ nat. Size; also longitudinal section of fruit, cross and  natural longitudinal section of seed showing embryo enlarged.


    Collinso'nia canaden'sis, Stone-root, Horse-balm. -- N. America.  Rhizome 10 Cm. (4') long, branches short, knotty, white inside, inodorous, taste bitter, nauseous; contains volatile oil, resin.  Diaphoretic, diuretic, tonic, astringent, irritant.


    Commiphora Myrrha, (Nees) Baillon, or other species.  A gum-resin yielding not less than 30 p.c. alcohol-soluble extractive, nor more than 4 p.c. acid-insoluble ash.
    Habitat.  E. Africa, S. W. Arabia, Somali country, around Hurrur; 450-900 M.  (1500- 2000 degrees) elevation.
    Syn.  Myrrh, Gum Myrrh, Somali (Herabol) Myrrh, Resina Balsamodendri, Gummi- resina Myrrha; Fr. Myrrhe; Ger. Myrrha, Myrrhe.
    Com-miph'o-ra.  L. fr. Gr....Gum, + ..., bears, to bear -- i.e., produces gummy  exudation.
    Myr-rha.  L. fr. Gr...., classic name -- Ar. Murr; Heb. Mar, bitter -- i.e., gum-resin has bitterish taste.
    PLANT. -- Low, stunted bush or small tree 2.5-3 M. (8-10 degrees) high; trunk considerable size, with many irregular, knotty, abortive branches at right angles, terminating in sharp spines; bark whitish-gray; leaves trifoliate, 2.5 Cm. (1') long, petiolate; leaflets sessile, 12 Mm. (1/2') long, unequal, obovate, central one the largest; flowers dioecious; fruit 12 Mm. 1/2') long, pyriform.  GUM-RESIN (myrrh), in rounded, irregular tears or masses of agglutinated tears, reddish-brown, covered with yellowish dust; fracture waxy, granular, conchoidal, internally nearly white spots or lines, oily, translucent at edges; odor balsamic, aromatic; taste aromatic, bitter, acrid; triturated with water -- brownish-yellow emulsion; with alcohol--brownish-yellow tincture, changing with nitric acid to purplish-red; macerated with water -- neither swells nor dissolves.  POWDER, yellowish-brown -- numerous angular fragments of resin and gum, few fragments or lignified    tissue, few starch grains.  Reject tears dissolving completely in water, or those swelling with water.  Solvent: alcohol.  Dose, gr. 5-30 (.3-2 Gm.).
[ILLUSTRATION] Commiphora Myrrha:1, fruit-bearing twig; 2, ripe fruit; 3, and 4, vertical section of  pistillate and staminate flowers respectively; 5, embryo.

    ADULTERATIONS. -- Gum-resin of allied species (bdellium, etc. -- fracture more transparent or opaque, odor and taste different), vegetable fragments, sand, salt, dark gums swelling or adhesive with water.
    Commercial. -- Trees form an undergrowth in the Red Sea coast forests where vegetation is scant, water scarce, and temperature high.  Myrrh is formed in the bark and pith, and exudes spontaneously, like cherry-tree gum, or from artificial incisions through the stem-bark, being at first a juice, then oily, soft, yellowish, golden, finally hard and reddish.  It is collected mostly by the Somali, both at home and across the Aden Gulf, Arabia, and formerly entered commerce via Egypt and Lavant ports, hence the name Turkey myrrh, but now is conveyed to the great fair of Berbera, there purchased by the Banians of India, and shipped via Aden to Bombay, where it is assorted into grades (bdellium separated) and put into chests, 100-200 pounds (46-90 Kg.).  There are three varieties: 1, Turkey (African), the best -- our official kind; 2, Arabian, cultivated in S. Arabia, east of Aden, called by Arabs mur, by Somalis mulmul, heerabul, resembles the preceding, but smaller, tougher, without white lines in fracture, less resin, volatile oil and fragrance, only 25 p.c. soluble in alcohol; 3, Indian (Myrrha Indica), called natively bissabul, by Somalis hebbakhade, resembles dark myrrh, but has mushroom-like odor, strong, almost acrid, taste; contains resin 2l p.c., volatile oil 8 p.c., many impurities; in commerce as Opopanax.
    CONSTITUENTS. -- Volatile oil 4-8 p.c., Resin 25-40 p.c., Gum 40-60 p.c., bitter principle (glucoside, soluble in alcohol, water), ash 3-8.5 p.c. -- mostly calcium carbonate.
    Volatile Oil, C10H14O.--Also called myrrhol or myrrhenol, identical in formula with thymol and carvol, but distinct from them; easily resinifies, pale yellow, thick liquid, sp. gr. 0.988.
    Resin, C48H32O10. -- Often called myrrhin, soluble in alcohol, chloroform, ether; consists of 2 parts -- one soft the other hard and acid, the latter yielding protocatechuic acid and pyrocatechin, and further divisible into 2 parts -- and commiphoric acids.
    Gum. -- Two kinds, one soluble, the other swelling -- galactose and arabinose -- in water, adhesive, making stable paste; one precipitated by neutral, the other by basic lead acetate.
    PREPARATIONS. -- 1.  Tinctura Myrrhae.  Tincture of Myrrh.  (Syn., Tr. Myrrh.; Fr. Teinture de Myrrhe; Ger. Myrrhentinktur.)
    Manufacture: 20 p.c.  Similar to Tinctura Cardamomi Composita, page 137; menstruum: alcohol.  Dose, mxv-60 (1-4 cc.); mostly used externally.  2. Pilulae Aloes et Myrrhae, N.F., 1 gr. (.06 Gm.).  3. Tinctura Aloes et Myrrhae, N.F., 10 p.c.  4.  Tinctura Capsici et Myrrhae, N.F., 12 p.c.  5. Pilulae Antiperiodicae, N.F., 1/8 gr. (.008 Gm.).  6. Pilulae Rhei Compositae, N.F., 1 gr. (.06 Gm.).  7. Tinctura Antiperiodica, N.F., 1/5 p.c.
    Unoff. Preps.: Fluidextract, mv-30 (.3-2 cc.).  Compound Iron Mixture (Griffith's), 1/8 p.c.  Plaster.
    PROPERTIES. -- Stimulant, tonic, expectorant, emmenagogue, astringent, carminative, vulnerary; increases circulation and the number of white blood corpuscles; it is eliminated by the genito-urinary and bronchial mucous membranes, augmenting and disinfecting their secretions; large doses vomit, purge, decrease bronchial secretion.  Locally, stimulant, disinfectant, and antiseptic to mucous membranes, ulcerated surfaces, etc.
    USES. -- Atonic dyspepsia, amenorrhea, anemia, bronchial catarrh, cystitis, pharyngitis, chronic uterine and vaginal leucorrhea.  Locally -- ulcerated spongy gums, diseased mucous surfaces, relaxed throat, ptyalism, ozena, indolent ulcers; tincture freely diluted with water a good disinfectant gargle to ulcerated sore throat; much used in tooth powders and wash.

Commophora mukul

    Commiphora Mu'kul, Indian Bdellium,and C. Aftrica'na, African Bdellium. -- Both occur in tears resembling myrrh, yellowish-brown, dusty, translucent, the former only slightly aromatic, not bitter, the latter with aroma distinct from myrrh, quite bitter; with nitric acid -- no purplish-red; both contain volatile oil, resin, gum -- the latter a bitter principle; a third variety is non-translucent; yielding a tincture blackened by ferric salts.  C. (Balsemoden'dron) Opobal'samum, Mecca Balsam (Gum). -- Bal'samum Gileaden'se, Balm of Gilead.  Possibly the myrrh of the Bible; opaque, yellowish, fragrant, viscid liquid; contains volatile oil 10-30 p.c.; soft resin 70 p.c., hard resin 12 p.c.


    Coni'um macula'tum, Conium, Poison Hemlock, N.F. -- The dried full-grown, but unripe fruit with not more than 2 p.c. of foreign fruits, seeds, or other foreign organic matter, yielding not less than .5 p.c. of coniine; it is unfit for use when kept for more than 2 years, and should be carefully dried and preserved; Europe, Asia, N. Africa, naturalized in N. And S. America -- waste places.  Large branching herb, 2-2.5 M. (6-8 degrees) high, stem furrowed, hollow, smooth, green, mottled with port-wine-colored spots; root biennial, fusiform, 15 Mm. (3/5') thick, exuding milky juice when cut; flowers white, small umbels; leaves bipinnate, 15-30 Cm. (6-12') long, incised, dentate, mucronate, grayish-green on drying.  Fruit, cremocarp, broadly oval, greenish-gray, 2 mericarps often separated, each 3 Mm. 1/8') long, 1.5 Mm. 1/115') broad, ovoid; inner flattened side with deep longitudinal groove, outer convex with 5 pale yellow crenate ribs, pericarp without oil tubes; odor slight, but with solution potassium hydroxide T.S. strongly disagreeable, mouse-like; taste characteristic, disagreeable, acrid.  Powder, greenish-gray -- endosperm tissue, parenchyma cells containing fixed oil, aleurone grains, calcium oxalate rosettes, lignified fibers, seed-coat fragments, starch grains, tracheae;  solvent: alcohol, contains coniine (conine -- liquid) .5-1.5 p.c., methylconiine, conhydrine, pseudoconhydrine, volatile oil, fixed oil, coniic acid, ash 8 p.c.  Sedative, narcotic, anodyne, soporific, antispasmodic, anaphrodisiac; depresses all motor nerves, beginning in peripheries, thence to spinal cord, etc., causing motor paralysis without loss of sensation; spasmodic chorea, whooping couth, melancholia, neuralgia, delirium tremens, tetanus, asthma, epilepsy, pneumonia; scrofulous glandular sores, affections of mammary glands, to check milk secretion, etc.  Poisoning: Vomiting, fatigue, heaviness of legs, numbness, drooped eyelids, mydriasis, vertigo, impaired speech, slow pulse, paralysis of voluntary muscles, loss of speech, and vision, death from paralysis of respiratory muscles -- emetics, lavage, tannin, strychnine, diffusible stimulants, atropine, warmth, epispastics, artificial respiration.  Dose, gr. 1-5 (.06-.3 Gm.); 2. Extractum Conii (diluted alcohol + .3 p.c. of diluted hydrocloric acid), dose, gr. ½-2 (.03-.13 Gm.).  Fluidextract (diluted alcohol + 2 p.c. of acetic acid), mj-5 (.06-.3 cc.); Ointment; Tincture.

[ILLUSTRATION]  Conium maculatum.

[ILLUSTRATION]  Conium, fruit and longitudinal section magnified 3 diam.; transverse    section magnified 8 diam.

[ILLUSTRATION]  Consollaria majalis.


    Convalla'ria maja'lis, Lily-of-the-Valley, Convallariae Radix, Convallaria Root, Lily-of-the-Valley Root, N.F. -- The dried rhizome and roots with not more than 5 p.c. of leaves or other foreign organic matter, yielding not more than 6 p.c. of acid-insoluble ash; United States; cultivated in gardens.  Stemless perennial; leaves 2-3, radical, smooth, elliptical; flowers campanulate, white, 1-sided raceme.  Rhizome, variable length, 1-3 Mm. (1/25-1/8') thick, brownish, few circular stem-scars, 3-5 thin, tortuous, branching roots on lower portions of nodes; fracture short, fibrous, internally whitish; odor faint; taste sweetish, bitter, acrid.  Powder, brown -- cakes on standing, few starch grains and calcium oxalate raphides, endodermal cells with porous walls, tracheae; solvents; diluted alcohol, boiling water partially; contains convallamarin, convallarin, resin.  Heart tonic, diuretic, emetic, purgative, sternutatory, poisonous, similar to digitalis, but non-cumulative; heart greatly slowed; arrhythmia, "cardiac hurry", dropsy.  Dose, gr. 2-10 (.13-.6 Gm.;)1. Fluidextractum Convallariae Radicis (75 p.c. alcohol), dose, mij-10 (.13-.6 cc.).  Extract or convallamarin, gr. 1/2-2 (.03-.13 Gm.); Infusion, 25 p.c. , 3ss-1 (15-30 cc.).  Poisoning: Symptoms and treatment similar to digitalis.

Convolvulus mechoacanna

    Consol'vulus Mechoan'na, Mechoacanna Root. -- Considered by some identical with Ipomaea pandurata; occurs in sections, light, whitish, mealy, contains little resin.

[ILLUSTRATION]  Consolvulus Scammonia: a, blooming plant, b, fruiting twig; c, root (1/2 natural size); also flower, anther, pistil, fruit, seed, diagram of flower, enlarged.

Convolculus scammonia

    Convol'vulus Scammo'nia, Scam'mony, U.S.P. (resin) 1820-1900; (root) 1910; W. Asia, Syria, Greece.  Perennial twining herb, 6-9 M. (20-30 degrees) long; leaves sagittate, bright green; flowers yellow, funnel-shaped; fruit capsule, 4-seeded.  Root, vertical, cylindrical, 10-25 Cm. (4-10') long, 1-4.5 Cm. (2/5-1 4/5') thick, grayish-brown, twisted, furrowed, root-scars, hard, heavy; fracture tough with projecting wood-fibers; internally mottled, yellowish porous wood-wedges, separated by whitish parenchyma containing starch and resin; odor slight, jalap-like; taste slightly sweet; acrid.  Powder, grayish-brown -- starch grains, calcium oxalate prisms, resin cells, tracheae, wood-fibers, stone and cork cells; solvents: alcohol, ether; contains resin 3-10 p.c., gum, tannin 3 p.c., sugar 15 p.c., starch, extractive.  Hydragogue, cholagogue cathartic -- acts locally on upper intestine like jalap, but being a greater irritant causes more griping -- sometimes fatal purgation; should be combined with aromatics, potassium sulphate and other cathartics; dropsies, cerebral affections, torpid intestines with slimy mucus.  Dose, gr. 5-20 (.3-1.3 Gm.); Resin, gr. 3-8 (.2-.5 Gm.).


    Copaiba, Miller, one or more S. American species.  An oleoresin.
    Habitat. Brazil (Venezuela, Colombia), Amazon valley, banks of the Orinoco River.
    Syn.  Copaib., Balsam of Copaiba, Copaiva, Balsam Capivi; Fr. Copahu, Oleo-resine  (Baume) de Copahu; Ger. Balsamum Copaivae, Copaivabalsam.
    Co-pai'ba.  L., Sp., and Port, fr. Brazil. cupauba -- i.e., native name of the tree and its  product.
    PLANT. -- Handsome tree, 4.5-18 M. (215-60 degrees) high, much branched, bark brown, rather smooth; leaves alternate, paripinnate; leaflets opposite, 3-5 pairs, 2.5-5 Cm. (1-2') long, ovate, entire, glabrous, coriaceous, pellucid-punctate; flowers small, white; sepals 5; apetalous; stamens 10; pod small, 2.5 Cm. (1') long, orange-brown, dehiscent into 2 valves, 1-seeded.  OLEORESIN (copaiba), pale yellow, brownish-yellow, viscid liquid, without fluorescence or with only slightly greenish fluorescence; odor peculiar, aromatic; taste persistent, bitter, acrid; soluble in chloroform, ether, carbon disulphide, fixed or volatile oils, petroleum benzin (1), any addition producing a flocculent precipitate, partly soluble in alcohol, more completely in dehydrated alcohol, insoluble in water; sp. gr. 0.940-0.995.  Tests: 1. Heat 2 Gm. on water-bath -- no odor of oil of turpentine, and residual resin should be hard, brittle, and weigh 36 p.c. of original copaiba taken (abs. of oil of turpentine, paraffin, fatty oils).  2. Float 3-4 drops of oil of copaiba on a mixture nitric acid 1 drop + glacial acetic acid 3 cc.) -- no reddish zone; shake, no reddish or purple liquid (abs. of gurjun balsam).  3.  Shake 5 cc. + 15 cc,  alcohol, boil 1 minute, cool -- no oil separates after standing 1 hour (abs. of paraffin oils).  4. Not over 5 p.c. insoluble in dehydrated alcohol.  Dose, mx-60 (.6-4 cc.).
    ADULTERATIONS. -- OLEORESIN: Those of allied species, that partially deprived of oil, oil of turpetine, volatile oils, rosin, rosin oil, paraffin, paraffin oils, fatty oils (linseed, castor, etc.), Venice turpentine, African copaiba, gurjun balsam, alcohol -- often evinced through different odors on slowly heating.  OIL: Gurjun balsam oil, increasing specific gravity, African copaiba oil -- insoluble in equal volume of alcohol.
    Commercial. -- Much was written concerning copaiba during 1625-1638, but Marcgrav and Piso first described its collection, also the tree, 1648; Jacquin studied the genus, 1760, as did Desfontaines some years later, while Hayne, 1827, Bentham, 1870, Baillon, 1877, sparated by the varying foliage 11 species in Brazil alone, all having similar flowers, fruit, and valuable, hard, strong, tough, durable wood.  However, most of copaiba comes from 7 species: Brazil -- C. Langsdorf'fii, C. Confertiflo'ra, C. Coria'cea, C. Oblongifo'lia; N. W. Orinoco Valley -- C. Officina'lis; Amazonian region -- C. Guianen'sis, C. Multiju'ga.  It is a pathogenic product, possibly an antiseptic protective, occurring in schizogenic ducts (cavities differing greatly in size), from which it is obtained by making large auger holes or boxes, square or wedge-shape, into the center of the tree, near the base, whence it usually flows at once, demanding alertness to avoid loss, often giving 12 pounds (5.5 Kg.) in 3 hours; if none should appear the aperture is closed with clay or wax and reopened in 2 weeks, when, as a rule, the discharge is abundant.  The flow at first is thin, clear, colorless, but soon becomes thicker and yellowish, as it does also with age.  A tree may yield 10-12 gallons (38-45 L.), in 2-3 annual flows, and when abandoned, the ducts, some the length of the stem, occasionally fill and, acting as high liquid columns, furnish sufficient pressure to burst the trunk with a cannon-like report.  It is exported in casks, demijohns, cans, jugs, the value depending upon the amount of contained volatile oil.  There are several varieties: 1, Para, most limpid, palest; contains volatile oil 60-90 p.c.; 2, Maranham, denser, consistence of olive oil, odor slightly different; contains volatile oil 40-60 (rarely 80 p.c.; 3, Rio Janeiro, resembles closely the Maranham -- these three (Brazilian) form clear mixtures with one-third to one-half their weight of ammonia water, but milky if more alkali or fixed oil present; 4, Surinam (C. Guianensis), rather thin, light yellow, soluble in ether, chloroform, alcohol (4-5 parts, turbid with equal portion), violet with bromine (1) + chloroform (20); contains volatile oil 70-80 p.c.;  5, Maracaibo, the thickest, turbid, dark yellow; solidifies with magnesium oxide, not clear with ammonia water; contains volatile oil 20-40 p.c., and owing to large amount of resin is well adapted for Massa Copaibae, N.F., as it combines with magnesium oxide forming resin soap, which gradually becomes dry and hard; Para and other varieties may be used but sufficient volatile oil must be evaporated to render residue viscid upon cooling.  Copaiba is exported not only from the above ports, but also from Angostura, Cayenne, W. Indies, Trinidad, C. America, etc.

[ILLUSTRATION]   Copaiba Langsdorffii.

    CONSTITUENTS. -- Volatile oil, Resin, bitter principle, copaivic acid, C20H32O2 (oxycopaivic acid, C20H28O3, from Para, metacopaivic acid, C22H34O4, from Maracaibo -- all three acids crystalline).  Has no benzoic or cinnamic acid, hence the name balsam is misapplied.
    Oleum Copaibae.  Oil of Copaiba, C15H24 (Br. -- U.S.P. 1850-1900). -- This volatile oil is distilled from copaiba with water or steam, and upon it most of the medicinal properties of the oleoresin depend.  It is a pale yellowish liquid, oxidizing by exposure, characteristic odor of copaiba, aromatic, bitter, pungent taste; consists chiefly of caryophyllene, C15H24; sp. gr. 0.900, increasing with age; soluble in 2 volumes alcohol; that from Maracaibo dark blue with hydrochloric acid gas.  Should be kept cool, dark, in well-stoppered amber-colored bottles.  Dose, mv-15 (.3-1 cc.), in emulsion, capsule, or on sugar.
    Resina Copaibae.  Resin of Copaiba. -- (Acidum Copaibicum).  The residue left after distilling off the volatile oil from copaiba.  It is brownish-yellow, brittle, slight odor and taste of copaiba, to which the resin returns when mixed with the volatile oil of copaiba; soluble in alcohol, ether, chloroform, benzene, volatile oils; contains copaivic or metacopaivic acid, mixed with neutral resin.  Dose, gr. 5-15 (.3-1 Gm.).
    PREPARATIONS. -- 1. Massa Copaibae, Solidified Copaiba, N.F., 94 p.c. + magnesium oxide 6 p.c., water q.s. to dampen, heat.  Dose, gr. 15-30 (1-2 Gm.).  2. Mistura Copaibae, Lafayette Mixture, N.F., 12.5 p.c.  3. Mistura Copaibae et Opii, Chapman's Mixture, N.F., 25 p.c. + tinct. opii 3.2, sp. aeth. nitrit. 25, +.  Dose, 3j-2 (4-8 cc.).
    Unoff. Preps.: Capsules. Emulsion. Electuary. Pills. Suppositories.
    PROPERTIES. -- Similar to turpentine; diuretic, stimulant, expectorant, laxative, nauseant, disinfectant; acts mainly on the mucous membranes (genito-urinary), by which, and also skin, it is eliminated; increases quantity as well as solids of the urine, and imparts odor to urine, sweat, milk, breath; sometimes erupts the skin -- roseola, urticaria, etc.
    USES. -- Gonorrhea, cystitis, bronchitis, dysentery, diarrhea, hemorrhoids, psoriasis, dropsy, leprosy; volatile oil is not so valuable for gonorrhea, gleet, etc., as the oleoresin, but better for throat affections.  Externally--chilblains, sore nipples, anal fissures, often added to varnishes and vice versa.  Long usage may cause indigestion and renal irritation.
    Poisoning, Incompatibles, Synergists: Same as for turpentine.
    Allied Products:  1. Copaiba Mar'tii, C. Cordifo'lia, C. Jus'sieui, C. Jac'quini, C. Nit'ida -- all furnish oleoresin, usually poor in the amount of volatile oil.
    2. Hardwick'ia pinna'ta. -- E. India.  Tree yields dark brown oleoresin, containing volatile oil 20-40 p.c., resin, no copaivic acid.
    3. Dipterocar'pus ala'tus. -- India.  Tree yields gurjun balsam or wood oil -- an oleoresin resembling copaiba, containing gurjunic (metacopaivic) acid.
    4. Copal, Gum Copal. -- A fossil resin of Zanzibar or exuding from many leguminous plants of Africa, S. America, W. Indies.  Occurs in yellowish-brown masses, wrinkled surface, conchoidal fracture, glossy, odorless, tasteless; when melted becomes soluble in alcohol, ether, and oil of turpentine.  Same medicinal properties as copaiba, only weaker; used mainly in preparing varnishes.


    Cop'tis trifo'lia, Coptis, Goldthread, N.F. -- The dried plant with not more than 3 p.c. of foreign organic matter; N. America, damp, mossy woods.  Plant with scape 7.5-12.5 Cm. (3-5') high, leaves radical, 3-foliate; evergreen, obovate-cuneate, coriaceous, flowers May, whitish; fruit 7 follicles, seed black.  Rhizome, in loose, matted masses (rhizome, roots, leaves), golden-yellow; odor faint; taste bitter without astringency.  Powder, yellowish-green--starch grains, elliptical stomata, chloroplastids, root cells with reddish contents, tracheae; contains berberine, coptine (white, possibly identical with hydrastine), resin, ash 8 p.c.  Masticatory; mouth wash for canker-sores, gargle for sore throat, ulcerated mouth.  Dose, gr. 15-60 (1-4 Gm.); 1. Fluidextractum Coptis (diluted alcohol).  Tincture, 10 p.c.; Infusion, Decoction, 5 p.c.


    Oleum Coriandri.  Oil of Coriander, U.S.P.
    Coriandrum Sativum,  Linne'.  The volatile oil distilled from the dried ripe fruit.
    Habitat.  C. Asia, S. Europe (Chine, Italy; cultivated in the United States, Europe.)
    Syn.  Coriand., Coriander Seed, Colander; Br. Coriandri Fructus; Fr. Coriandre; Ger.  Koriander(samen); Ol. Coriand., Coriander Oil; Fr. Essence de Coriandre; Ger.  Korianderol.
    Co-ri-an'drum.  L. Fr. Gr...., a bed-bug -- i.e., from a resemblance in odor of the leaves, also the entire plant and fruit when young.
    Sa-ti'vumL. Sativus, sown, cultivated -- i.e., kind used, in contradistinction to the wild- grown.
    PLANT. -- Annual herb, odor of bed-bugs; stem .3-.6 M. (1-2 degrees) high, solid; leaves bi- or tripinnate; leaflets linear, pointed, lobed, light green, resembling parsley; flowers June, white, rose-colored, umbels small, 4 Cm. (1 3/5') broad, 5-8-rayed.  Fruit -- Coriandrum, Coriander (Seed), N.F. -- The dried ripe fruit with not more than 5 p.c. of other fruits, seeds, or other foreign organic matter, yielding not more than 1.5 p.c. of acid-insoluble ash, nor less than .5 p.c. of volatile ether-soluble extractive; mericarps usually coherent, but easily separated, cremocarp nearly globular, 2-5 Mm. (1/12-1/5') broad, yellowish-brown, apex with 5 calyx teeeth and short stylopodium; mericarps 2, each with 5 prominent, straight primary ribs and 4 distinct secondary ribs; commissural surface deeply concave with 2 vittae; odor and taste agreeably aromatic.  Powder, light brown -- chiefly endosperm and lignified tissues of percarp, many calcium oxalate crystals in rosettes, aleurone grains, numerous globules of fixed oil, yellow oil tubes (vittae); solvents: alcohol, water partially.  Dose, gr. 10-30 (.6-2 Gm.).
    CONSTITUENTS. -- Volatile oil .5-1 p.c., fat 13 p.c., tannin, malic acid, mucilage, ash 7 p.c.
    Oleum Coriandri.  Oil of Coriander. -- This volatile oil, distilled with water or steam from the dried ripe fruit crushed between rollers, is a colorless, pale yellow liquid, characteristic odor and taste of coriander, soluble in 3 vols. of 70 p.c. alcohol, sp gr. 0.870, dextrorotatory; contains a terpene -- d-pinene, C10H16, 5 p.c., geraniol, borneol, and an alcohol--linalool (coriandrol), C10H18O, 45-90 p.c., from which 1 molecule of H2O may be withdrawn, leaving C10H16.  Should meet the requirements of the tests for heavy metals in volatile oils and be kept cool, dark, in well-stoppered, amber-colored bottles.  Dose, mij-5 (.13-.3 cc.).
    ADULTERATIONS. -- FRUIT: Stems, fragments of leaves; OIL: Oils of turpentine, sweet orange, cubeb and cedar-wood-all recognized by being less soluble in 70 p.c. alcohol.
    Commercial. -- Coriander was popular with the ancients; in the fresh state all parts upon being bruised are fetid, the fruit becoming fragrant only upon drying; when ripe plants are cut down with sickles, dried, and fruit thrashed out. Russia produces the bulk of the crop, although we grow mostly our home consumption; that from Bombay (Indian) is larger and ovoid but seldom reaches the United States.

[ILLUSTRATION] Coriandrum: fruit and longitudinal section magnified 3 diam.; transverse section magnified 8 diam.

    PREPARATIONS. -- OIL: 1. Fluidextractum Cascarae Sagradae Aromaticum, 1/100 p.c. 2. Spiritus Aurantii Compositus, 2 p.c.  3. Syrupus Sennae, ½ p.c. 4. Confectio Sennae, N.F., ½ p.c.  5. Emulsa, as preferred.  FRUIT: 1 Fluidextractum Stillingiae Compositum, N.F., 6.3 p.c.  2. Infusum Gentianae Compositum, N.F., 4/5 p.c.  Fluidextractum, mxv-30 (1-2 cc.).  Infusion, 5 p.c., 3j-2 (30-60 cc.).
    PROPERTIES. -- Aromatic, carminative, stimulant, stomachic.
    USES. -- Indigestion, flatulency, corrective to griping medicines, such as senna, rhubarb, jalap, flavoring to gin and in cooking.  Oil also used in colic, rheumatism, neuralgia.

[ILLUSTRATION]  Cornus florida.


    Cor'nus flor'ida, Cornus, Dogwood Bark, N.F., Cornaceae. -- The dried root-bark with not more than 5 p.c. of adhering wood nor 2 p.c. of other foreign organic matter; N. America.  Small tree, 4.5-10.5 M. (15-35 degrees) high, 12.5-25 Cm. (5-10') thick, flowers greenish with 4 large white involucral leaves, petaloid; fruit bright red.  Bark, in irregular, chiplike pieces, portions of quills less than 5 Cm. (2') long, bark 1-4 Mm. (1/25-1/6') thick, scaly, dingy brown, reddish where corky layers removed, heavy cork patches wanting (abs. of trunk bark); inner surface reddish-brown, short striae; fracture short, roughened from stone cells; odor slight; taste bitter, astringent.  Powder, reddish-brown -- parenchyma cells with amorphous substance, stone cells, numerous calcium oxalate rosette crystals, starch grains, cork with brownish pigment; lignified fibers and trcheae very few or wanting (abs. of trunk bark and wood); solvent: diluted alcohol; contains cornin (cornic acid), tannin 3 p.c., resin, ash 10 p.c.  Astringent, tonic, febrifuge, stimulant; when fresh -- emetic; formerly in large doses as an antiperiodic, given between the paroxysms, instead of cinchona, but owing to inferiority now seldom employed.  Dose, gr. 15-60 (1-4 Gm.); 1. Fluidextractum Corni (glycerin 15, diluted alcohol 85).  Decoction, 5 p.c. 3j-2 (30-60 cc.).
    C. Circina'ta, Round-leaved Dogwood. -- The bark, U.S.P. 1820-1860; N. America.  Shrub 1.6-3 M. (5-10 degrees) high, branches greenish, warty; leaves round, 10-12.5 Cm. (4-5') wide, woolly beneath; flowers white cymes; fruit, blue drupe.  Bark quilled, curved greenish, brownish-gray, with suberous warts or longitudinal lines, inside cinnamon-gray, with suberous warts or longitudinal lines, inside cinnamon-brown; used like C. Florida, but is more bitter and less astringent.
    C. Amo'mum (seric'ea), Silky Cornel, Swamp Dogwood. -- The bark, U.S.P. 1820-1870; N. America.  Shrub 1.6-3 M. (5-10 degrees) high, branches purple; leaves elliptical, silky beneath; flowers yellowish, woolly cymes.  Fruit pale blue.  Bark quilled, thin, outside purplish-brown, less warty than preceding, otherwise resembles it; used like C. Florida, but is less bitter and astringent.

Corsican Moss

    Corsican Moss. -- Mediterranean.  A mixture of 20-30 different algae species, mainly Sphoerococcus (Fucus) genus; these are yellowish-brown.

[ILLUSTRATION] Crocus sativus.  Crocus: a, stigma, upper part magnified 4 diam.; b, style with stigmas; c, papillose margin of stigma, magnified 120 diam.

Crocus sativus

    Cro'cus sati'vus, Crocus, Saffron, N.F. -- The stigma with not more than 10 p.c. of yellow styles and 2 p.c. of other foreign organic matter, yielding not more than 7.5 p.c. of total ash; W. Asia, Spain, France.  Low perennial bulbiferous herb with depressed globular corn (bulb), 2.5 Cm. (1') thick; leaves grass-like; flowers lilac, bluish-purple.  Stigmas 3, united or separate, attached to apex of style, 25 Mm. (1') long, cornucopia-shaped, dark, rich red (developed by toasting after being collected), margin dentate or fimbriate, styles 10 Mm. (2/5') long, solid, yellowish, odor strong, peculiarly aromatic; taste bitterish, aromatic, colors saliva orange-yellow; with sulphuric acid -- blue, gradually changing to violet, deep red-wine; macerated in water -- yellow solution, in methyl alcohol -- deep orange; contains picrocrocin (saffron-bitter -- by hydrolysis yielding volatile oil and fructose), crocin (impure -- amorphous), fixed oil, ash 7.5 p.c.  Adulterations -- common: florets, dyed stamens, petals, moisture 12 p.c., mineral matter (sodium bicarbonate, biborate, sulphate, potassium nitrate, Rochelle salt, lactose, etc.), increasing ash 17-32 p.c.  There are three varieties: 1. Austrian (best); 2, French (Gatinais); 3, Spanish (inferior from presence of style bases and stigmas); known as hay saffron, as distinguished from cake saffron, which is no longer in commerce.  Diaphoretic, carminative, emmenagogue, anodyne; to promote exanthematous eruptions in measles, etc., dysmenorrhea, conjunctivitis.  Should be kept dark, in tightly closed containers.  Dose, gr. 5-30 (.3-2 Gm.); 1. Tinctura Croci, 10 p.c. (diluted alcohol), dose, 3j-2 (4-8 cc.); 2. Tinctura Opii Crocata, 2.5 p.c.; 3. Pilulae Antiperiodicae, 1/4 gr.; 4. Tinctura Antiperiodica 2/5 p.c.  Infusion (tea), 2 p.c., 3ij-4 (60-120 cc.).

Croton Eluteria

    Croton Elute'ria, Cascarilla. -- The dried bark, U.S.P. 1820-1890; Bahama Islands.  Plant 1.5-6 M. (5-20 degrees) high, stem, 2.5-20 Cm. (1-8;) thick, leaves 2.5-7.5 Cm. (1-3')long, ovate, lanceolate, petiolate, under side bronzed-silver, flowers monoecious, white odorous, fruit 15 Mm. 3/5') thick, ovate, silvery-gray, 3-furrowed, 3-celled; bark in quills or curved pieces, 10 Cm. (4;) long, 3-8 Mm. (1/8-1/3') broad, 1-3 Mm. (1/25-1/8') thick, silvery-gray from lichen, or brown when this is absent, the exposed surface wrinkled, transversely fissured, inner surface reddish-brown, smooth, fracture short, resinous, thin whitish medullary rays, odor aromatic, musk-like especially when burned, taste aromatic, bitter; contains volatile oil 1.6 p.c., cascarillin, betaine, resin 15 p.c., tannin, pectin, vanillin.  Stimulant, tonic, febrifuge; intermittents, dyspepsia, diarrhea, poor substitute for cinchona.  Dose, gr. 15-30 (1-2 Gm.); tincture 20 p.c. (70 p.c. alcohol), dose, 3ss-2 (2-8 cc.); extract, dose, gr 5-8 (.3-.5 Gm.); infusion, 5 p.c., dose, 3 iv-8 (15-30 cc.).  C. lu'cidus, growing with the preceding plant; C. Ni'veus (pseudochi'na), Copalchi Bark, Mexico, and C. Malam'bo, Malambo Bark, Venezuela.  All produce barks that resemble closely.

[ILLUSTRATION]  Cascarilla: bark quill.  Cascarilla: 1, cross-section enlarged; 2, cross-section 8 times enlarged; k, cork; M, middle bark; I, liber.

[ILLUSTRATION]  Croton Eluteria.

Cucurbita pepo

    Cucurbita pepo,  Linne'.  The dried ripe seed of cultivated varieties with not more than 5 p.c. broken or defective seeds, or foreign organic matter.
    Habitat.  Tropical Asia, America; cultivated.
    Syn.  Pumpkin Seed, Pumpkin, Pompion, Cold Seeds Semen Peponis, Semina   Cucurbitae; Br. Cucurbitae Semina Praeparata; Fr. Semences d Potirons; Ger.  Kurbissamen.
    Cu-cur'bi-ta.  L. See etymology, page 597, of Cucurbitaceae.
    Pe'po.  L. Fr. Gr...., pumpkin, old form, pompon, lit. cooked by the sun, ripe, mellow -- i.e., not eaten until ripe.
    PLANT. -- Trailing annual; stem rough, hollow, hairy 3-9 M. (10-30 degrees) long, tendrils branched; leaves large, .25 -.5 M. (10-20') long, 15-30 Cm. (6-12') wide, obtusely cordate, hispid, palmately 5-lobed, serrate, petioles 7.5-20 Cm. (3-8') long; flowers July, large, 5-12.5 Cm. (2-5') wide, yellow, bell-shaped, monoecious, axillary; anthers 3, syngenesious; fruit Oct., large, round, oblong, smooth, fleshy, yellow, furrowed, .25-.5 M. (10-20') in diameter.  SEED, broadly elliptical, ovate, 15-23 Mm. (3/5-5/6') long, 6-9 Mm. (1/4-3/8') broad, 2-3 Mm. (1/12-1/8') thick; yellowish-white, smooth, occasionally with thin transparent fragments of adhering pulp, shallow groove parallel to and within 1 Mm. (1/25') of the margin; fracture short, seed-coat consisting of a white coriaceous outer layer and a membranous inner layer (sometimes dark green; embryo whitish, straight with small conical hypocotyl and 2 plano-convex cotyledons; slightly odorous when contused; taste bland, oily.  POWDER, yellowish-white, -- epidermal cells, stone cells, parenchyma cells, endosperm cells with aleurone grains, cotyledons with cells containing fixed oil and many small aleurone grains; integuments 21 p.c., kernel 79 p.c.  Solvent: alcohol.  Dose, 3j-2 (30-60 Gm.).
    CONSTITUENTS. -- Resin (yielding phytosterin, etc.), .5 p.c.  Fixed oil 30 p.c., proteins (myosin, vitellin), cucurbitine (?), salicylic acid, sugar, ash 3-4 p.c.
    Resin. -- Probably the active principle, residing in the tegmen or embryo, obtained by treating the seed, after the removal of fixed oil, with alcohol, ether, chloroform; it is soft, greenish-brown, acrid, bitter.  Dose, gr. 15 (l Gm.).
    Fixed Oil. -- Claimed to possess 3 iv; 15 cc.) the medicinal power of the drug, due no doubt to the presence of some resin, and is obtained by expression, or by treating seed with benzin; consists of the glycerides of oleic, myristic, and palmitic acids.  The seed-infusion saturated with sodium chloride precipitates myosin, and when CO2 is added vitellin separates, which behaves like egg-yolk (due to its contained vitellin); the protein is possibly its emulsionizing principle.
    PREPARATIONS. -- (Unoff.): Fluidextract, dose, 3ss-1 (15-30 cc.).  Emulsion (3ij-4; 60-120 Gm. fresh seed, deprived of testa, should be beaten into a paste with sucrose + water or milk Oj; .5 L.), dose, 3v (150 cc.) at 2-hour intervals beginning at 10 o'clock A.M.  Patients should remain quietly in bed all day; on the night before, and also before breakfast, give saline purgative to remove mucus, and about 3-4 hours after the pint (.5 L.) has been taken administer castor oil 3j-2 (30-60 cc.).  Should fast the day previous to taking the medicine.

[ILLUSTRATION]  Cucurbita Pepo.  Pumpkin seed; entire and longitudinally divided, showing embryo.

    PROPERTIES AND USES. -- Tenifuge, vermifuge, diuretic, valuable because of its freedom from taste and harshness of action, but has the disadvantage of uncertainty.  Same treatment applies to tape- and lumbricoid worms.


    Roccel'la (tincto'ria) and Lecano'ra (tarta'rea) species, or other lichens; Persio, Cudbear, N.F. -- Parmeliaceae.  A purplish-red powder prepared from these lichens, yielding 12 p.c. ash; Holland.  Made by heating lichens for a week with diluted ammonia, drying, powdering; alcoholic preparations deep red--lighter with acids, purplish-red with alkalies.  To color preparations; 1, Tinctura Persionis, 10 p.c. (75 p.c. alcohol): Prep." 1. Syr. Phos. Co., 1/6 p.c.  2. Tinctura Persionis Composita, 1.5 p.c. + caromel 10 p.c. (33 p.c. alcohol): Preps.: 1. Elix. Ammon. Valer., 1/6 p.c.; 2. Elix. Cinchon, Alk., 5 p.c.; 3. Syr. Bromidor., 1/6 p.c.; 3. Elixir Aromaticum Rubrum, 1/5 pc.; 4. Elixir Bromidorum Trium, 1/5 p.c.;   5. Elixir Pepsini Compositum, 1/10 p.c.; 6. Liquor Aromaticus Alkalinus, 1/5 p.c.;   7. Syrupus Pini Albae Compositus, 1/10 p.c.  Lacmus, Litmus, a blue pigment from these lichens by mixing (powder) with potassium carbonate, diluted ammonia water, exposing to air 6 weeks for fermentation, when it gradually turns red, purple, blue, and at the different stages is mixed with chalk and formed into cakes.  Orchil is prepared likewise adding diluted ammonia, sulphuric acid and sodium chloride -- deep purple.

[ILLUSTRATION]  Curcuma starch.

    Cur'cuma lon'ga, Turmeric. -- The rhizome, U.S.P. 1820-1870; S. Asia, Indian Ocean Islands.  Plant is a perennial; leaves radical, 1 M. (3 degrees) long, lanceolate; flowerscape short, spike 15 Cm. (6') long, flowers orange- yellow, in pairs; rhizome 2.5-5 Cm. (1-2') long, 12 Mm.  1/2') thick (long turmeric) to 18-25 Mm. (3/4-1') thick (round turmeric), sometimes in sections, yellowish-gray, annulate, inside orange-yellow, fracture resinous; odor ginger-like; taste warm, aromatic; contains volatile oil 1 p.c., viscid oil 11 p.c., pungent resin, curcumin (coloring matter) .3 p.c., starch, ash 5-7 p.c.  Powder deep yellow, brownish-red by alkalies or borax.  There are several varieties: 1, Madras (best, bright yellow, often in cut pieces--Pubna preferred); 2, Bengal (reddish, mostly round); 3, Java (reddish-gray); 4, Chinese (often branched); 5, Cochin (possibly from C. Viridiflo'ra).  Used as stimulant, tonic, aromatic, condiment, for jaundice, and as ginger.  Tincture, 15 p.c., (diluted alcohol) for coloring ointments, solutions, etc.

[ILLUSTRATION]  Turmeric rhizome and stem.

Curcuma longa

    Cur'cuma Zedoa'ria, Zedoaria, Zedoary, N.F. -- The dried rhizome with not more than 2 p.c. of foreign organic matter; India, largely cultivated.  Perennial reed-like plant.  Rhizome (tuber) occurs as into transverse rounded sections, twisted, wrinkled, 1-4 Cm. (2/5-1 3/5') broad, 5-10 Mm. (1/5-2/5') thick, grayish-brown, hairy, rough, few root-scars, transverse surface brownish, dark circular endodermis separates cortex from central cylinder; stele with yellowish resin cells, lighter fibro-vascular bundles, fewer in cortex; fracture short, mealy, waxy; odor aromatic, camphor-like; taste aromatic, warm, bitter.  Powder, brownish -- numerous starch grains and thick-walled hairs, parenchyma, few bast-fibers; no calcium oxalate crystals or stone cells; contains volatile oil .5-1 p.c., resin (pungent taste), starch, mucilage, ash 7 p.c.  Stomachic, aromatic, stimulant; dyspepsia, flatulence -- weaker than ginger.  Dose, gr. 10-30 (.6-2 Gm.); 1. Pilulae Antiperiodicae, 1/8 gr.; 2. Tinctura Amara, 2 p.c.  3. Tinctura antiperiodica, 1/5 p.c.


    Cuspa'ria Angostu'ra, (Galipe'a Cusparia (officina'lis)), Angustura (Bark); Cuspariae Cortex, Cusparia Bark.  The bark, U.S.P. 1820-1870; Northern South America.  Tree 4.5-6 M. (15-20 degrees) high, leaves with 3 leaflets, 15-25 Cm. (6-10') long, 5-10 Cm. (2-4') broad, spotted white, tobacco odor, flowers white; bark in flat, curved, or quilled pieces 2.5 Mm. (1/10') thick, ochrey-gray, friable periderm, inside cinnamon-red, striae of calcium oxalate, aromatic, bitter; contains volatile oil, resin, angusturin, 4 alkaloids.  Used for diarrhea, dysentery, dyspepsia, typhoid, stimulant, febrifuge, large doses emetic; in infusion, tincture, extract.  Dose, gr. 10-30 (.3-2 Gm.) False Antustura Bark (Strychnos Nux-vomica) has stone-cells, no striae of calcium oxalate; is very bitter, not aromatic, contains strychnine, brucine.

[ILLUSTRATION]  Angustura bark; one-half natural size.


    Cydo'nia (Py'rus) Cydonia, Quince. -- Pomaceae.  The seed; U.S.P. 1850-1880; W. Asia.  Tree 2.5-6 M. (8-20 degrees) high, with crooked, straggling branches; leaves like pear leaves; flowers white or purplish; fruit pear-shaped; seed 6 Mm. (1/4') long, ovate, triangular, brown, covered with whitish, mucilaginous, epithelium causing seed of each cell to adhere; swell with water, forming heavy mucilage; 2 cotyledons, white, oily, bitter-almond taste; very similar to apple seed.  Contain mucilage (cydonin) 20 p.c. (not precipitated by borax or potassium silicate, soluble in cold and hot water), fixed oil, proteins; used as demulcent, protective; fruit astringent.  Mucilago Cydonii (1 part + water 50), U.S.P. 1880; may use rose water, or camphor water--externally.

[ILLUSTRATION]  Cydonia (pyrus) Cydonia.


    Cyt'sus Scopa'rius, Scoparius, Broom Tops, N.F. -- The dried tops with not more than 5 p.c. of stems over 3 Mm. (1/8') thick nor 2 p.c. of other foreign organic matter; W. Asia, S. Europe, United States.  Shrub 1.2-2.4 M. (4-8 degrees) high, with many pentangular, wand-like branches in close fascicles--suitable for broom-making; leaves downy, trifoliate; leaflets sessile, 6-12 Mm. (1/4-1/2') long, lanceolate; flowers numerous, large, brilliant yellow, papilionaceous; fruit pod, 4 Cm. 1-3/5') broad, compressed.  Tops -- stems thin with branched twigs, 1-3 Mm. 1/25-1/8') thick, angled, winged, dark green, nearly glabrous, many brownish cork patches; internally yellowish; fracture short-fibrous (thin), tough and splintery (thick); leaves scarce; odor slight on bruising more distinct; taste disagreeable, bitter.  Powder, dark green -- non-glandular, non-lignified hairs, chlor-enchyma, stomata, pith and wood parenchyma, tracheae, starch grains, pollen grains; solvent: diluted alcohol; contains sparteine (colorless oily liquid alkaloid) .3 p.c., scoparin (diuretic), volatile oil, tannin, fat, wax, sugar, ash 5 p.c.  Cardiac stimulant, narcotic, diuretic, poisonous, large doses paralyze respiratory and motor centers, causing convulsions and death by asphyxia; cardiac   affections palpitation -- inferior to digitalis, although quicker and without cumulative tendency.  Poisoning: similar to digitalis in effect and treatment.  Dose, gr. 15-30 (1-2 Gm.); 1. Fluidextractum Scoparii (diluted alcohol).  Decoction, Infusion, each 5 p.c., 3j-2 (30-60 cc.); juice, 75 p.c., + alcohol 25, 3j-2 (4-8 cc.); sparteine sulphate, gr. 1/6-1/2 (.01-.03 Gm.); scoparin, gr. 1-10 (.06-.6Gm.).  Spar'tium jun'ceum, Spanish Broom--leaves soft, hairy; seed reniform; properties similar to Cytisus Scoparius; fibers used for cordage, coarse cloth, etc.

[ILLUSTRATION]  Cytisus Scoparius: flowering branch.


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