A Manual of Materia Medica
by David M. R. Culbreth, Ph.G., M.D. (1927)
Calen'dula officina'lis, Calendula, Marigold,
N.F. -- The dried ligulate-florets with not more than 2 p.c. of foreign
organic matter; S. Europe, Levant, cultivated as ornament (flowers).
Annual herb .3-.6 M. (1-2 degrees) high, roughish-hairy; leaves toothed,
oblanceolate; flower-heads terminal, 5 Cm. (2') broad, involucre hemispherical,
2-rowed; disk-florets tubular, 5-cleft, yellow. Ligulate (ray) florets
15-25 Mm. (3/5-1') long, 3-6 Mm. (1/8-1/4') broad, yellowish, 1-3-toothed,
short-hairy tube occasionally enclosing remnant of filiform style and bifid
stigma; odor slight, somewhat heavy; taste slightly bitter, faintly saline.
Powder, yellowish -- few non-glandular hairs, double row of thin-walled
cells; elongated epidermal wavy-walled cells with chromoplasts and oil-like
globules; pollen grains with spinose projections, 3-pored; tracheae; calcium
oxalate rosettes or prisms; solvents: alcohol, boiling water partially;
contains volatile oil, bitter principle, calendulin (analagous to bassorin),
fat, resin, sugar, gum ash 8-11 p.c. Stimulant, tonic, febrifuge,
anthelmintic, resolvent; jaundice, amenorrhea, scrofula, low fevers, vomiting;
cancer, ulcers, wounds, otitis -- Homeopathic remedy instead of tincture
of arnica or myrrh. Dose, gr. 15-60 (1-4 Gm.); 1. Fluidextractum
Calendulae (67 p.c. alcohol), dose, mxv-60 (1-4 cc.); 2. Tinctura
Calendulae, 20 p.c. (alcohol), dose, 3ss-2 (2-8 cc.).
CAMPHORA. CAMPHOR, U.S.P.
Cinnamomum Camphora, (Linne) Nees et Ebermaier.
The dextrorotatory ketone (concrete violatile oil.)
Habitat. China, Japan, Formosa.
Tree cultivated in Italy as an ornament, and may yield profitably
in California, Florida, etc., wherever frosts are light.
Syn. Camph., Camphor Laurel, Gum Camphor
Tree; Fr. Camphre du Japon--droit; Ger. Kampfer, Kampher, Campfer.
Cam'pho-ra. L. Fr. Ar. Kafur or
kapur, chalk, lime -- i.e., its resemblance.
[ILLUSTRATION] Cinnamomum Camphora.
PLANT. -- Handsome evergreen tree, 9-12 M. (30-40
degrees) high, .3-.6 M. (1-2 degrees) thick, much branched above, fragrant;
bark smooth, green; leaves 7.5-15 Cm. (3-6') long, 2.5-7.5 Cm. (1-3') broad,
attenuated toward both ends, entire, smooth, shining, ribbed, bright yellowish-green
above, paler and glaucous beneath, thick; flowers, June-July, small, whitish;
fruit, Nov.-Dec., purple berry, 6 Mm. (1/4') thick, 1-seeded. DEXTROROTATORY
KETONE (camphor), in white translucent, tough masses, granules, penetrating,
characteristic odor, pungent, aromatic taste, soluble in alcohol (1) chloroform
(1), ether (1), carbon disulphide, petroleum benzin, fixed or volatile
oils, water (800), sp. gr. 0.990; readily pulverized with a little alcohol,
chloroform, ether, and liquified with equal quantity of chloral hydrate,
menthol, phenol, thymol; volatilizes at ordinary temperature, melts at
175 degrees C. (347 degrees F.). Tests: 1. Heat 2 Gm. -- sublimes
without carbonization, leaving about .05 p.c. of non-volatile matter.
2. Solution in petroleum benzin (1 in 10) -- clear (abs. of water).
3. A copper spiral 6 Mm (1/4') in diameter and 6 Mm. (1/4') long
held in flame until it glows without coloring flame green, then dipped
into camphor; ignited, burned outside of flame; then in lower outer edge
-- no green color -- (abs. of chlorinated products); alcoholic solution
precipitates with water. Impurities: Chlorinated products,
water. Should be kept cool, in well-closed containers. Dose,
gr. 1-5 (.06-.3 Gm.).
Commercial. -- Tree, resembling sassafras
and linden, is of slow growth but flourishes up to 600 M. (2,000 degrees)
elevation in the tropics -- Cape of Good Hope, Brazil, Jamaica, Madeira,
Mediterranean region, etc. The wood is valuable, being white, fragrant
and repellent to insects, and while all parts contain camphor, along with
its strong odor, it is obtained only from the root, trunk, and branches
of trees fifty or more years old -- by sublimation. In Japan roots
and small branches are chipped and put, with some water, in large vessels
surmounted by earthen domes lined with rice-straw; on applying heat the
camphor, volatilized by steam, rises to the domes and condenses upon the
straw -- flowers of camphor -- from which it is shaken and packed in double-tubs,
100 pounds (45 Kg.). In China the comminuted plant is boiled with
water until camphor adheres to the ladle and the strained liquid concentrates
upon cooling, which then is sublimed with alternating layers of earth.
In Formosa (island) a long wooden trough, coated with clay and fixed over
a crude furnace, is half-filled with water and, upon a perforated board
luted to the top, chips are placed, that in turn are covered with inverted
pots; on applying heat steam is produced, which, rising, passes through
the perforations and chips, thereby becoming camphor-vapor that condenses
in the upper part of the pots -- flowers of camphor -- from which it is
scraped every few days. This industry here has been monopolized and
revolutionized by Japan since her last war with China, to the effect of
improving quality, the government purchasing from all producers their product
of a recognized standard, and refining it at Taihoku, using several thousand
pounds at a charge -- the oil and water being first driven off at low heat,
then the camphor sublimed at higher temperature, and pressed hydraulically
into blocks for exporting. The crude is forwarded often in leaf-lined
baskets, 70 pounds (32 Kg.), to Tamsui, Takow, etc., there stored in vats,
or packed in chests, tubs (lead- or tin-lined, 100 pounds (45 Kg., which
prior to shipping, are saturated with water to prevent loss of weight by
evaporation in transit, causing it to reach us somewhat moist. When
in vats a yellowish-brown volatile oil -- oil of camphor -- drains out,
the amount increasing with pressure. There are two varieties: 1,
Japan (Tub, Dutch -- they being the first to introduce it), lighter pink,
larger grained, higher priced, cleaner, dryer; usually from Batavia; 2,
China (Formosa), cheapest, most abundant; usually from Canton. As
such "crude camphor" contains 2-10 p.c. of impurities--vegetable matter,
gypsum, salt, sulphur, chips, ammonium chloride, chlorinated products,
etc. -- which must be removed before suitable for medicine.
Refining. -- Formerly done exclusively in
Europe, but now largely in Formosa and our country, by mixing crude camphor
with 1/50 part of quicklime (iron filings, sand, or charcoal) to remove
resin, empyreumatic oil, moisture, etc., then resubliming at 175-204 degrees
C. (347-400 degrees F.) In iron, copper or glass retorts, and pressing
into rectangular blocks or circular cakes.
ADULTERATIONS. -- Rare: Stearic acid 25-50 p.c.,
insoluble in alcohol except when hot, crystallizing therefrom upon cooling;
cane-sugar (sucrose) 20 p.c.
CONSTITUENTS. -- C10H12O5;When
heated with zinc chloride yields cymol, C10H14; with
nitric acid yields camphoric acid, C10H16O4,
and camphoronic acid, C9H12O5; the former
acid forms colorless, inodorous prisms (see page 232); the latter acid
melts at 136 degrees C. (277 degrees F.) With decomposition and is freely
soluble in water or alcohol.
PREPARATIONS. -- 1. Aqua Camphorae.
Camphor Water. (Syn., Aq. Camph., Aqua Camphorata, Mistura Camphorae;
Fr. Eau camphre' Ger. Kampferwasser.)
Manufacture: 1. 1/5 p.c. Triturate
powdered camphor .2 Gm. With purified talc 1.5 Gm. + distilled water 100
cc., agitate well, set aside 24 hours, filter repeatedly until clear; it
is a saturated solution. Dose, 3j-8 (4-30 cc.).
2. Linimentum Camphorae. Camphor
Liniment. (Syn., Lin. Camph., Camphorated Oil, Linimentum Camphoratum;
Fr. (Liniment) Huile camphre; Ger. Oleum Camphoratum, Kampferol, Kampferliniment.)
Manufacture: 20 p.c. Heat in a flask on water-bath cottonseed
oil 80 Gm., add camphor 20, stopper container and agitate occasionally
until dissolved without further heating; used externally.
Prep.: 1. Ceratum Camphorae, N.F.,
3. Spiritus Camphorae. Spirit
of Camphor. (Syn., Sp. Camph., Tinctura Camphorae, Tincture of Camphor,
Alcohol Camphoratus; Fr. (Esprit de) Alcohol camphre; Ger. Spiritus camphoratus,
Manufacture: 10 p.c. Dissolve 10 Gm.
Camphor in alcohol 80 cc., add alcohol q.s. 100 cc., sp. gr. 0.825.
Test: 1. To 5 cc. add .05 Gm. of anhydrous potassium carbonate --
latter does not liquefy or adhere to bottom of container (abs. of added
water). Dose, mv-60 (.3-4 cc.).
PREPS.: 1. Lotio Ammoniacalis Camphorata,
N.F., 1 p.c. 2. Mistura Opii et Chloroformi Composita,
N.F., 20 p.c. 3. Mistura Opii et Rhei Composita, N.F.,
20 p.c. 4. Tinctura Opii et Gambir Composita, N.F.,
4. Linimentum Saponis, 4.5 p.c.
5. Linimentum Chloroformi, 3.15 p.c. 6. Tinctura
Opii Camphorat a, 2/5 p.c. 7. Ampullae Camphorae, N.F.,
3 ½ gr. 8. Chloral Camphoratum; N.F., each, 50
p.c. 9. Emplastrum Fuscum Camphoratum, N.F., 1 p.c.
10. Linimentum Saponato-Camphoratum, N.F., 2.5 p.c.
11. Menthol Camphoratum, N.F., 47.5 p.c. 12. Petroxolinum
Chloroformi Camphoratum, N.F., 20 p.c. 13. Petroxolinum
Phenolis Camphoratum, N.F., 37.2 p.c. 14. Pilulae Opii
et Camphorae, N.F., 2 gr. 15. Unguentum Camphorae, N.R.,
22 p.c. 16. Linimentum Belladonnae, N.F., 5 p.c. 17.
Linimentum Opii Compositum, N.F., 1.75 p.c. 18. Linimentum
Sinapis Compositum, N.F., 6 p.c. 19. Nebula Aromatica,
N.F., 8/10 p.c. 20. Nebula Mentholis Composita, N.F.,
1 p.c. 21. Pilulae Antiperiodicae, N.F., 1/8 gr. 22.
Tinctura Antiperiodica, N.F., 1/5 p.c.
Unoff. Preps.: Linimentum Camphorae Ammoniatum
(Br.) 12.5 p.c., + stronger ammonia water 25 p.c.; Vinum Camphoratum. Camphora
Phenolata, Camphora Salicylata, etc. Enters universally into
camphorice, dentifrices, etc.
PROPERTIES. -- Antispasmodic, stimulant, carminative,
stomachic, (an) aphrodisiac, antipyretic, nervine, sedative, diaphoretic,
rubefacient, resolvent, antiseptic. Has great healing powers; dilates
vessels, increases flow of gastric juice and peristalsis.
USES. -- Camphor was not known to Greeks or Romans,
we having derived it from the Arabians, who use it solely as a refrigerant
and to lessen sexual desire. Now employed in hysteria, dysmenorrhea,
nervousness, diarrhea, colic, flatulence, rheumatism, gout, tenesmus, asthma,
cough, coryza, toothache, headache, spasms, chorea, epilepsy, nausea, typhoid
condition, mania. Externally as a wash, liniment, or ointment for
ulcers, gangrene, scabies, sprains, bruises, rheumatic pains, convulsions.
Poisoning: Have burning pain, vomiting, weak pulse, giddiness,
debility, pallor, cold, clammy skin, faintness, confused ideas, delirium,
convulsions, death from collapse; does not kill healthy adults. Give
water at once if camphor taken in alcoholic solution, induce vomiting,
following with alcohol in small but frequent doses, coffee, cold, arterial
sedatives, ether, artificial heat, castor oil; opium and bromides for the
Incompatibles: Antispasmodics, alcohol, opium,
narcotics, aromatics, all in small quantity.
Synergists: Antispasmodics, alcohol, opium,
narcotics, aromatics, all in small quantit.
1. Camphora Monobromata. Monobromated
Camphor, C10H15BrO. -- This ortho-monobromcamphor
is obtained by heating together in a flask or retort camphor and bromine
in molecular proportions (preferably with a little water or chloroform)
until reaction ceases, allowing yellowish solution to crystallize, heating
until mass becomes white, recrystallizing from alcohol or petroleum benzin.
It is in colorless prismatic needles, scales, or powder, mild, characteristic,
camphoraceous odor and taste, permanent, decomposed by exposure to sunlight,
soluble in alcohol (6.5), chloroform. (.5), ether (1.6), almost insoluble
in water; melts at 75 degrees C. (167 degrees F.). Nervous sedative
in nervous irritation, insomnia, headache--no advantages over camphor.
Dose, gr. 1-5 (.06-.3 Gm.), in pill, emulsion.
2. Acidum Camphoricum, Camphoric
Acid, C10H16O4, U.S.P. 1900.--This
dibasic organic acid is obtained by oxidizing camphor 150 Gm. with hot
nitric acid 2000 cc., until crystallization takes place, dissolving crystals
in water (5) containing sodium carbonate, allowing solution of sodium camphorate
to crystallize, dissolving crystals in water (10), decomposing with hydrochloric
acid, when camphoric acid crystallizes out. It is in colorless, odorless,
monoclinic prismatic crystals, plates, acid taste, melting at 187 degrees
C. (369 degrees F.), soluble in alcohol, ether, chloroform, fatty oils,
water (125). Antihydrotic, antiseptic, intestinal disinfectant, anticatarrhal;
bronchitis, catarrh, cystitis, night-sweats of phthisis, diarrhea, sore
throat, pyelitis, eczema, acne. Dose, gr. 5-30 (.3-2 Gm.); locally
in 2-6 p.c. aqueous solutions, with 11 p.c. of alcohol to each 1 p.c. of
3. Borneol, Borneo, Sumatra, or Barus Camphor
(Dryobal'anops aromat'ica (Camphora), C10H15O,
has different odor from official camphor, heavier than water, less volatile,
with nitric acid yields ordinary camphor.
4. Ngai Camphor (Blu'mea balsamif'era).
-- This is a tall weed of India, China, Formosa. Its camphor has
same composition as Borneo, but is levorotatory, and natively is prized
higher than our official.
5. Artificial Camphor. -- Although
this can be made by oxidizing camphene, C10H16, with
chromic acid mixture, yet the more recent process is based upon the interaction
of anhydrous turpentine and anhydrous oxalic acid at 120-130 degrees C.
(248-266 degrees F.), yielding pinyl oxalate and formate, which treated
with lime gives borneol, and this by oxidation becomes camphor; however,
the products terpin hydrate and terpene hydrochloride are recognized generally
under this name--the latter being prepared by saturating oil of turpentine,
dissolved in twice its volume of carbon disulphide, with hydrochloric acid
gas, distilling with lime to form calcium chloride and camphene, oxidizing
latter with nitric acid yielding camphor.
6. Oleum Camphorae, Camphor Oil, U.S.P.
1860-1870. -- This is a yellowish-brown volatile oil obtained from camphor
by sublimation and expression; has camphor odor and taste, sp. gr. 0.940,
dextrorotatory; contains pinene, phellandrene, cineol, dipentene, terpineol,
safrol, eugenol, cadinene--at low temperature deposits camphor; used by
Chinese for rheumatism, etc. Should not be confounded with Linimentum
Camphorae, U.S.P., which also often is called oil of camphor (Ger. Oleum
Cana'rium commu'ne, Manila Elemi, Elemi. --
Philippine Islands. The oleoresin exudes from incisions in the bark
of a tall tree; it is soft, yellowish, granular crystalline, when cold
friable; odor strong, resembling fennel and lemon, terebinthinate; taste
bitter, pungent; contains volatile oil 10-15 p.c., amorphous resin (brein)
60 p.c. (soluble in cold alcohol), crystalline resin (amyrin) 25 p.c.,
bryoidin, breidin, elemic acid, C35H40O4 (crystalline). Stimulant,
irritant; in plaster and ointment.
Canel'la Wintera'na (al'ba), Canella, Canellae
Cortex, White Cinnamon, N.F. -- Canellaceae. The dried rossed
bark with not more than 2 p.c. of foreign organic matter; W. Indies.
Tree 9-15 M. (30-50 degrees) high, recognized by whitish bark, leaves thick;
flowers whwite, aromatic; fruit, berries 12 Mm. (1/2') long, blackish.
Bark, in quills, usually 5-15 Cm. (2-6') long, 1-4 Cm. (2/5-1 2/3') broad,
irregular fragments, periderm mostly removed, pale orange-brown, scaly,
shallow fissures, ridges; inner surface pale yellow, smoothish; fracture
short and sharp; odor slight; unless heated--cinnamon-like; taste aromatic,
warm, bitter, mucilaginous. Powder, light brown--numerous stone cells,
calcium oxalate rosettes, starch grains, oil cells; solvent: diluted alcohol;
contains volatile oil (having eugenal) 1 p.c., resin 8 p.c., bitter principle,
calcium oxalate, starch. Aromatic stimulant, tonic, condiment; atonic
dyspepsia, menorrhagia, amenorrhea--due to anemia. Dose, gr. 5-30
(.3-2 Gm.); 1. Pulvis Aloes (80) et Canellae (20), Hiera Picra, dose,
gr 5-10 (.3-.6) Gm.)
CANNABIS. CANNABIS, U.S.P.
Cannabis sativa, Linne.
The dried flowering tops of pistillate plants with not more than10 p.c.
fruits, large foliage leaves, stems over 3 Mm (1/8') thick, nor 2 p.c.
other foreign organic matter, yielding Not more than 5 p.c. acid-insoluble
Habitat. Asia, Persia, hills of N.
India; cultivated in India, Europe, C. And S. Russia, Brazil, W. And S.
Syn. Cannab., Cannabis Indica, U.S.P.
1900, Guaza, Ganjah, Indian Hemp, Black Indian Hemp, Tristram's Knot, Bangue,
Hashish, Halish, Gallow Grass Hemp, Neck or Nick Weed, S. Andrew's-lace,
Welsh Parsley, Bang, Bhang, Gunjah Churrus Charas, Ganja (dried flowers);
Fr. Chanvre (Indien); Ger. Hanf, Indischer Hanf.
Can'na-bis. L. Gr...., hemp, fr. ganch,
its Arabic name. Celtic can, reed + ah, small -- i.e., its slender
Sa-ti'va. L. Sativus, that which is
sown or planted -- i.e., in the gardens and fields for use.
In'di-ca. L. Indicus. Gr...., pertaining
to India -- i.e., its habitat.
PLANT. -- Annual herb; stem 1-3 M. (3-10 degrees)
high, angular, tomentose; leaves palmate-compound; leaflets 5-7 linear-lanceolate,
serrate; flowers dioecious, yellow spikes, FLOWERING TOPS, separate, or
in more or less agglutinated masses, fragments consisting of short stems
with leaf-like bracts, pistillate flowers or somewhat developed fruits,
greenish-brown; odor agreeable, heavy, narcotic; taste acrid, pungent.
POWDER, dark green -- leaf epidermis with oval stomata beneath, numerous
non-glandular hairs usually with calcium carbonate masses, glandular hairs
2 kinds, yellowish -- brown laticiferous vessels, calcium oxalate rosette
aggregates, tracheae and phloem, embryo and endosperm tissues with numerous
oil globules, aleurone grains (crystalloids, globoids); on slide -- effervesces
with diluted hydrochloric acid; alcoholic solution bright green; alcoholic
extractive 8 p.c. Should not be kept longer than 1 year, when it
usually is only one-fourth as strong as the fresh, and in 2 years it practically
is inert. Solvent: alcohol. Dose, gr. 1-5 (.06-.3) Gm.).
Commercial. -- Plant was known to the Romans,
but not to the Egyptians, and has been cultivated universally many centuries
for fiber, seed, and medicine -- that for the latter at present being grown
mostly in the two districts, Bogra and Rajshabi, north of Calcutta, in
rows, the richest in resin at 1,800-2,400 M. (6,000-8,000 degrees) elevation.
When mature (indicated by brown color and falling of leaves) the flowering
branches are cut off, May-June, cured by wilting, pressing, rolling, and
shaking out leaves and fruits (if any of the latter have developed), and
as such is recognized natively by the Hindustani
names, ganja, gunjah; the rolling and treading are performed by human feet,
an art demanding training, the object being possibly to work resinous matter
from stems into inflorescence tips. There are two kinds: 1, Round
ganja, requiring 4 days for kneading each branch into a cylindrical
or terete mass; 2, Flat ganja, requiring 2 days for working into
a flat form; the Bengal (Calcutta) ganja (best) is brownish or dusty, the
Bombay bright green. Variability in the drug may be due to the presence
of staminate flowers, leaves, fruits, cold weather, inopportune collecting
(not later than 4 days after maturing), intentional removal of resin, excessive
age (losing most of its properties within a year). Great care is
taken to prevent the flowing tops becoming fertilized by suppressing the
male plants, as a single one is claimed to spoil an entire field; however,
when for fiber or seed both male and female plants are cultivated together.
Our plant, often called Cannabis america'na, having escaped from native
country, may possess slight variations owing to colder climate, but under
proper cultivation and care may be as active as the India product, in spite
of which it is regarded generally as being about one-fourth weaker.
CONSTITUENTS. -- Cannabinol, Cannabin 15-20 p.c.,
choline (bilineurine--trimethylamine), volatile oil (chiefly sesquiterpene
-- cannabene), C10H16, .3 p.c., bitter principle,
paraffin, C29H60, chlorophyll, gum, sugar, potassium
nitrate, ash 5-15 p.c.
-- This, to which the activity of the drug is due, may be obtained by exhausting
cannabis with petroleum benzin, reclaiming latter, evaporating residue
to dryness, and subjecting it, under pressure to fractional distillation
at 210-240 degrees C. (410-464 degrees F.), when the distillate contains
cannabinol and paraffin, the latter being removed with alcohol. It
is a poisonous, yellow or brownish syrupy liquid, darkening on exposure
to air into inert, brittle pitchy mass, consequently must be kept, as well
as preparations of the drug, in sealed containers; possibly same as Kobert's
Cannabin. -- Resin constituent (resinoid),
to which formerly was attributed all of the drug's activity, that now known
to be due solely to its contained cannabinol; it may be obtained by treating
cannabis with water and a solution of sodium carbonate, washing residue
with ware, drying, exhausting with alcohol, treating tincture with milk
of lime, precipitating lime with sulphuric acid, adding animal charcoal
to filtrate, filtering, concentrating, and precipitating with water; it
is a brown, amorphous resin, burning without ash, soluble in alcohol, ether,
from the former being precipitated white by water.
PREPARATIONS. -- 1. Extractum Cannabis.
Extract of Cannabis. (Syn., Ext. Cannab., Extract of (Indian)
Cannabis (Hemp); Fr. Extrait de Chanvre (Indien); Ger. (Indisch) Hanfextrakt.)
Manufacture: Macerate, peracolate 100 Gm.
With alcohol until exhausted, reclaim alcohol, evaporate residue at 70
degrees C. (158 degrees F.), stirring frequently, to pilular consistence,
mix thoroughly; after assay add enough storax or substandard extract of
cannabis for biological standard; yield 12-14 p.c. Dose, gr. 1/6-1
(.01-.06 Gm.): Prep.: 1. Mistura Chloralis et Potassii Bromidi
Composita, N.F., 1/5 p.c.
2. Fluidextractum Cannabis. Fluidextract
of Cannabis. (Syn., Fldext. Cannab., Fluid Extract of Cannabis;
Fr. Extrait fluide de Chanvre (Indien); Ger. (Indisch) Hanffluidextrakt.)
Manufacture: Similar to Fluidextractum Colchici,
page 111; menstruum: alcohol; after dissolving soft extract in the reserve,
assay and adjust finished volume to its biological standard--amount producing
incoordination in a dog; .1 cc. for every 2 pounds (1 Kg.) Of body weight.
Dose, mij-5 (.13-.3 cc.): Preps.: Collodium Salicylicum Compositum, N.F.,
10 p.c. 2. Mistura Chloroformi et Morphinae Composita, N.F.,
UNOFF. PREP.: Tincture, 10 p.c. (alcohol), mv-30
(.3-2 cc.). These preparations give varying results, but usually
their value can be recognized by the color of the precipitate formed when
added to water; if olive-green, it is active; if yellowish-brown, it is
inert; thus, whatever there is that destroys chlorophyll injures the active
PROPERTIES. -- Anodyne, nervine, sudorific, narcotic,
aphrodisiac, increases appetite. It excels even belladonna in perverting
perception, condition, and relation of objects; some subjects become pugnacious,
others have delightful intoxicating dreams, in which time, distance, and
sound are magnified -- a few minutes'dream extends over weeks, near objects
as in infinite space, whispering as cannonading. Large habitual doses
bloat the face, inject eyes, make limbs tremulous, weak, mind imbecilic,
death by marasmus.
USES: Neuralgia, distressing cough, quiets tickling
in throat, does not constipate or depress like opium; gout, delirium tremens,
tetanus convulsions, chorea, hysteria, mental depression epilepsy, morphine
and chloral habits, softening of the brain, nervous vomiting.
Poisoning: Have pleasurable intoxication,
double consciousness followed by drowsiness, unconsciousness, collapse,
insensibility, dilated pupils, rapid pulse, slow respiration, debility,
pale clammy insensitive skin, catalepsis, excited passion; effects usually
last 24 hours, and closely resemble those of opium, differing, however,
in not constipating and in not lessening secretions; increases appetite.
Give emetics, lemon juice to neutralize its effects, tannin, coffee, ammonia,
strychnine, atropine, electricity, spirit of nitrous ether, artificial
respiration; similar to chloral hydrate and opium.
Incompatibles: Strychnine, caustic alkalies,
Synergists: Alcohol, ether, bromides, cocaine,
Allied Native Products:
These are mostly used for smoking, beverages, or
1. Bhang (Sidhee, Subjee, Siddhi).
-- Consists of the dried coarsely broken leaves and fruit (dark green),
resembles ganja in odor and taste; used by natives in their sweet-meat
(majoon), also smoked with or without tobacco; its cold infusion (tea)
as an intoxicant.
2. Churrus, Churras, Charas. -- This
is the resin (practically the active constituent) which exudes spontaneously
from the entire plant in minute drops. It is collected in several
different ways: 1. By men, wearing leather suits, brushing forcibly
against growing plants, whereby resin adheres and afterward is scraped
off. 2. By rubbing green portions between the hands and then
scraping off adhering resin. 3. By frequent stirring around
that put away in barns to cure, thus causing the resin to rise in the form
of dust, and to deposit upon the roof and sides of the building, from which
it can afterward be collected. Owing to this being more or less impure
it is not used in medicine, but solely smoked in pipes; contains usually
cannabinol 33 p.c.
3. Hashish (Hasish, Haschisch, Hasash,
Hasheesh -- Majoon). -- The Arabic name for hemp, signifying "green
intoxicating liquor" fr. Heb. shesh, to be joyous. This may consist
of the dried tops collected before seed ripen, thereby resembling ganja,
gunjah, but usually is more complex, being prepared by heating tender leaves
and tops 4 parts, butter 3, water 4, until latter is dissipated, straining,
washing twice the greenish extract with water, adding this to syrup (sugar
16, water 32, little milk, boil), heating, mystifying by incorporating
stramonium or nux vomica; in Bengal a small amount of rose oil, musk, cardamom
seed, cantharides, or opium to which mostly is due the deliriums, manias,
dreams, sensualism), boiling half an hour, allowing to solidify, cutting
into cakes; the Russians prefer it formed into cakes with the resinous
4. Hemp Seed (Cannabis Semen). -- These
are achenes 3 Mm (1/8') long, roundish, smooth, greenish, taste sweet,
oily. Used for birds chiefly, but, owing to the fixed oil, an emulsion
becomes a valuable demulcent and anodyne; contain protein 22-24 p.c., fixed
oil 28-36 p.c., suitable for painting, varnishing, etc.
5. Hemp Oil. -- A greenish fixed oil,
lighter and brownish on exposure; odor hemp-like, taste mild. Demulcent,
protective; chiefly extracted for its possible use in the domestic arts;
neither this nor seed possess narcotic properties.
6. Hemp Fiber. -- Used for cordage,
sacking, sail cloths, clothing, etc. The colder climates produce
the best fibers, and the tropics that which is most medicinal and intoxicating.
Russia produces most of the hemp fiber, but Italy the best; that grown
in the United States and India is inferior to that of the other two countries.
Capsicum an'nuum (lon'gum). -- Fruit, U.S.P.
1820-1860;Fruit, 5-10 Cm. (2-4') long, 2.5-4 Cm. (1-1 3/5') thick,
oblong, conical, sometimes curved or subglobular, yellow or red, brown
when dry. Known in England as pod pepper, but often sold as chillies
or capsicums, and is the kind recognized by the Ger. Phar. C.fastigia'tum.--Fruit,
once official, and like that which is now official, 8-12 Mm. (1/3-1/2')
long, 3-4 Mm (1/8-1/6') thick. C. Cerasifor'me, fruit resembles a
cherry. All three sometimes used for purposes similar to official.
CAPSICUM. CAPSICUM, U.S.P.
Capsicum frutescens, Linne'
The dried ripe fruit, grown in Africa, with not more than 3 p.c. stems,
calyxes, nor 1 p.c. other foreign organic matter, yielding not less than
12 p.c. non-volatile, ether-soluble extractive, nor more than 1.25 p.c.
Habitat. S. And C. America (Cayenne
in Guiana), introduced into E. Indies, Java (by Portuguese), also
into Africa; cultivated in United States, also in tropics.
Syn. Capsic., Cayenne Pepper, African
Chillies, Spanish, Red, Bird, Garden, Cayenne Pepper, Chillies; Piper
Hispanicum; Br. Capsici Fructus (C. minimum); Fr. Capsique, Piment
(rouge) des jardins, Poivre de Cayenne-, Guinee or d'Inde; Ger. Fructus
Capsici, Spanischer Pfeffer, Schlotenpfeffer.
Cap'si-cum. L. Capsa, a box
-- i.e., shape of the fruit; or from Gr..
To bite--i.e., from its hot, pungent properties.
Fru-tes'cens. L. Frutex, shrub,
bush -- i.e., somewhat shrub-like in habit and appearance.
PLANT. -- Small, spreading shrub, .6-1 m. (2-3 degrees)
high; stem much branched; leaves alternate, 5-7.5 Cm. (2-3') long, entire,
glabrous; flowers 2-3 together in the bifurcations, greenish-yellow, July-Aug.;
ovary 2-celled, many ovules. FRUIT, oblong, conical, usually compressed,
10-25 Mm. (2/5-1') long, 4-8 Mm. (1/6-1/3') broad, 2-3-locular, dissepiments
united to placenta at base of fruit, brownish-red, orange (pericarp), glabrous,
dull, thin, shriveled, striate, membranous, 6-21 yellowish flattened seed,
pointed micropyle; odor characteristic, sternutatory; taste intensely pungent.
POWDER, yellowish-brown--thin-walled parenchyma with oil globules, epidermal
cells of pericarp and seed-coat and stone cells of endocarp. Tests:
1. Fragments of pericarp with outer epidermis consisting of irregular
cells not in rows but with strongly beaded radial walls and a hypodermis
of angular cells with thickened, beaded walls--pres. of Japanese or East
Indian capsicum. 2. Macerate 1 Gm. + alcohol 50 cc., 4 days,
in a stoppered flask; add to .1 cc. Clear supernatant liquid 140 cc. distilled
water containing 10 p.c. of sucrose; 5 cc. of this dilution swallowed--at
once the pungent sensation of capsicum in the throat of two out of three
ADULTERATIONS. -- FRUIT: Fruits of allied species;
POWDER: Red oxide of lead, colored sawdust, bran, etc.--the former recognized
by adding diluted nitric acid to dissolve lead and precipitating same with
sodium sulphate--the two latter by the microscope; corn meal, starch (iodine
test), ash 15-18.4 p.c.
Commercial. -- Plant largely cultivated in
our country to supply demand. Fruit is plucked, exposed to sun until
dried, then packed in suitable shape for market; much imported from India,
Africa -- Liberia, Zanzibar, Natal, Bombay, Penang, Pegu, Cayenne, etc.
[ILLUSTRATION] Capsicum frutescens.
CONSTITUENTS. -- Capsaicin (capsacutin, capsicin)
.02 p.c., Capsicine, Volatile oil, fixed oil, fatty acids (oleic, stearic,
palmitic), resin, red coloring matter (cholesterin ester of the fatty acids),
ash 7 p.c., of which 1 p.c. is insoluble in hydrochloric acid.
-- Considered the chief active constituent--identical with capsacutin,
resides mostly in the pericarp and placenta, and is obtained by adding
diluted caustic alkali to the petroleum extract, passing CO2
through this alkaline solution, when it crystallizes out in colorless form.
It is soluble in alcohol, ether, benzene, fixed oils, and its vapors are
intenssely acrid and irritating. It has also been obtained as an
oleoresin (capsicin capsicol), amorphous resin-like acid, to which the
red coloring matter persistently adheres. Dose gr. 1/10-1/4 (.006-.016
Capsicine. -- This occurs in small quantity;
it is a volatile alkaloid, having odor of coniine -- devoid of pungency
-- and is an oil liquid, not existing in the unripe fruit, but results
from decomposition processes in ripening.
Volatile Oil. -- Obtained by distillation
and gives to the fruit its odor.
PREPARATIONS. -- 1. Oleoresina Capsici.
Oleoresin of Capsicuum. (Syn., Oleores. Capsic.; Fr. Oleoresine
(Extrait ethere) de Capsique; Ger. Spanisch-pfeffer-oelharz.)
Manufacture: Percolate slowly, in a covered
glass percolator, 100 Gm., with ether, added in successive portions, until
160 cc. of percolate obtained, reclaim most of the ether on water bath,
transfer residue to a dish, allow remaining ether to evaporate spontaneously
in a warm place, remote from a naked flame, pour off liquid portion, transfer
remainder to a glass funnel with pledget of cotton; when separated fatty
matter (which is to be rejected) has drained, mix liquid portions; yield
12-15 p.c. Should be kept in wewll-stoppered bottles.
Dose, m1/4-1 (.016-.06 cc.).
[ILLUSTRATION] Capsicum Fruit: magnified. Fruit:
cross-section, magnified annuum: fresh fruit one-half natural size.
Prep.: 1. Emplastrum Capsici.
Capsicum Plaster. (Syn., Emp. Capsic.; Fr. Sparadra(pum) Capsici
(de Capsique); Ger. Capsicumpflaster.
Manufacture: Apply oleoresin of capsicum
to the surface of rubber plaster so as to form a thin, even coating, leaving
a margin around the edges; each 15 Cm. Of spread plaster contains .25 Gm.
Of oleoresin of capsicum--requiring about 6m; .4 cc.
2. Tinctura Capsici. Tincture
of Capsicum. (Syn., Tr. Capsic.; Fr. Teinture de Piment des jardins;
Manufacture: 10 p.c. Similar to Tinctura
Veratri Viridis, page 104; menstruum: 95 p.c. alcohol. Dose, mx-60
Preps.: 1. Mistura Chloroformi et Morphonae Composita,
N.F., 2.5 p.cv. 2. Mistura Opii et Chloroformi
Composita, N.F. 10 p.c. 3. Mistura Opii et Rhei Composita, N.F.,
3. Pulvis Aromaticus Rubefaciens, N.F.,
20 p.c. 4. Pulvis Myricae Compositus, N.F., 5 p.c. 5.
Tinctura Capsici et Myrrhae, N.F., 3 p.c. + myrrh 12, 90 p.c. alcohol q.s.
Dose, mx-60 (.6-4 cc.).
Unoff. Preps.: Extract, gr. 1/2-2 (.03-.13
Gm.). Fluidextract (alcohol), mj-5 (.06-.3 cc.). Infusion,
5 p.c., 3ij-4 (8-15 cc). Ointment (Br.), 20 p.c.
PROPERTIES. -- Stimulant, stomachic, rubefacient,
condiment diaphoretic; stimulates flow from salivary, gastric, and intestinal
glands, also the stomach walls and heart. Long continuance may produce
-- chronic gastritis, abdominal pain; large quantity -- acute gastritis,
renal inflammation, strangury.
USES. -- Indigestion, dyspepsia, atonic gout, alcoholism,
delirium tremens, intermittents; flatulent colic, low fevers, cholera,
menorrhagia, seasickness, tonsillitis, scarlet fever, diphtheria, hemorrhoids;
externally--lumbago, rheumatism, neuralgia, chilblains, relaxed uvula.
Was known to the Romans, and used in E. Indies from time immemorial.
Car'ica Papa'ya, Pawpaw, Melon Tree; Papayotin,
Papain, Caricin. -- An albuminous ferment from the fruit; Tropical
America. Tree 6 M. (20 degrees) high, stem 30 Cm. (12') thick, fruit
approximates the size of one's head, and contains an acrid, astringent,
bitter, milky juice, which soon separates into a coagulum and aqueous liquid,
from which latter papayotin is precipitated upon the addition of alcohol.
It is a whitish, hygroscopic powder, inodorous, tasteless, soluble in water,
glycerin, active in neutral, acid, but more so in alkaline solutions; it
converts starch into maltose, albuminoids into peptones, and emulsifies
fats; should digest 200 times its weight. Papoid, Caroid, etc., are
weaker forms (dried juice); slightly inferior to pepsin, greatly inferior
to pancreatin. Dose, gr. 2-5 (.13-.3 Gm.).
Car'thamus tincto'rius, Safflower. -- The
dried florets, U.S.P. 1820-1870, India, cultivated, in America, etc.
Annual herb, .3-.6 M. (1-2 degrees) high, branched; leaves spinose; flowers
orange-red, corolla tubular, 2.5 Cm. (1') long, 5-lobed; odor slight, taste
bitter; contains volatile oil, carthamin (red) .5 p.c., saffron yellow
24-30 p.c. Diaphoretic (hot infusion), tonic, laxative; measles scarlatina
(to promote eruption), catarrh, rheumatism; in infusion. Dose, gr.
5-15 (.3-1 Gm.).
[ILLUSTRATION] Carthamus tinctorius.
CARUM. CARAWAY, U.S.P.
Carum Carvi (Carui), Linne. (The
dried ripe fruit, with not more than 3 p.c. of other fruits, seeds or foreign
organic matter, yielding not more than 1.5 p.c. acid-insoluble ash.)
CARYOPHYLLUS. CLOVE, U.S.P.
Habitat. C. And W. Asia, Himalayas,
Caucasus, Europe, Siberia; cultivated in England, Norway, Russia,
Germany, Holland, Morocco, United States.
Syn. Caraway Seed (Fruit), Carawayseed,
Caravies; Br. Carui Fructus; Fr. Carui, Carvi, Cumin des Pres; Ger.
Fructus Carvi, Kummel, Gemeiner Kummel.
Ca'rum. L. Careum, fr. Gr. Kapov,
after Caria, in Asia Minor -- i.e., its original habitat. Carui
was the name used by medieval pharmacists for the drug.
Car'vi. L. For carvy, carvey.
Ar. Karawya, Eng. Caraway. Here frequently the word Carui is
used, thus assimilating L. Gen., as though for Carui Semina.
PLANT. -- Biennial herb; stem .3-1 M. 1-3 degrees)
high, hollow; leaves bi-or tripinnate, deeply incised; flowers May-June,
small, white, no involucre; root fleshy, fusiform, white. FRUIT,
cremocarp, usually in 2 separated mericarps; curved, tapering, toward both
ends, 3-7 Mm. (1/8-1/4') long, 2 Mm, (1/12') broad, dark brown, 5 yellow
filiform ribs, dorsal surface 4 vittae, commissural surface 2, endosperm
large, oily; odor and taste aromatic. POWDER, yellowish-brown--outer
epidermal cells characterized by a waviness and striping of the cuticle;
endosperm cells containing aleurone grains with the embedded rosette aggregates;
tracheae, lignified fibers, oil tubes. Solvents: alcohol; water partially.
Dose, gr. 10-30 (.6-2 Gm.).
ADULTERATIONS. -- Allied and occasionally exhausted
(drawn) fruits--having shriveled appearance; seeds of weeds--
usually yielding starch in the powder; dirt -- showing excess of ash.
Commercial. -- Fruit ripens in the 2d year,
August, when the plant is cut down, dried, and thrashed on cloth.
There are five varieties: 1, Holland (Dutch), finest; 2, German;
3, English, shortest ; 4, Mogador, longest, lightest; 5, American, the
result of home cultivation in gardens, being quite aromatic but smaller
than the German, these two constituting nearly our total supply; yield
8-10 hundred-weight per acre; root, resembling that of parsnip, is employed
as food in N. Europe.
CONSTITUENTS. -- Volatile oil 5-7 p.c., fixed oil,
resin, tannin, sugar, gum, ash 5-8 p.c.; no starch.
Oleum Cari Oil of Caraway, U.S.P. -- (Syn., Ol. Cari., Caraway
Oil; Br. Oleum Carui; Fr. Essence de Carvi; Ger. Oleum Carvi, Kummelol,
Carvon.) This volatile oil, obtained by steam distillation from the
dried ripe fruit, should yield not less than 50 p.c. of carvone, and is
a colorless, pale yellow liquid, characteristic odor and taste, soluble
in 8 vols. of 80 p.c. alcohol, sp. gr. 0.905, dextrorotatory; contains
a ketone -- carvone (d-carvone, carvol), C10H14O,
at least 50 (50-65) p.c., a terpene -- carvene (d-carvene, citrene, hesperidene,
d-limonene), C10H16, 35-50 p.c., and an alcohol,
C10H17OH, etc. Carvone may be obtained by treating
the oil with alcoholic solution of ammonium sulphide, decomposing the resulting
crystals with potassium hydroxide; it is a viscid, yellowish, oily liquid,
creosote odor and taste, closely related to menthol and myristicol, identical
with thymol, cuminic alcohol and carvacrol, this latter being the product
of distilling a mixture of caraway oil and potassium or sodium hydroxide
(thus expelling carvene), decomposing residue with sulphuric acid, rectifying;
useful in toothache, by inserting it into cavity. Should be kept
cool, dark, in well-stoppered, amber-colored bottles. Dose, mij-5
PREPARATIONS. -- FRUIT: 1, Tinctura Cardamomi
Composita, 1.2 p.c. OIL: 1. Mistura Caminative, N.F.,
1/20 p.c. 2. Spiritus Cardamomi Compositus, N.F. 1/20
Unoff. Preps.: FRUIT: Fluidextract,
mx-30 (.6-2 cc.). Infusion, 5 p.c., 3j-2 (30-60 cc.). Water
(Br.), 100 Gm. + water 2000 cc., distil 1000 cc. OIL: Spirit.
PROPERTIES. -- Carminative, stimulant, diuretic,
USES. -- Flatulent colic, especially of infants,
corrective to nauseous purgatives, flavoring, toothache (carvacrol), as
a spice in cakes, bread, etc. The oil is used mostly, which acts
externally like other essential oils, as an anesthetic, etc.
Caryophyllus aromaticus, Linne'. (The
dried flower-buds with not more than 5 p.c. stems nor 1 p.c. other foreign
organic matter, yielding not less than 15 p.c. volatile ether-soluble extractive
nor more than 10 p.c. crude fiber nor .75 p.c. acid-insoluble ash.
Habitat. Molucca (Spice or Clove) Islands,
five in number, N.E. of Celebes, now mostly abandoned there, but
cultivated in Indian Ocean islands, Amboyna group, Sumatra, Malacca,
Penang, etc., S. America, Brazil, Guiana, Cayenne, Africa, Zanzibar,
Syn. Caryoph, Cloves, Mother Cloves,
Caryophylli Aromatica; Br. Caryophyllum; Fr. Girofle, Clous (aromatiques)
de Girofle; Ger. Gewurznelken; Flores Caryophylli,Nagelin.
Car-y-o-phyl'lus. L. Fr. Gr. ..., a
nut, + ..., a leaf -- i.e., referring to the appearance of flower
Ar-o-mat'i-cus. L. Aromatic, fragrant
-- i.e., its aromatic aroma, odor. Clove. L. clovus,
a nail -- i.e., the resemblance of its dried flowers.
PLANT. -- Handsome evergreen tree, 9-12 M. (30-40
degrees) high, much branched, forming a pyramidal crown; bark yellowish;
leaves 10 Cm. (4') long, 5 Cm. (2') wide, entire, smooth, glandular, parallel
veins to midrib, petiolate; flowers 15-20, rose-color, cymes; fruit berry-like.
FLOWER-BUDS (clove), tack-shaped, 10-17.5 Mm. (2/5-3/4') long, dark brown,
consisting of a stem-like solid, inferior ovary, obscurely 4-angled, terminated
by 4 calyx teeth, and surmounted by a nearly globular head, consisting
of 4 petals enclosing numerous curved stamens and 1 style; odor strongly
aromatic; taste pungent, aromatic, followed by slight numbness; pressed
strongly between thumbnail and finger -- volatile oil visible; should not
float horizontally on water; stems, separate or attached, sub-cylindrical,
4-angled, 25 Mm. (1') long, 4 Mm. (1/6') thick, simple, branched jointed,
less aromatic than flower-buds. POWDER, dark brown -- parenchyma
fragments with large oil reservoirs, spiral tracheae, few bast-fibers,
calcium oxalate rosette aggregates, numerous tetrahedral pollen grains.
Tests: 1. Stone cells irregular or polygonal, with thick porous
walls and large lumina, often filled with yellowish-brown amorphous substance
-- few or absent (abs. of less than 5 p.c. of stems). 2. No
starch grains present (abs of clove fruit or cereals). Solvents:
alcohol (volatile oil, resin); water (odor--part of volatile oil but none
of the pungent resin). Dose, gr. 5-10 (.3-.6 Gm.).
[ILLUSTRATION] Caryophyllus aromaticus. Caryophyllus: a, natural
size; b, longitudinal section magnified.
ADULTERATIONS. -- FLOWER-BUDS: Clove-stalks, 2 Mm.
(1/12') thick, brown, contain volatile oil 4-5 p.c., for which they are
imported as well as for their well-defined stone cells; mother clove (clove
fruit, anthophylli) collected just before ripe, 2.5 Gm. (1') long, resemble
clove, but thicker, lighter, weaker, with 4-lobed calyx, each cell 1-2-seeded,
contain volatile oil 2-4 p.c.; exhausted clove, such as have undergone
partial or complete exhaustion and distillation; pimenta, different shape
and aroma; an artificial clove molded from a paste has been reported; POWDER:
All of the above -- detected chiefly by peculiar starch grains, stone cells,
and weakness of the preparations; cassia; ginger; sand; starch; flour;
pepper shells. OIL: That from which eugenol has been abstracted or
foreign eugenol added; clove-stem oil, alcohol, oils of turpentine, cinnamon,
pimenta and copaiba, petroleum, fixed oils, phenol.
Commercial. -- Trees yield when 6 years old,
reach perfection at 12 and thence decline until, at 20 they perish.
Clove (flowers, buds) at first are white, then green, pink, and bright
red, being collected at the pink stage by hand-picking on ladders and platforms,
or by beating the trees with bamboos and catching the falling buds upon
outspread cloths, after which they are dried by sun or slowly by fire.
Each tree yields 5 pounds (2.3 Kg.), which are disposed of at 10 cents
per pound (.5 Kg.). Clove was unknown to the ancients, having been
brought to Europe by the Arabians and Venetians, while the Portuguese and
Dutch long monopolized the trade. Now mostly from Zanzibar, the finest
from Penang, some from Pemba, or via Bombay; however, much of our supply
is from W. Indies, Cayenne, Guiana, etc. There are three varieties:
1, Molucca (Amboyna), thickest, heaviest, darkest, most oily and
aromatic; two annual harvest s, June, Dec., in the Moluccas; 2, Sumatra
(Bencoolen), considered by some of equal high grade as the preceding;
3, S. American, usually not so fine, but the freshest, contain volatile
oil 10-15 p.c.
Clove(s) that are light (floating horizontally on
water), small, soft, wrinkled, of pale color, feeble taste and smell, often
without corolla bud or "head," are inferior from having been treated with
a menstruum, or careless picking (including immature green and red buds)
and drying (which should be done quickly and without exposure to bad weather),
and should not be used direct or in obtaining the oil.
CONSTITUENTS. -- Volatile oil 18 p.c., eugenol,
eugenin (white pearly scales, isomeric with eugenol -- red with nitric
acid), C10H12O2, caryophyllin, tannin
10-13 p.c., resin (tasteless) 6 p.c., gum 13 p.c., vanillin, furfurol,
green wax, cellulose 28 p.c., water 18 p.c., ash 4-8 p.c. (Of which .5
p.c. is insoluble in hydrochloric acid).
Oleum Caryophylli. Oil of Clove, U.S.P.
-- (Syn., Ol. Caryoph., Clove Oil, Oil of Cloves; Fr. Essence de Girofle;
Ger. Oleum Caryophyllorum, Nelkenol, Eugenol.) This volatile oil
distilled from the dried flower-buds (clove) with water or steam, and usually
3 p.c. of sodium chloride, to raise the ebullition-point possibly to 109.5
degrees C. (229 degrees F.), is a colorless, pale yellow liquid, darker
and thicker by age and exposure, characteristic odor and taste of clove,
soluble in 2 vols. of 70 p.c., alcohol, levorotatory, sp. gr. 1.038-1.060;
contains at least 82 (80-90) p.c. of eugenol, C10H12O2
(heavy portion -- phenol), caryophyllene, C15H21
(light portion, polymeric with terpene, C10H16, sp.
gr. 0.918--sesquiterpene), also 2-3 p.c. of eugenol acetate; methylamylketone
(gives odor), vanillin, furfurol (causes oil to darken), methyl alcohol.
Tests: 1. Shake oil (1) with hot distilled water (20) -- shows
only slight acid reaction; filtrate with 1 drop of ferric chloride T.S.
-- transient grayish-green color, but not blue or violet (abs.of phenol).
Should be kept cool, dark, in well-stoppered, amber-colored bottles.
Dose, mj-5 (.06-.3 cc.).
Eugenol. Eugenol, C10H12O2,
U.S.P. -- (Syn., Eugenolum, Eugenin, Caryophyllic Acid Eugenic Acid, Allylguaiacol,
Ethylmethyl-pyrocatechol, Para-oxy-metamethoxyallyl benzol.) This
unsaturated, aromatic phenol (found also in oils of bay, canella, camphor,
cinnamon (Ceylon), sassafras, pimento, Massoi bark) is obtained by shaking
oil of clove with excess of
5-10 p.c. solution of sodium hydroxide in a separator, drawing off
resulting solution of eugenol sodium, washing aqueous liquid with ether,
decomposing with diluted sulphuric acid, washing separated eugenol with
sodium carbonate solution (to remove adhering acid), distilling with steam
or in vacuo. It is a colorless, pale yellow, thin liquid, strongly
aromatic odor of clove; pungent, spicy taste; darker and thicker on exposure
to air; miscible with alcohol, chloroform, ether, fixed oils, soluble in
2 volumes of 70 p.c. alcohol; mixed with hot distilled water (1 in 20)
very slightly acid, sp. gr. 1.067, boils at 253 degrees C. (488 degrees
F.); optically inactive and strongly refractive. Tests: 1.
Dissolve 1 cc. In sodium hydroxide T.S. (12), add distilled water (18)--clear
solution, turbid on exposure to air (abs. of hydrocarbons). 2.
Shake 1 cc. With distilled water (20); to 5 cc. of clear filtrate add 1
drop of ferric chloride T.S. -- transient, grayish-green, not blue or violet
(abs of phenol); upon eugenol alone the value of oil of clove depends.
Should be kept cool, dark, in well-closed containers. Dose, mj-5
-- Obtained by treating ethereal extract of clove with water, filtering
and treating the resulting precipitate with ammonia to purify; occurs in
tasteless, inodorous silky needles, soluble in ether, slowly in alcohol,
colored red with sulphuric acid, and by oxidation with nitric acid yields
crystals of caryophyllinic acid, C10H22O6.
PREPARATIONS. -- CLOVE: 1.Tinctura Lavandulae
Composita, ½ p.c. 2. Tinctura Rhei Aromatica, 4
p.c. 3. Pulv. Arom. Rubefac., Rubefac. Spice Powder,
N.F., 30 p.c., + cinnam. 30, zingib. 20, capsic.20. 4. Pulv.
Cret. Arom., N.F. 3 p.c.: Prep.: 1. Pulv. Cret. Et
Opii Arom., N.F., 97.5 p.c. 5. Pulv. Myric. Co., Composition
Powder, N.F., 5 p.c. 6. Syr. Senn. Arom., N.F.,
2/5 p.c. 7. Tr. Arom., N.F., 2 p.c. 8. Tr.
Opii Crocat., N.F., 3/5 p.c. 9. Tr Viburn, Opul. Co.,
N.F., 5 p.c. OIL: 1. Acet. Arom., N.F., 1/10 p.c.
2. Dentif., N.F. 1/20 p.c. 3. Fldglycer. Casc. Sagr.
Arom., N.F., 1/10 p.c. 4. Lavat. Ori., N.F., 1 p.c.
5. Liq. Pepsin, Arom., N.F., 1/20 p.c. 6. Nebul.
Arom., N.F., 1/5 p.c. 7. Ol. Ricin, Arom., N.F., 1/10
p.c. 8. Sp. Card. Co., N.F., ½ p.c. 9.
Syr. Eriodict. Arom., N.F., 1/10 p.c. EUGENOL: 1. Mist.
Ol.-Balsam, N.F., 2/5 p.c.
Unoff. Preps.: Infusion (Br.)
2.5 p.c., 3ss-1 (15-30 cc.). Inf. Aurant. Co. (Br.), .5 p.c.
Tinct., 25 p.c. (Fr. alc.), 3ss-1 (2-4 cc.)
PROPERTIES. -- Stimulant, stomachic, carminative,
antiemetic, aromatic, antispasmodic, rubefacient, germicide, antiseptic.
Increases circulation, temperature, digestion, nutrition; excreted by kidneys,
skin, liver, bronchi -- stimulating and disinfecting each.
USES. -- Nausea, vomiting, flatulence, colic, indigestion,
condiment, corrective; externally in rheumatism, neuralgia, toothache (oil
+ oil of peppermint + chloral hydrate, aa q.s.), in liniments, etc.; spice
powder (poultice)--over stomach to expel gas, relieve colic, on nape of
neck for infantile.
C. Fis'tula, Purging Cassia, N.F. -- The dried
fruit with not more than 2 p.c. of foreign organic matter; E. India, Egypt,
nat. in S. America, W. Indies. Handsome tree, 9-15 M. (30-50 degrees)
high; bark gray; leaves paripinnate, leaflets 3-7 paira, 5-15 Cm. (2-6')
long, ovate; flowers yellow. Fruit cylindrical, 25-50 Cm. (10-20')
long, 20 Mm. ( 4/5') thick, chestnut-brown, on one side a longitudinal
groove (ventral), on the other a slight ridge (dorsal), indicating the
2 sutures, indehiscent, 25-100 transverse compartments, each with a brown
seed, 8 Mm. (1/3') long, embedded in blackish-brown pulp (30 p.c.) having
prune-like odor, mawkish sweet taste; contains (pulp) sugar 60 p.c., mucilage,
pectin, albuminoids, tannin, volatile oil, butyric acid, calcium oxalate.
Laxative; costiveness, to promote bile flow; usually combined with other
drugs (manna, tamarind, salines, etc.). Dose, 3j-2 (4-8 Gm.); 1.
Confectio Sennae, 16 p.c.
[ILLUSTRATION] Cassia Fistula: Part of pod, natural size.
C. Marylan'dica. -- Leaflets, U.S.P. 1820-1870;
United States, New England to S. Carolina, west to the Mississippi.
Plant 1-1.5 M. (3-5 degrees) high; leaves alternate, leaflets paripinnate,
8 pairs 2.5-5 Cm. (1-2') long, 12 Mm. 1/2') wide; flowers August, yellow;
fruit pod, 7.5 Cm. (3') long; in sandy soil, river banks, introduced into
England in 1723, cultivated for ornament, collected Aug.-Sept.; contains
cathartic acid, volatile oil, and is given in one-third larger doses than
the official varieties; in infusion.
Cassia obova'ta. -- Leaflets, U.S.P. 1830-1860.
This was the first senna known, being introduced by the Moors into Europe
as early as the 9th century, where even in the 16th it became very largely
cultivated. Grows wild on sandy soil in Egypt, Nubia, Abyssinia,
Tripoli, Senegal, Arabia, India; cultivated in Jamaica, being called Port
Royal or Jamaica Senna; leaves 5-7 pairs, leaflets obovate, obtuse.
C. Pubes'cens (C. holoseric'ea), Aden Senna, Abyssinia, rarely met with
now; leaflets 2.5 Cm. (1') long, ovate mucronate, hairy, sometimes mixed
with Mecca senna. C. brev'ipes, C. America; leaflets resemble Indian
senna, but have 3 longitudinal veins; infusion non-purgative.
[ILLUSTRATION] Cassia obovata: a, legume; b, leaflet, about natural
SENNA. SENNA, U.S.P.
Cassia senna, (Linne'), angustifolia(Vahl).
The dried leaflets, with not more than 10 p.c. of stems, nor 2 p.c. of
pods or other foreign organic matter, yielding not more than 3 p.c. of
Habitat. E. And C. Africa, India.
Syn. Senn.; Br. Sennae Folia, Senna
Leaves: 1. Senna Alexandrina, Alexandrian (Nubian, Tripoli)
Senna; Fr. Sene -- d'Alexandrie; Ger. Alexandrinische
Senna. 2. Senna Indica, East Indian (Arabian, Bombay,
Mecca, Mocha, Tinnevelly) Senna; Fr. Sene de l'Inde--de Tinnevelly,
Feuilles de Sene'; Ger. Folia Sennae, Sennesblatter, Indische Senna.
Cas'si-a. L. fr. Gr. ..., fr. Heb.
..., to cut off, to peel off -- i.e., bark of some species cut off
and used; classical name of a bark allied to cinnamon.
Sen'na. L. fr. Ar. sana, sena.
Hind, sena -- i.e., native Arabian plant name; this is the
subgenus of Cassia, but should have held full generic rank.
An-gus-ti-fo'li-a. L. Angustus,
narrow, + folium, leaf -- i.e., leaves narrow.
PLANTS. -- Cassia Senna, small shrub, .6-1 M. (2-3
degrees) high; stem erect, woody, branching, whitish; flowers large, yellow,
axillary raceme; fruit few, legume, 5 Cm. (2') long, 18 Mm. (3/4') broad,
thin, broadly elliptical, reniform, dark green, membranous, smooth, indehiscent,
6-7-celled, each with a cordate, ash-colored seed; leaves alternate, 4-5
pairs; paripinnate, footstalks glandless, 2 small-pointed stipules at base;
Cassia angustifolia, small shrub similar to preceding, except fruit a trifle
longer and narrower, 8-seeded; leaves sessile, 5-8 pairs. LEAFLETS
(C. Senna): Alexandria, 2-3.5 Cm. (4/5-1/2/5') long, 6-10 Mm. (1/4-2/5')
broad, inequilaterallly lanceolate, lance-ovate, short, stout petiolules,
acutely cuspidate, entire subcoriaceous, brittle, pale grayish-green; hairs
short, appressed, few on upper surface mor numerous on lower, spreading
on the midrib; usually unbroken, occasionally in fragments; odor
characteristic; taste mucilaginous, bitter; (C. angustifolia): Tinnevelly,
2-5 Cm. (4/5-2') long, 6-15 Mm. (1/4-3/5') broad, yellowish-green, smooth
above, paler beneath, slightly hairy, more abruptly pointed than, but odor
and taste resembling closely the preceding. POWDER, light green --
fragments of veins with lignified tracheae and crystal-fibers, isolated
hairs, masses of palisade and mesophyll parenchyma, stomata, calcium oxalate
rosettes, prisms; hairs more numerous in C. Senna. Tests:
1. Boil for 2 minutes .5 Gm. with alcoholic solution of potassium
hydroxide (1 in 10) 10 cc., add water 10 cc., acidify filtrate with hydrochloric
acid, shake with ether, then shake the ethereal layer with ammonia T.S.
5 cc. -- latter pinkish-bluish-red color. Solvents: water or diluted
alcohol extracts the active constituents (emodin, chrysophanic acid); water-soluble
constituents 28 p.c.; a decoction made by long boiling is inert, being
rendered more so by the addition of an alkali or acid; leaves by percolation
with alcohol are deprived of their griping (resinous) content, odor, taste,
and color, but still retain, slightly lessened, their pleasant cathartic
power. Dose, 3ss-3 (2-12 Gm.).
[ILLUSTRATION] Cassia Senna: half natural size; A. Leaflets;
ADULTERATIONS. -- Alexandria: 1.
C. Obovata, leaflets, called by Arabs Senna Ealadi (Wild Senna), and
considered in Egypt less valuable than Senna Jebeli (Mountain Senna, C.
Senna). 2. Solenos-tem-ma Ar'gel, leaves which have
lateral veins indistinct, leathery, wrinkled, bitter; flower buds present;
fruit pear-shaped. 3. Crac'ca Tephro'sia Apollin'ea,
leaflets, S. Europe, uneven base, obovate, emarginate (poisonous).
4. Coria'ria myrtifo'lia, leaves (poisonous), and Colu'tea
arbores'cens, leaflets formerly used. 5. Leaves of Ailan'thus
glandulo'sa, Tree of Heaven, easily recognized, even in the powder.
6. Pods, leaf-stalks, branches. All these now are garbled
out carefully. The Arabians preferred the pods, as they contain 25
p.c. more cathartic principle than the leaflets, and no resin or volatile
oil, hence do not gripe. Six or eight pods infused in 3ij (60 cc.)
of water will purge an adult.
[ILLUSTRATION] Cassia Senna: a, legume; b, leaflet, about
Commercial. -- Plants yield two annual crops
of leaflets, the larger (best) in September, at the end of the rains, the
smaller in April, during the dry season; the entire plants are cut down
(by natives), exposed on rocks to the hot sun until dry, stripped of leaflets,
which are packed in palm-leaf bags for transportation on camels to the
market ports, where, after being garbled, the drug is put into large bales
for exportation. There are several varieties: 1. Alexandrian
(Nubian), chiefly from Nubia (Sennaar, Kordofan), some from Timbuctoo,
being forwarded usually via Assouan, Darao, thence by the Nile to Cairo
and Alexandria; its botanic source has receive various synonyms: Cassia
Senna, C. Acutifolia, C. Lanceola'ta, C. Leniti'va, C. officinalis, C.
aethio'pica, C. orientalis, etc.; Tripoli senna, from Tripoli
(interior Africa), having no doubt the same botanic origin, is conveyed
to market ports by caravans, being, as a rule, much broken, discolored,
and mixed with legumes, stalks, and earthy matter, but no foreign leaves,
and seldom reaches our country; it is restricted by some to C. Aethiopica
(C. obovata, C. Ova'ta), and is not grown in Arabia or India. 1,
Tinnevelly (Indian, Arabian, Mocha), originally indigenous to S.
Arabia and interior of Africa, but entered market via India (Bombay, Calcutta);
its botanic source has received several synonyms: Cassia angustifolia,
C. Elonga'ta, C. Med'ica; now cultivated extensively from Arabian
seeds, at Tinnevelly, S. India, where it becomes most luxuriant; and owing
to freedom from legumes, stalks, etc., furnished the finest and purest
leaflets; it is exported mostly from Tuticorin, and Madras; Bombab (E.
India) Senna, sold frequently as Tinnevelly, has the same source, but is
dried less carefully, often containing small and discolored leaflets; Arabian
(Mecca) Senna, sold often as Bombay, is collected and dried even with less
care, and contains many brown leaflets and legumes.
[ILLUSTRATION] Cassia angustifolia: half natural size; A, leaflets;
CONSTITUENTS. -- Anthraglucosennin, Emodin 1 p.c.,
Chrysophanic acid, Glucosennin, Isoemodin, Senna-rhamnetin, Sennanigrin,
Kaempferol Kempferin, gum, resin, catharto-mannite (non-fermentable sugar),
isomeric with quercite, sennapicrin, oxalic, malic, tartaric acids, combined
with calcium, volatile oil (developing after drying), ash 10-12 p.c., of
which 3 p.c. is insoluble in hydrochloric acid.
Anthraglucosennin. -- Obtained (Tschirch)
by evaporating a weak ammoniacal percolate of senna; it is a complex brownish-black
powder, partly soluble in ether, acetone, capable of being resolved into
components by various solvents; the ether-soluble portion (emodin, chrysophanic
acid, glucosennin) when boiled with toluene, to a partial solution, and
poured into benzin gives a precipitate -- (senna-)emodin -- trioxymethylanthraquinone,
melting at 223 degrees C. (434 degrees F.), while in the benzin mother-liquor
remains -- (senna-) chrysophanic acid -- trioxymethylanthraquinone, obtained
by evaporation; the ether-soluble portion insoluble in toluene is an emodin
glucoside -- glucosennin, C22H18O8 (yellow amorphous powder). The
ether-insoluble portion (isoemodin, senna-rhamnetin) when treated with
acetone and shaken with benzin yields -- (senna-)isoemodin, C15H10O5
(isomeric with (senna-)emodin, but differs in being soluble in benzin);
the acetone solutin retains -- senna-rhamnetin (reddish-brown powder, differing
from rhamnetin in not fluorescing in sulpuric acid solution); the anthraglucosennin
residue left after treatment with ether and acetone is a black, amorphous
powder, which treated with alcoholic potash yields -- (senna-emodin and
senna-)chrysophanic acid. From an aqueous percolate Tschirch extracted
cathartic acid and a crystalline body, C14H10L5,
having similar reactions as sennanigrin, but concludes that the cathartic
action (peristalsis) is due solely to the emodin and chrysophanic acid,
both being both being oxymethylanthraquinones. Formerly senna was
believed to contain: cathartic (cathartinic) acid, senna-picrin, sennacrol
(resin causing griping), chrysophan and pheretin (yellow coloring matters),
sennite (cathartomannite), mucilage, ash 10-12 p.c.
[ILLUSTRATION] Cassia angustifolia Cracca a, legume; b,
leaflet, Argel leaf. Coriaria leaf. (Tephrosia) leaflet.
about natural size.
PREPARATIONS. -- 1. Fluidextractum Sennae.
Fluidextract of Senna. (Syn., Fldext. Senn., Fluid Extract of Senna;
Liquor Sennae Concentratus; Fr. Extrait fluide de Sene'; Ger. Sennafluidextrakt.)
Manufacture: Similar to Fluidextractum Sarsaparillae,
page 126; menstruum: 33 p.c. alcohol, reserving first 80 cc. Dose,
3ss-2 (2-8 cc.).
Preps.: 1. Syrupus Sennae. Syrup
of Senna. (Syn., Syr. Senn.; Fr. Sirop de Sene'; Ger. Sirupus Sennae,
Manufacture: 25 p.c. Mix oil of coriander
.5 cc. With fldext.of senna 25, gradually add water 33, let stand 24 hours
in cool place, shaking occasionally, filter, pass through filter water
q.s. 58 cc. in which dissolve sucrose 63.5 Gm., add water q.s. 100 cc.
Dose, 3ss-4 (2-15 cc.).
2. Syrupus Sennae Aromaticus, N.F.,
12.5 p.c., + jalap 5, rhubarb 1.75, +. Dose, 3j-3 (4-
12 cc.). 3. Syrupus Ficus Compositus, N.F., 20 p.c.
2. Pulvis Glycyrrhizoe Compositus, 18 p.c.
3. Confectio Sennae, N.F., 10 p.c., + cassia fistula 16, tamarind
10, prune 7, fig 12, water 65, digest, strain, add sucrose 55.5, evaporate
to 89.5, add senna 10, oil of coriander .5. Dose, 3j-2 (4-8 Gm.).
4. Infusum Sennae Compositum, Black Draught, N.F., senna 6
Gm., manna 12, magnesium sulphate 12, fennel 2, boiling water q.s. 100
cc.; must be recently prepared. Dose, 3j-3 (30-90 cc.). 5. Species
Laxativae, St. Germain Tea, N.F., 40 p.c., + sambucus 25, fennel 12.5,
anise 12.5, potassium bitartrate 10. Dose, gr. 15-30 (1-2 Gm.).
Unoff. Preps.: Extract, gr. 5-20 (.3-1.3
Gm.). Infusion (Br.), 10 p.c. + ginger .5. Compd. Syrup 13.5 p.c.,+.
Tinctura Sennae Composita (Br.), 20 p.c.
PROPERTIES. -- Cathartic, acts on nearly the entire
intestinal tract (especially colon), increasing peristalsis and intestinal
secretion, except biliary; produces in 4 to 6 hours copious yellow stools,
with griping and flatulence; does not cause hypercatharsis nor constipation.
Large dose vomits, purges, with severe tenesmus, but never poisons; the
odor acts as a cathartic on very susceptible persons.
USES. -- Arabians used it in skin affections; now
employed for habitual constipation, hemorrhoids, fissura ani, fevers.
Its smell, taste, tendency to nauseate, injurious effects in hemorrhoids,
intestinal hemorrhage, and inflammation, all lessen its popularity; its
purgative action is increased by bitters, calumba, etc., while the griping
and nausea are diminished by coriander, tamarind, manna, fennel, Epsom
or Rochelle salt. If leaves be macerated long in water, or if the
mass be pressed tightly, much acrid, resinous principle will be obtained,
causing griping, hence should exhaust by rapid percolation.
Casta'nea denta'ta, Castanea, Chestnut Leaves,
N. F. -- The dried leaves with not more than 5 p.c. of stems or other
foreign organic matter; N. America, W. Asia, S. Europe. Stately tree,
24-30 M. (80-100 degrees) high; wood light, durable; flowers in 3's, monoecious
-- staminate and pistillate, involucre 4-lobed, becoming prickly; fruit,
4-valved involucre enclosing 1-3 l-seeded nuts. Leaves entire, slightly
broken, folded or matted together, 15-25 Cm. (6-10') long, 5 Cm. (2') wide,
oblong-lanceolate, acuminate, sharply serrate, coriaceous, dark green above,
lighter beneath, pinnately veined, petiole stout; odor slight; taste astringent;
Powder, greenish -- non-glandular hairs numerous calcium oxalate crystals
in rosettes, prisms, parenchyma cells with brown tannin masses which +
ammonio-ferric alum T.S. -- blue; contains tannin 9 p.c., resin, fat, gum,
albumin, ash 6 p.c.; fruit contains starch 35 p.c., fat 2 p.c., proteins
3-4 p.c., sugar 1-2 p.c.; solvents: boiling water, alcohol partially.
Tonic mild sedative, astringent; whooping cough, controlling paroxysms,
dysentery; wood resists exposure greatly, nuts a delicacy, thoroughly edible.
Dose, gr. 15-60 (1-4 Gm.); 1. Fluidextractum Castaneae (100
Gm., + boiling water to exhaust, evap. to 200 cc., add alcohol 60 cc.,
lastly glycerin 10, dose, mxv-60 (1-4 cc.). Infusion.
C. (Fagus) pu'mila, Castanea (Chinquapin).
-- The bark, U.S.P. 1820-1850; Delaware-Mississippi. Shrub or small
tree, 6-15 M. (20-50 degrees) high, 25-27.5 Cm (10-15') thick, largest
being South; leaves differ from chestnut in having underside white, downy;
bark grayish, brownish inside; fruit rounded, conical, 12 Mm. (1/2') long,
9 Mm. (3/8') broad at base, same constituents and taste as chestnuts; bark
contains tannin, resin, extractive. Tonic, astringent; intermittents.
[ILLUSTRATION] Castanea dentata. Castanea: leaf, one-half
Caulophyl'lum thalictroi'des, Caulophyllum, Blue
Cohosh, Papoose (Squaw) Root, N.F. -- The dried rhizome and roots with
not more than 3 p.c. of foreign organic matter, yielding not more than
4 p.c. of acid-insoluble ash; N. America (Canada, United States).
Smooth, glaucous perennial, .6 M. (2 degrees) high, with large triternately
compound leaf at summit, leaflets 3-5-lobed; flowers greenish-yellow.
Rhizome horizontal, 7-25 Cm. (3-10') long, 5-15 Mm. (1/5-3/5') thick, large
cup-shaped stem-scars above, curved tortuous, thin, tough, tangled or matted
roots below often concealing rhizome, yellowish-gray;
fracture tough, woody; odorless, sternutatory; taste bittersweet, acrid.
Powder, light brown -- numerous starch grains, fragments of cork, tracheae,
wood-fibers, tracheids, parenchyma; contains caulophylline, caulophyllin
(resins) 12 p.c., leontin (saponin-like glucoside -- active principle).
Antispassmodic, diuretic, emmenagogue, demulcent, sternutatory, sedative,
oxytocic; hysteria, amenorrhea, spasmodic dysmenorrhea, uterine subinvolution
(causing muscular contraction), arrests or produces abortion; the aborigines
believed the infusion their best parturient, drinking for several weeks
prior to labor. Dose, gr. 10-30 (.6-2 Gm.); 1. Fluidextractum
Caulophylli (75 p.c.alcohol): Preps.: 1. Elixir Aletridis Compositum
(fldext. 6.55 p.c.); 2. Elixir Heloniadis Composibum (fldext.
3.2 p.c.). Extract, gr. 2-5 (.13-.3 Gm.), Tincture, 25 p.c., 3j-2
(4-8 cc.); decoction, infusion, each 5 p.c., 3j-2 (30-60 cc.).
Cetra'ria islan'dica, Iceland Moss. -- The
dried plant, U.S.P. 1820-1890; N. hemisphere. Thallus 5-10 Cm. (2-4')
long, foliaceous, fringed, and channeled lobes, brownish above, whitish
beneath, apothecia (fruits) brown, flattish, brittle, inodorous; taste
mucilaginous, bitter; contains cetraric acid (bitter) 2-3 p.c., which removed
leaves digestible food product containing proteins 2.8 p.c., fat .4 p.c.,
cellulose 4-6 p.c., lichenin (starch) 79.2 p.c., related substance, water
6 p.c., ash 6.99 p.c. Demulcent (starch), tonic (cetraric acid),
nutritive; chronic catarrhs, pulmonary affections (bronchitis, consumption),
chronic diarrhea, dysentery; bread, instead of acacia. Dose, 3ss-1
(2-4 Gm.); decoction, .5 p.c., 3j-4 (30-120 cc.).
[ILLUSTRATION] Cetraria islandica: ap, apothecium.
Ceylon Moss. -- Indian Ocean. Mostly
Sphaerococ'cus Lichenoi'des, 10 Cm. (4') long, 1.5 Mm. (1/16') thick, cylindrical,
forked, filiform above; reddish--when dry whitish, brittle.
Chamaeli'rium lu'teum, Helonias, False Uniforn,
N.F. -- The dried rhizome and roots with not more than 5 p.c. of foreign
organic matter; N. America. Fragrant perennial herb; stem .3-.7 M.
(12-18') high, from basal rosette of lanceolate leaves terminating in plume-like
raceme -- pistillate greenish, staminate creamy-white; fruit capsule.
Rhizome .5-3 Cm. (1/5-1 1/5') long, 1 Cm. 2/5' thick, roundish, grayish-brown,
annulate from scars of bud-scales, leaf bases above, many yellowish wiry
roots beneath, 5-8 Cm. (2-3') long; fracture hard, horny, internally grayish-yellow,
cortex 3-4 Mm. (1/8-1/6') thick, odor slight; taste bitter, astringent.
Powder, yellowish--parenchyma cells with unaltered starch grains, bundles
of calcium oxalate raphides, lignified cork and fibers, tracheae; solvent:
diluted alcohol; contains chamelirin (bitter saponin-like glucoside) 10
p.c. Taenifuge, diuretic uterine tonic, emetic; tape-worm, atony
of gastro-intestinal and genito-urinary mucous membranes, dropsy.
Dose, 3ss-1 (2-4 Gm.); 1. Fluidextractum Heloniadis (diluted alcohol).
Preps.: 1. Elixir Heloniadis Compositum, 3.2 p.c. (fldext.), + fldext.
of caulophyllum 3.2, fldext. of viburnum opulus 3.2, fldext. of mitchella
12.5, dose, 3ss-1 (2-4 cc.); 2. Elixir Aletridis Compositum, 6.5 p.c.
Helonin ("Eclectic" extract), dose, gr. 1-5 (.06-.3 Gm.).
Chelido'nium ma'jus, Chelidonium, Celandine.
-- The entire plant, collected when beginning to flower, U.S.P. 1880-1890;
Europe, N. America. Perennial light green plant, .6 M. (2 degrees)
high, emitting when wounded a saffron-yellow, opaque juice; leaves pinnate,
10-20 Cm. (4-8') long; flowers yellowish; root reddish-brown, several-headed,
branching; fruit capsule, linear, 2-valved; seed numerous; odor unpleasant
when fresh; taste acrid; contains chelerythrine, chelidonine, a- and s-homochelidonine,
chelidoxanthin, sanguinarine, protopine, chelidonic (jervic) acid, chelidoninic
(ethylenesuccinic) acid, gum, chlorophyll; solvents: water, alcohol.
Cathartic, diuretic, diaphoretic, expectorant; used by ancients as now
for jaundice, dropsy, intermittent fever, scrofula, skin diseases; externally
-- warts, corns, eczema, urticaria, itching eruptions; fresh herb in amenorrhea,
as a vulnerary. Dose, dried plant, gr. 15-60 (1-4 Gm.); fresh plant,
3j-2 (4-8 Gm.).
[ILLUSTRATION] Chelidonium Majus: showing fruit, flowers, ovary, and
Oleum Chenopodii. Oil of Chenopodium, U.S.P.
Chenopodium ambrosioides, var. Anthelminticum,
Linne'. (A volatile oil distilled with steam from the fresh,
overground parts of the flowering and fruiting plant yielding not less
than 65 p.c. ascaridol (C10H16O2).
Habitat. W. Indies, C. And S. America,
waste places, roadsides; naturalized in United States, Europe, Africa;
cultivated in Maryland for the oil.
Syn. American (Wild) Wormseed, Stinking
Weed, Goosefoot, Jerusalem (Jesuit) Tea, Jerusalem Oak (Jak), Fructus
Chenopodii Anthelmintici; Ol. Chenopod., Oil of American Wormseed;
Fr. Anserine Vermifuge (plante fleurie), Essence de Chenopode anthelmintique;
Ger. Amerikanischer Wurmsamen, Wurmsamenol, Chenopodiumol.
Che-no-po'di-um. L. See etymology, above,
Am-bro-si-oi'des. L. Fr. Gr. A, priv., not,
+ ..., mortal, + ..., like -- i.e., resembling that which is
immortal, once thought to effect that condition when taken.
An-thel-min'ti-cum. L. Fr. Gr. ..., against,
+ ..., a worm i.e., worm antagonizer or destroyer.
PLANT. -- Annual or perennial, .6-1.6 M. (2-5 degrees)
high; stem angular, furrowed, branched; leaves toothed, yellowish-green,
gland-dotted on under surface; flowers July-Sept., greenish-yellow, dense
leafy spikes. Fruit, 2 Mm. 1/12') thick, size of pin's head, depressed-globular,
greenish-gray, integuments friable, containing a lenticular, obtusely edged,
glossy, black seed; odor peculiar, terebinthinate; taste bitter, pungent.
All parts of the plant have this disagreeable odor and same medicinal properties
when dry and fresh; grows best in rubbish, along fences, in village streets,
vacant lots, and should be collected in October.
CONSTITUENTS. -- Volatile oil 3-3.5 p.c., from fresh
herb .5 -1 p.c.
Oleum Chenopodii. Oil of Chenopodium. --
This volatile oil, obtained by distilling with water or superheated steam,
is a colorless, pale yellowish liquid, peculiar, disagreeable odor, bitte
burning taste, soluble in 70 p.c. alcohol (8), sp. gr. 0.967,
levorotatory; contains a terpene-- pinene, C10H16, and
a liquid oxygenated portion (C10H16O2), ascaridol.
Should be kept cool, dark, in well-stoppered, amber-
colored bottles. Dose, mij-10 (.13-.6 cc.).
FRUIT: Fluidextract, mxv- 30 (1-2 cc.). Decoction
(water or milk), 3j-2 (30-60) cc.).
FRESH PLANT: Expressed Juice, 3ij-4 (8-15 cc.), ter die.
[ILLUSTRATION] Chenopodium ambrosioides var. anthelminticum.
PROPERTIES. -- Anthelmintic, vermifuge, round worms
USES. -- While mainly for worms, it has also been
used in itermittents, hysteria, chorea, nervous affections, tenia.
May give the powder incorporated with molasses or syrup, but the oil is
more popular, being well taken on sugar by children. Should be given
twice daily for several days on empty stomach, if possible, and follow
with a dose of castor oil. Fruit, U.S.P. 1820-1890.
1. Chenopodium ambrosioi'des, Herba Botryos
Mexicanae, Mexican Tea. The fruit, U.S.P. 1890 Europe, Asia.
This resembles very closely the preceding plant, the latter being, however,
more strongly aromatic, leaves more deeply toothed, the lower ones often
nearly pinnatifid, spikes more elongated, usually leafless; fruit of both
alike .C. Bo'trys, Jerusalem Oak (Feather Geranium); Europe, Asia.
Strongly aromatic; catarrh, asthma. C. Bo'nus Henri'cus, Good King
Henry; Taste saline, mucilaginous. C. Al'bum, Pig Weed (Lamb's Quarters);
taste mucilaginous, saline. C. Vulva'ria, Fetid Goosefoot; Europe;
plant has fish-brint odor, due to trimethylamine.
Chimaph'ila umbella'ta, Chimaphila, Pipsissewa,
Princes' Pine. -- The dried leaves with not more than 5 p.c. of stems
or other foreign organic matter; N. America, Europe, Asia -- dry woods.
Perennial evergreen herb, 10-25 Cm. (4-10') high; rhizome creeping, yellowish;
flowers terminal umbel, eorymb, white tinged with red, fragrant.
Leaves, oblanceolate, 2.5-7 Cm. (1-3') long, 8-20 Mm. (1/3-4/5') broad,
upper portion coarsely, sharply serrate, obtuse, lower cuneiform, nearly
entire, coriaceous, dark green, paler beneath; odor slight; taste astringent,
bitter. Powder, greenish-brown--epidermal tissue, stomata, palisade
and spongy parenchyma with chloroplastids, tracheae, reddish amorphous
substance, calcium oxalate rosettes, starch grains, few stem and root-stock
fragments; solvents: diluted alcohol, boiling water; contains chimaphilin,
tannin, arbutin, ericolin, urson, volatile oil, resin. Astringent,
tonic, diuretic (similar to buchu, uva ursi, pareira, scoparius),
rubefacient; scrofula, rheumatism, dropsy, scanty urine, gravel, hematuria,
gonorrhea, skin affections, diarrhea, gout, ulcers, tumors. Dose,
gr. 15-60 (1-4 Gm.); 1. Fluidextractum Chimaphilae (diluted alcohol),
dose 3ss-1 (2-4 cc.); 2. Fluidextractum Stillingiae Compositum, 12.5
p.c.: Prep.: 1. Syrupus Stillingiae Compositus, 25 p.c. Decoction,
C. Macula'ta, Spotted Wintergreen (Pipsissewa).
-- The leaves, U.S.P. 1830; N. America. Herb, 7.5-15 Cm. (3-6') high,
leaves 2.5-5 Cm. (1-2') long, 12 Mm. 1/2') wide, ovate-lanceolate, obtuse
at base, toothed, upper surface variegated (spotted) with white along midrib
and veins; flowers purplish-white.
[ILLUSTRATION] Chimaphila umbellata: upper part of flowering stem.
Chionan'thus virgin'ica, Chionanthus, Fringe Tree
Bark, N.F. -- The dried root-bark with not more than 5 p.c. of wood
and other foreign organic matter, yielding to 70 p.c. alcohol not less
than 25 p.c. of non-volatile extractive; S. United States, river banks.
Low tree or shrub, very ornamental in cultivation; leaves 5-6, oblong;
fruit, purple ovoid drupe, 1-2 Cm. (2/5-4/5') long, Bark, usually in transversely
curved pieces, occasionally single quills, 1-10 Cm. (2/5-4') long, 2-10
Mm. (1/12-2/5') thick, heavy, some pieces sink in water, reddish-brown,
transverse wrinkles, scaly, pits and ridges, whitish cork patches, root-scars,
inner surface yellowish-brown, striate, undulate; fracture short, hard,
coarsely granular (stone cells); odor characteristic; taste bitter.
Powder, light brown--starch grains, numerous stone cells in groups or isolated,
few short fibers, numerous resin masses, brownish cork cells, parenchyma
tissue, prismatic crystals; solvent: water; contains bitter principle,
tannin, ash 5 p.c. Alterative, blood purifier; liver trouble, syphilis;
popular with Eclectics, Homeopaths. Dose, gr. 15-30 (1-2 Gm.); 1.
Fluidextractum Chionanthi (75 p.c. alcohol). Decoction, Infusion,
5 p.c., 3ss-1 (15-30 cc.).
[ILLUSTRATION] Pareira (brava): portion of a root and transverse
section of the same.
Chondroden'dron tomento'sum, Parei'ra, Parei'ra
Bra'va, N.F. -- The dried root with not more than 5 p.c. of stems nor
2 p.c. of other foreign organic matter; Brazil, near Rio Janeiro, Peru.
Tall woody climber; stem 1-10 Cm. (2/5-4') thick, bark rough, with elevated
prominences; leaves 12.5-30 Cm. (5-12') long, ovate, cordate, petiolate,
smooth above, finely woolly beneath; flowers dioecious, panicles; fruit
purplish-black drupe, 6 in a bunch like grapes. Root subcylindrical,
tortuous, in pieces 10-15 Cm. (4-6') long, 1-6 Cm. (2/5-2') thick, brownish,
furrowed, hard, heavy, tough; internally brownish-gray, waxy luster (fresh),
several successive concentric zones of fibro-vascular bundles, each 2-4
Mm. (1/12-1/6') wide, separated by zones of parenchyma and stone cells,
prominent medullary rays; stems grayish, usually covered with lichens,
without waxy luster; odor slight; taste bitter. Powder, dark brown--numerous
starch grains, tracheae, wood-fibers, stone cells, brownish cork; bluish-black
with iodine T.S.; solvents: 70 p.c. alcohol, boiling water; contains
pelosine (cissampeline--identical with bebeerine, buxine, paricine), tannin,
starch, gum, ash 6-11 p.c. Diuretic, tonic, laxative; cystitis, calculi,
gonorrhea, leucorrhea, dropsy, rheumatism, jaundice; natively for bites
of poisonous serpents (leaves to wound, vinous infusion internally).
Dose, 3ss-1 (2-4 Gm.); 1. Fluidextractum Pareirae (diluted alcohol),
dose, 3ss-1 (2-4 cc.). Extract, gr. 10-20 (.6-1.3 Gm.). Infusion,
Decoction, each, 5 p.c., 3j-2 (30-60 cc.).
[ILLUSTRATION] Chondrus crispus: a, narrow form, with fruit;
b, broad form; c, small form.
Chon'drus cris'pus or Gigarti'na mamillo'sa, Irish
Moss, Carrageen, N.F. -- Gigartinaceae. The dried, bleached plants,
with not more than 2 p.c. of foreign organic matter; Atlantic Ocean, New
England, Irish coast. Entire plants small, matted together, slender
dichotomously branching stalk; segments flattened, emarginate, cleft at
tips, 5-15 Cm. (2-6') long, 1-10 Mm. (1/25-2/5') broad, yellowish-white,
transparent, somewhat cartilaginous, frequently coated with calcareous
deposit which effervesces with hydrochloric acid; sporangia embedded (C.
Crospus) or on short stalks (G. Mamillosa); odor slight, seaweed-like;
taste mucilaginous, saline, solvent: water; contains mucilage (carrageenin--not
precipitated by alcohol--gum, or by lead acetate--pectin, or blue with
iodine--starch, only slightly adhesive) 55-90 p.c., minerals 14 p.c., albuminoids
9 p.c., water 18 p.c., ash 8-15 p.c. Demulcent, nutrient, dietetic;
bronchitis, diarrhea, kidney and bladder affections--diet instead of tapioca,
sago, barley. Plants green (fresh) or purplish (dry) are taken from
the beach after storms, or are torn by boatmen with rakes from rocks, 3-6
M. (10-20 degrees) under water, then washed in sea water and spread high
on shore for drying and bleaching--a process frequently repeated several
times. Dose, 3j-2 (4-8 Gm.); 1. Mucilago Chondri, 3
p.c. -- emulsifier; Decoction, 5 p.c. (Water or milk, sweetened and
flavored), 3j-2 (30-60 cc.). G. Acicula'ris and G. Pistilla'ta have
similar appearance and properties.
Chrysan'themum (Pyrethrum) ro'seum and C. Car'neum,
Persian Pellitory -- Persian (Caucasian) Insect Powder; W. Asia, Persia.
Perennial plants, resembling chamomile; flower-heads 4 Cm. (1 3/5') broad;
ray-florets rose-color with anthers included (roseum), or purple with anthers
projecting (carneum); powder grayish-yellow, brownish (best), bright yellow
(weakest), tea odor, bitter -- used only for killing insects, the toxicity
being due to pyrethron (pyrethrotoxic acid -- cardiac depressant like veratrine),
a neutral, amber-yellow syrupy ester (pyretol) soluble in alcohol, ether,
splitting into pyrethrol, C21H34O), and several acids, pyrethresin.
C. Cinerariaefo'lium, Dalmatian Insect Powder;
Dalmatia. These flowers are most valuable when collected immediately
after expansion, and yield a more or less inferior insect powder -- greenish-yellow.
Plant cultivated in Algeria, Japan, Montenegro, and largely in California,
where flowers are dried carefully (to preserve color and volatile oil)
-- furnishing a superior powder, called "buhach." Should not contain
more than 5 p.c. flower-stems or 2 p.c. acid-insoluble ash. Tests:
1. Put 4 gr. (.25 Gm.) of the powder upon a fly in a vial -- it should
be stupefied in 1 minute and dead in 2 or 3 minutes. 2. With
microscope can recognize scarcity of pollen and abundance of collenchymatous
tissue when much stem and few flowers are used. Powder often adulterated
with turmeric (chloroform test), chrome alum (ash not more than 6 p.c.),
and other compositous plant flowers, as Chrysanthemum Leucan'themum (Leucanthemum
vulga're), white-weed, oxeye or field daisy, and C. Seg'etum. Neither
of these is an insecticide but will produce dermatitis in some persons.
Cicho'riium In'tybus, Chicory. -- Europe,
naturalized in United States. Root with laticiferous vessels radiate,
also is white, more woody, and has thinner bark than taraxacum. July
collection contains 36 p.c. of inulin, bitter principle, etc., and has
properties similar to taraxacum root, with which it often is mixed
as an adulterant. Roasted root is frequently to adulterate coffee.
C. Endiv'ia, Endive; Levant; cultivated for its bitter leaves.
[ILLUSTRATION] Cichorium Intybus. Cichorium: transverse
CIMICIFUGA. CIMIFUGA, U.S.P.
Cimicifuga racemosa, (Linne') Nutfall.
The dried rhizome and roots with not more than 2 p.c. stems or other foreign
organic matter, yielding not more than 4 p.c. acid-insoluble ash.
Habitat. United States, Canada; in
shady, rocky places.
Syn. Cimicif., Black Cohosh, Black Snakeroot,
Macrotys, Bugbane, Bugwort, Rattleroot, Rattleweed, Richweed,
Squawroot, Rattlesnake's Root; Cimicifuga Rhizoma, Actaeae
Racemosae Radix; Fr. Racine d'Actee a Grappes; Ger. Schwarze Schlangenwursel.
Cim-i-cif'u-ga. L. Cimex, bug,
+ fugare, to drive away -- i.e., from the fact of Cimicifuga faetida
being used for that purpose in Siberia and Kamtchatka.
Ra-ce-mo'sa. L. Racemosus --
i.e., full of clusters, racemes -- i.e., the flowers.
PLANT. -- Perennial; stem slender, unbranched, 1.5-2.5
M. (5-8 degrees) high; leaves irregularly ternately decompound, the rather
small leaflets incised, 2.5-7.5 Cm. (12-3') long; flowers June-July, regular,
numerous, small, white, in wand-like racemes, 20-50 Cm. (8-20') long, emit
disagreeable odor. RHIZOME, horizontal in growth, branched, 2-15
Cm. (4/5-6') long, 1-2.5 Cm. (2/5-1') thick, dark brown, grayish-black,
slightly annulate from circular scars of bud scale-leaves; upper surface
with numerous hard, erect, curved branches terminated by deep cup-shaped
scars showing radiate structure; lower and lateral surfaces with numerous
root-scars and few short roots; fracture horny; internally whitish and
mealy or dark brown and waxy; bark thin, wood distinctly radiate and of
same thickness as pith; odor slight; taste bitter, acrid; roots cylindrical,
obtusely quadrangular, 1-3 Mm. (1/25-1/8') thick, 3-12 Cm. (1 1/5-4 4/5')
long, brownish, blackish, longitudinally wrinkled, fracture short; internally
cortex thin, brownish, wood yellowish 4-6-rayed. POWDER, light
brown--numerous starch grains, .003-.015 Mm. (1/8825-1/1650') broad, fragments
showing tracheae with bordered pores and lignified wood-fibers, fragments
of suberized epidermis made up of tabular cells. Solvents: alcohol,
boiling water. Dose, gr. 5-30 (.3-2 Gm.).
[ILLUSTRATION] Cimicifuga racemosa
ADULTERATIONS. -- Rare: Caulophyllum, podophyllum,
each sometimes 1 p.c., comfrey, possessing similar blackish color, smaller
Commercial. -- Plant, also named actae'a
racemosa, emits when in bloom an odor resembling meadow-sweet, by many
considered unpleasant. Rhizome should be collected in autumn (most
active), and used shortly thereafter, as it deteriorates with age; recognized
readily by the microscope from black and green hellebore whose rhizomes
have few and broad wood-bundles and roots with pentagonal or hexagonal
wood-zone; rhizome of Actaea spica'ta, Europe, very similar, but
its juicy berries are in marked contrast with the official plant's dry
CONSTITUENTS. -- Cimicifugin, resins 3.5 p.c., amorphous
resinous body (probably the active principle), racemosin, fat, starch,
gum, tannin, volatile oil, sugar; ash 8-10 p.c.; latest investigators claim
activity to depend upon: isoferulic acid, salicylic acid, palmitic acid,
phytosterol, 3 crystalline bodies (alcohols?), alkaloids (trace).
[ILLUSTRATION] Cimifuga racemosa: transverse section through
a branch of the rhisome and through rootlets; natural size.
Cimicifugin. -- Bitter, acrid crystalline
principle, obtained by acting on the "Eclectic" resinoid, cimicifugin or
upon the fresh rhizome with alcohol, precipitating (resin, tannin, coloring
matter) with lead subacetate, removing lead with hydrogen sulphide, and
evaporating; it is soluble in alcohol, chloroform, slightly in ether.
CINNAMOMUM. CINNAMON, U.S.P.
Resins. -- There are two of these, one soluble
in alcohol but not in ether, the other soluble in ether as well as alcohol.
These two are obtained as a mixture by exhausting powdered drug with alcohol,
precipitating with water, drying precipitate, and as such constitutes the
"Eclectic" cimicifugin (macrotin), a yellowish-brown hygroscopic powder.
Dose, gr. 1/2-2 (.03-.13 Gm.).
PREPARATIONS. -- 1. Fluidextractum Cimicifugae.
Fluidextract of Cimicifuga. (Syn., Fldext. Cimicif., Fluid Extract
of Cimicifuga, Fluidextract of Black Cohosh, Fluidextract of Black Snakeroot;
Extractum Cimicifugae Liquidum; Fr. Extrait fluide d'Actee a Grappes; Ger.
Manufacture: Similar to Fluidextractum Sarsaparillae,
page 126; menstruum: alcohol. Dose, mv-30 (.3-2 cc.).
Prep.: 1. Elixir Sodii Salicylatis
Compositum, N.F., 3.2 p.c.
2. Tinctura Cimicifugae, N.F., 20 p.c.
(alcohol). Dose, 3ss-2 (2-4 cc.).
3. Elixir Tongae et Salicylatum, N.F.
Unoff. Preps.: Decoction, 5 p.c., 3ss-1 (15-30
cc.). Compound Syrup, 4 p.c.
PROPERTIES. -- Alterative (diuretic, diaphoretic,
expectorant), antispasmodic, sedative (arterial and nervous), cardiac stimulant--safer
than digitalis, emmenagogue. Acts on the gastric secretion like any
other bitter, slightly depresses the rate, but increases the force of the
pulsse, like digitalis; contracts the uterus, increasing the menstrual
flow and arterial tension.
USES. -- It was introduced first into medicine in
1831 by Dr. Young. Given as cardiac tonic in fatty heart, chorea,
acute and chronic bronchitis, rheumatism, neuralgia, hysteria, phthisis,
dyspepsia, amenorrhea, dysmenorrhea, seminal emissions. Large doses
cause vertigo, tremors, reduced pulse, vomiting, prostration. Once,
but not now, thought efficacious in snake bite, labor-pains, and ills of
Incompatibles: Iron preparations, stimulants,
Synergists: Gold, digitalis, ergot, belladonna,
Cinnamomum Loureirii, Nees. The dried
bark, yielding not less than 2 p.c. of volatile ether-soluble extractive.
Habitat. Annam (Cochin China).
Syn.Cinnam., Cinnamomum Saigonicum, Annam
-- China -- God's Cinnamon, Annam Cassia, Cortex Cinnamomi Saigonici;
Fr. Cannelle de Saigon; Ger. Saigonsint.
Cin-na-mo'mum. L. fr. Ar. Kinnamon, cinnamon,
probably connected with aaneh, a reed, cane -- i.e., resemblance
of stems; or Malay koju manis, sweet wood, from its aromatic odor
Lou-rei'ri-i. L. Loureiri-um
in honor of Jean de Loureiro, 1710-1791 -- i.e., a celebrated Portuguese
botanist and writer, author of Flora Cochinchinensis, and other important
Sa-i-gon'i-cum. L. Belonging
to Saigon, a country and city in Southern Annam -- i.e., its native
PLANT. -- Handsome evergreen tree, 6-9 M, (20-30
degrees) high, trunk .3-.5 M. (12-18') thick, young twigs slightly quadrangular;
leaves coriaceous, 3-5-nerved, but only midrib reaches apex, bright glossy-green
above, glaucous beneath, 10-20 Cm. (4-8') long; flowers Jan.-March, small,
hermaphrodite or polygamous, fleshy, black, ovoid, size of small olive,
adhering, like acorn, to cup-shaped perianth. BARK, in quills, 30
Cm. (12') long, 4 Cm. (4/5') broad; bark .5-3 Mm (1/50-1/8') thick, light
brown, dark purplish-brown with grayish patches of crustose lichens and
numerous bud-scars, finely wrinkled, especially that of younger twigs,
otherwise rough from corky patches surrounding the lenticels; inner surface
reddish-brown, dark brown, granular, slightly striate; fracture short--inner
bark porous from large oil and mucilage cells, and separated from the outer
by a layer of stone cells; odor characteristic, aromatic; taste sweetish,
aromatic, pungent; POWDER, yellowish-brown--numerous starch grains;
single and 2-4- compound, single grains .005-.025 Mm. (1/5000-1/1000')
stone cells irregular, bast-fibers with slightly lignified walls; oil and
mucilage cells. Solvents: alcohol; hot water partially. Dose, gr.
5-30 (.3-2 Gm.).
[ILLUSTRATION] Cinnamomum twig, showing leaf venation.
ADULTERATIONS. -- BARK: Saigon -- Cassia bark, and
a closely resembling bark of unknown derivation, having lighter gray color
and coarser structure identified by weak odor and taste; possibly unscraped
Guava bark quills, and clove bark; Ceylon -- Scarcely possible in the entire
state; POWDER: Neither Saigon or Ceylon found on the market, all so labeled
being cassia, which is subject to endless admixtures -- chips, siftings,
buds, walnut-shells, oil stone, flower, sand, beans, grains, starch, clove-buds--exhausted
drug, by percolation, distillation; ash (sometimes) 8-10 p.c.; OIL: That
distilled from flowers and roots, phenol, oil of clove, petroleum, colophony,
[ILLUSTRATION] Cinnamomum: a, flower; b, vertical section of the
Commercial. -- Cinnamon was a very early favorite
spice, being brought by Arabian navigators to the Phoenicians, Grecians,
and Romans, the Chinese cassia being used first, the Ceylon not until 1275.
While there are about 50 species growing wild, only a few yield the commercial
bark--this resulting mostly from cultivated plants. At one time Ceylon
excelled in the industry, but their coffee largely has replaced it, thus
restricting to the neighborhood of Colombo the principal cinnamon gardens;
however, S. China has become equally interested in the cultivation and
as a result produces much valuable bark. There are two important
varieties: 1, Saigon, Annam Cassia (Cinnamon, U.S.P.), thought to
be entirely from wild trees (C. Lourei'rii, and other species), growing
in the mountainous districts of Annam. While chips and thick trunk-bark
sometimes reach us, most is from branches and small stems, all being of
good quality--sweet ,aromatic, almost void of stringency and bitterness;
some consider it high-grade cassia, but its own specific structure, area
of growth, and absence of objectionable qualities in the corky layer seem
to preclude such a possibility; certainly it is related more closely to
cassia than to Ceylon, and may be an inferior grade (from one or more species
distinct from C. Cassia) of that distinctive Chinese cinnamon so highly
prized by the natives; 2, Ceylon (Cinnamon), formerly in U.S.P., considered
best, being nearly all from cultivated plants through the process of pollarding,
so that in 2-3 years many slender stems are produced with bark devoid of
astringent and corky layer, this latter not yet having had time to form.
The cultivation of cinnamon begins with the planting of seed in prepared
soil, 4-5 in each hill, from which, in 5-6 years, the straight stems due
to continued pruning, 1.5-3 M. (5-10 degrees) high, are cut down with catty-knives,
and by coppicing a new crop of twigs is formed every 2-3 years. The
barking (March-June, after which delicacy and aroma lessen) takes place
under cover by making 2 equidistant longtudinal incisions and transverse
ones every few feet apart, then teasing off easily with a mama-knife (Saigon);
the bark may now be allowed to wilt or undergo partial fermentation for
several days, becoming soft and pliable, thus facilitating epidermal separation,
when it is laid concave downward and scraped to the layer of stone cells,
thereby rejecting the bitter or astringent portion (Ceylon); congeries
of quills are formed, which when dried (first by shade, then by sun) are
made into 30-pound (14 Kg.) bundles and marketed as to quality in firsts,
seconds, thirds, the inferior grades being distilled for oil; or each quill
is dried separately (Saigon) and tied into bundles for exportation.
The bark is imported loose or in bundles with split bamboo bands from Canton,
Hong Kong (Saigon), Calcutta, Colombo.
[ILLUSTRATION] Cinnamomum: a, b, c, from China: d, e, from
CONSTITUENTS. -- Volatile oil .5-2 p.c., tannin 3-5
p.c., resin, bitter principle, sugar, mannite, starch, mucilage, ash 6
p.c., of which 2 p.c. is insoluble in diluted hydrochloric acid.
COLOCYNTHIS. COLOCYNTHE, U.S.P.
Oleum Cinnamomi, Oil of Cinnamon, U.S.P.
-- (Syn., Ol. Cinnam., Oleum Cassiae, U.S.P. 1910, Cassia Oil, Oleum Cinnamomi
Cassiae, Oil of Chinese Cinnamon; Fr. Essence (Huile) de Cannelle de Chine;
Ger. Zimtol, Zimtkassienol.) This volatile oil distilled from the
leaves, twigs, and waste bark of Cinnamomum Cassia (Chinese), and rectified
by steam distillation, is a yellowish-brownish liquid, darker and thicker
by age and exposure, characteristic odor and taste of cassia cinnamon,
sp. gr. 1.055 soluble in alcohol (1), glacial acetic acid (1), 70 p.c.
alcohol (2), optically almost inactive; contains at least 80 p.c. of cinnamic
aldehyde, C9H8O (oxidizing into resin and cinnamic
acid) upon which the value depends, also cinnamyl acetate, C9H9C2H3O2
(liquid of unpleasant acrid taste), and phenyl-propyl acetate, orthocumaric
aldehyde, cinnamic acid, C9H8O2; this
latter is not in fresh oil, and after being formed becomes, by further
oxidation, benzoic acid. Tests: 1. Shake oil (2) with purified petroleum
benzin (5-10) -- decanted liquid is colorless and gives no green color
when shaken with equal volume of (1 in 1000) copper acetate solution (abs.
of rosin or rosin oils). 2. Thoroughly wash a 1000 cc. beaker
and a filter paper free of chlorides; place 3 or 4 drops of oil on a clean
watch glass on triangle, ignite, immediately cover with moistened beaker;
wash products of combusion through washed filter paper with 10-20 cc. distilled
water, acidulate filtrate with 1 drop nitric acid, add 1 drop silver nitrate
T.S. -- no turbidity (abs. of chlorinated products). Should be kept
cool, dark, in well-stoppered, amber-colored bottles. The Ger.P.
and U.S.P. recognize only the oil of Chinese cinnamon (cassia), while the
Br. P. And Fr. Codex that of Ceylon cinnamon; the former is more abundant
and cheaper, the latter of finer flavor and more delicate aroma, containing
besides cinnamic aldehyde, some eugenol and phellandrene. Dose, mj-5
PREPARATIONS. -- BARK: 1. Tinctura Cardamomi
Composita, 2.5 p.c. 2. Tinctura Gambir Composita, 2.5 p.c. 3.
Tinctura Lavandula Composita, 2 p.c. Tinctura Rhei Aromatica, 4 p.c.
5. Syrupus Cinnamomi, N.F., 10 p.c. 6. Tinctura Cinnamomi,
N.F., 20 p.c. (Glycerin 7.5 p.c., alcohol 67.5, water 25. Dose, 3ss-2
Preps.: 1. Elixir Taraxaci Compositum,
N.F., 3 p.c. 2. Mistura Rhei Alkalina,N.F., 6.4 p.c.
7. Pulvis Aromaticus, N.F., 35 p.c. + ginger 35, cardamom seed 15,
myristica 15. 8. Pulvis Aropmaticus Rubefaciens, N.F., 30 p.c.,
cinnamon 30, clove 30, ginger 20, capsicum 20. 9. Pulvis Cretae
Aromaticus, N.F., 8 p.c. 10. Syrupus Sennae Aromaticus, N.F.
2/5 p.c. 11. Tinctura Antiperiodica, N.F., 1/15 p.c.
12. Tinctura Aromatica, N.F., 10 p.c. + ginger 4, galangal 2, clove
2, cardamom seed 2. 13. Tinctura Opii Crocata, N.F., 3/5 p.c.
14. Tinctura Opii et Gambir Composita, N.F., 1/40 p.c. 15.
Tinctura Viburni Opuli Composita, N.F., 6.5 p.c.
II. Oil: 1. Aqua Cinnamomi. Cinnamon
Water. (Syn., Aq. Cinnam.; Fr. Eau de Cannelle; Ger. (Einfaces) Zimtwasser.)
Manufacture: 1/5 p.c. Similar to Aquae Aromaticae; triturate
oil .2 cc. with purified talc 1.5 Gm., recently boiled distilled water
q.s. 100 cc., filter until clear. Dose 3ss-1 (15-30 cc.).
Preps: 1. Infusum Digitalis (1.5 p.c.)
-- 15 p.c. 2. Mistura Cretae, 40 p.c. 3. Liquor Ferri
Albuinati, N.F., 20 p.c. 4. Syrupus Ipecacuanhae et Opii, N.F.,
3.2 p.c. 5. Tinctura Rhei Aquosa, N.F., 12.5 p.c.
2. Spiritus Cinnamomi. Spirit of Cinnamon.
(Syn., Sp. Cinnam.; Fr. Alcoolat de Cannelle;
Ger. Zimtspiritus.) Manufacture: 10 p.c. Dissolve oil 10 cc.
in alcohol q.s. 100 cc. Dose, mv-30 (.3-2 cc.). Preps.: 1.
Syrupus Rhei, 2/5 p.c. 2. Syrupus Ipecacuanhae et Opii, N.F.,
2/5 p.c. 3.Taballae Phenolphthaleini, N.F. 1/50 m. Acidum Sulphuricum
Aromaticum 1/10 p.c. 4. Fluidextractum Cascarae Sagradae Aromaticum,
1/50 p.c. 5. Acetum Aromaticum, N.F. 1/20 p.c.
6. Dentifricium, N.F., .175 p.c. 7. Fluidglyceratum Cascarae
Sagradae Aromaticum, N.F., 1/10 p.c. 8. Lavatio Ori, N.F., ½
p.c. 9. Liquor Pepsini Aromaticus, N.F., 1/40 p.c. 10.Mistura
Oleo-Balsamica, N.F., 2/5 p.c. 11. Nebula Aromatica, N.F., 1/5 p.c.
12. Nebula Mentholis Composita, N.F., 1/5 p.c. 13. Odontalgicum,
N.F., 17 p.c. 14. Oleum Ricini Aromaticum, N.F., 3/10 p.c. 15.
Spiritus Cardamomi Compositus, N.F., 1 p.c. 16. Spiritus Vanillini
Compositus, N.F., ½ p.c. 17. Syrupus Rhamni Catharticae, N.F.
Unoff. Preps.: BARK: Fluidextract, mc-30
(.3-2cc.). Infusion, 3j-2 (30-60 cc.).
PROPERTIES. -- Carminative, stomachic, stimulant,
astringent, hemostatic, aromatic, antispasmodic, germicide. The oil
has no astringency.
USES. -- Diarrhea, flatulence, nausea, vomiting,
menorrhagia, parturient, to correct griping medicines; for flavoring preparations,
1. Cinnaldehydum, Cinnamic Aldehyde,
C5H8O, U.S.P. 1900.--Obtained as a natural product
by shaking oil of cassia with aqueous solution of acid sodium sulphite,
filtering, washing crystalline magma with alcohol, decomposing with diluted
sulphuric acid, or synthetically by oxidation of cinnamyl alcohol by dry
distillation of a mixture of calcium cinnamate and formate, or as a condensation-product
by acting on benzaldehyde (10), acetaldehyde (15) with hydrochloric acid
gas, or with 10 p.c. solution of sodium hydroxide (10) + water (900).
It is a colorless liquid, cinnamon-like odor, burning, aromatic taste,
sp. gr. 1.047, boils at 250 degrees C. (482 degrees F.) with partial decomposition,
optically inactive, solidified with ice and salt should melt at -7.5 degrees
C. (18.5 degrees F.), soluble in alcohol, ether, fixed or volatile oils,
sparingly in water; contains at least 95 p.c. of pure cinnamic aldehyde.
Similar to oil of cinnamon, for which it may be substituted. Should
be kept in well-stoppered, small, amber-colored bottles. Dose, mj-5
2. Cinnamomum Cassia (aromat'icum),
Chinese Cinnamon. -- The dried bark of the shoots deprived of most of the
corky portion, U.S.P. 1820-1890; China. Plant -- handsome tree, but
bark removed when 5-6 years old, occurring in quills 5-20 Mm. (1/5-4/5')
broad, bark 1-2 Mm. (1/25-1/12') thick, deprived of corky layer, yellowish-brown,
often with grayish patches, rough, inside nearly smooth, faintly striate,
fracture nearly smooth; odor fragrant; taste sweet, aromatic, pungent,
astringent. The outer layers are simply imperfectly removed by curved
knives or planes, those of iron being avoided, consequently can be recognized
readily by having undergone this treatment, also by its more irregular
zone of stone cells, the greater abundance of bast-fibers and tannin.
This bark is very irregular in quality, owing to its varied origin, and
accordingly is recognized in commerce as Cassia, Cassia vera, Cassia lignea,
etc. C. Burman'ni is believed to yield the Sumatra, also a portion
of the Java, Cina, Timor; C. Tam'ala, some of the Calcutta, N. India, Cochin
China; C. I'ners, part of E. Indian archipelago.
3. Cassia Buds, Flores Cassiae. --
These are the small, stem-like immature fruits of various species, somewhat
resembling, but smaller than clove, having fine cinnamon odor and taste;
contain oil of cinnamon, tannin, etc.
Citrullus colocynthis, (Linne) Schrader.
The dried pulp of unripe but fully-grown fruit with not more than 5 p.c.
seed nor 2 p.c. epicarp, yielding not more than 2 p.c. extractive (purified
petroleum benzin) nor 6 p.c. acid-insoluble ash.
Habitat. S. And W. Asia, N. and S. Africa, in arid places, deserts;
Arabia, Syria, Egypt, Morocco, Cape of Good Hope, Greece, Spain,
Syn. Colocyn., Colocynth Pulp, Bitter Apple,
Colocynth Apple (Fruit), Cucumber, or Gourd; Br. Colocynthidis Pulpa,
Colocynth Pulp, Poma Colocynthidis; Fr. Coloquinte; Ger. Fructus
Colocynthidis, Koloquinthen, Coloquinthenapfel.
Ci-trul'lus. L. Citrus, an orange,
Gr..., citron, Ar. Origin -- i.e., named after color of the fruit when
cut -- orange-red.
Col-o-cyn'this. L. fr. Gr...., the
classic name of the plant.
PLANT. -- Perennial tendril-bearing vine; stem angular,
hispid, herbaceous; leaves many-lobed, hairy, 2.5-10 Cm. (1-4') long, subpalmately
cleft on long hispid petioles; tendrils, with which it climbs, short, branching;
flowers large, monoecious, both kinds similar, solitary, yellow.
FRUIT, before removing seed, nearly globular, 4-7 Cm. (1 3/5-3') broad,
size of a small orange, usually more or less crushed and in broken pieces,
with occasional patches of nearly smooth epicarp; yellowish-white; light,
spongy; separable longitudinally when entire into 3 carpels, each containing,
near the outer surface, the ovoid, compressed, yellowish seed; odor slight;
taste intensely bitter. POWDER yellowish-white, buff and characteristically
flaky -- fragments of parenchyma and vascular bundles, stone cells, aleurone
grains, globules of fixed oil. Solvents: alcohol; diluted alcohol;
water. Dose gr. 2-10 (.13-.6 Gm.); laxative, gr. 2-5 (.13-.3 Gm.);
drastic purgative, gr. 5-10 (.3-.6 Gm.), repeated in 8-12 hours if necessary.
Commercial. -- Plant resembles closely the
watermelon (C. Citrullus -- an annual with larger, smoothish leaves,
and much larger sweetish fruit), and has been cultivated in English gardens
since 1551. It is a very old medicine, the pulp, constituting 24.5
p.c. of the peeled fruit, being the portion that alone should be used;
the separated and rejected seed possess slight bitterness, but also a fixed
oil, 12.72 p.c., that, upon removal of testa, renders the kernels (one-half
oil) somewhat prized in Africa for food, bread, etc. There are two
varieties: 1, Peeled (Turkey), the smaller, best, usually from the maritime
plain between the mountains of Palestine and the Mediterranean; shipped
chiefly from Jaffa, Trieste, that from Spain being smaller, darker, more
compact, less pulp, blackish seed; 2, Unpeeled (Mogador), the larger, inferior,
covered with smooth, yellowish-brown firm rind. Fruit is gathered
in autumn when turning yellow, peeled (or this, if to be done, may be deferred
until after drying) and dried quickly by sun or fire; not known or used
by native physicians as a cathartic, but simply as a protection against
CONSTITUENTS. -- Pulp 24.5 p.c., Seed 75.5 p.c.
Pulp contains colocynthin 2 p.c., Colocynthitin, pectin, gum (no starch),
ash 15 p.c.; seed contain alkaloid (trace), fixed oil 12.72 p.c., albuminoids
6 p.c., ash 2-4 p.c. (whole fruit 4-5 p.c.).
[ILLUSTRATION] Citrullus Colocynthis.
-- The chief cathartic principle; an amorphous glucoside (bitter principle),
obtained by exhausting with water the alcoholic extract, precipitating
filtrate with lead acetate and subacetate; the yellow filtered liquid is
treated with H2S to remove lead, filtered, then precipitated with tannin.
This tannate of colocynthin is dissolved in alcohol, the tannin thrown
down by lead subacetate, filtered liquid digested with animal charcoal,
filtered, evaporated. It is a yellow powder, soluble in water, alcohol,
boiled with diluted acids splits into sugar and resinous colocynthein.
Dose, gr. 1/2-1 (.03-.06 Gm.) -- hypodermically, gr. 1/4-1/3 (.01-.02 Gm.),
by which method it is painful, and should be associated with cocaine.
The "Eclectic" resinoid, colocynthin. Dose, gr. 1/4-1 (.0l6-.06 Gm.).
Colocynthitin (citrullin). -- A resin left
after treating alcoholic extract with cold water in preparing colocynthin;
occurs in white, tasteless microscopic prisms, soluble in ether, hot alcohol.
PREPARATIONS. -- 1. Extractum Colocynthidis.
Extract of Colocynth. (Syn., Ext. Colocyn., Powdered Extract of Colcynth,
Extractum Colocynthidis Alcoholicum; Fr. Extrait de Coloquinte; Ger. Koloquinthenextrakt.)
Manufacture: Macerate, percolate 100 Gm.
with diluted alcohol until exhausted (500 cc.), reclaim alcohol, evaporate
residue to dryness, pulverize, add dried starch q.s. 25 Gm.; mix thoroughly,
pass through fine sieve; 1 Gm. represents 4 Gm. of the drug. Should
be kept in small, wide-mouthed, tightly-stoppered bottles. Dose,
gr 1/2-2 (.03-.13 Gm.).
[ILLUSTRATION] Peeled colocynth: transverse and longitudinal
Prep.: 1. Extractum Colocynthidis Compositum.
Compound Extract of Colocynth. (Syn.., Ext. Colocyn. Co., Powdered Compound
Extract of Colocynth; Fr. Extrait de Coloquinte compose'; Ger. Zusammengesetztes
Manufacture: Triturate together until No.
60 powder, extract of colocynth 16 Gm., aloe 50, cardamom seed 5, resin
of ipomoea 14, soap (dried powder) 15, pass through fine
sieve. Should be kept in small, wide-mouthed, tightly-stoppered bottles.
Dose, gr. 5-15 (.3-1 Gm.).
Preps.: 1. Pilulae Hydrargyri Chloridi Mitis Compositae,
1 1/4 gr. (.075 Gm.). 2. Pilulae Catharticae Vegetabiles, N.F., 1
gr. (.06 Gm.) -- ext. colocyn. co. 6 Gm., ext. hyosc.3, res. jalap 2, ext.
leptand., res. podoph aa 1.5, ol. menth. pip. .8, alcohol dil. q.s. 100
pills, Dose, 1.3 pills.
Unoff. Preps.: Fluidextract, dose, mij-10
(.13-.6 cc.). Tincture, 10 p.c. (alcohol), 3ss-1 (2-4 cc.).
PROPERTIES. -- Drastic and hydragogue cathartic,
hepatic stimulant, diuretic; small doses bitter, stomachic; large doses
emetic, irritant poison, causing violent griping, dangerous bowel inflammations
-- gr. 90 (6 Gm.) have killed.
USES. -- The Greeks and Arabians were unacquainted
with its drastic effect, but prescribed it for its other properties.
Now used as an evacuant, dropsy, melancholia, coma, apoplexy, paralysis,
but never in pregnancy, nor where gastric or intestinal inflammation is
present. It is very harsh and seldom used alone.
Poisoning: Same as for aloe, etc. Evacuate stomach, give
demulcents, opium, stimulants.
Citrul'lus Citrullus (vulgaris) -- Cucurbita
(Cu'cumis) Citrullus, Watermelon Seed. -- S. Asia; cultivated. Fruit
edible, very large; seed flat, ovate, 12 Mm (1/2') long, blackish, marbled,
or orange-brown, ungrooved, blunt on the edge, otherwise like pumpkin seed.
Kernels contain fixed oil 7.4 p.c., petroleum benzin extract 19 p.c., proteins,
sugar, resin (cucurbitol--closely related to grindelol and ipurganol);
diuretic, tenifuge, anthelmintic. Dose, 3id-16 (8-60 Gm.)
Citrus aurantium, var. Amara
Aurantii Amari Cortex Bitter Orange Peel,
Oleum Aurantii Florum. Oil of (Neroli)
Orange Flowers, N.F.
Citrus aurantium, var. Amara, Linne'. 1.
The dried rind of the unripe fruit. 2. The volatile oil distilled
from the fresh flowers.
Habitat. N. India, cultivated near
the Mediterranean Sea, Spain, W. Indies, Madeira, China, S. and S.
W. United States, Florida, California, etc.
Syn. Aurant. Amar. Cort., Curacao (Wild)
Orange, Aurantii Pericacarpium, Cortex Pomorum Aurantii; Br. Aurantii
Cortex Recens, Aurantii Cortex Siccatus; Fr. Ecorce (Zeste) d'Orange
amere, Ecorce de Bigarade; Ger. Cortex Aurantii Fructus, Pomeranzenschale.
Cit'rus. L. fr Gr...., after the town
of citron in Judea, where it formerly flourished.
Au-ran'tium. L. aurum, gold -- i.e.,
yellow color of fruit.
A-ma'ra. L. amarus, bitter -- i.e.,
the decided bitter taste of the fruit.
Orange. Eng. Fr. Skr. nagarange through the
PLANT. -- Small tree 3-4.6 M. (10-15degrees) high;
stem branched; bark shining, smooth, greenish-brown; leaves 7.5-10 Cm.
(3-4') long, ovate, evergreen, faintly serrate, with oil-vesicles, fragrant,
petioles 12-25 Mm. (1/2-1') long; flowers May, 2.5 Cm. (1') broad, white;
fruit 5-10 Cm. (2-4') in diameter, round, red or yellow, 9-11-celled, each
several-seeded. RIND (zest), in thin, irregular bands (ribbons) or
quarters, yellowish, greenish-brown, numerous minute pits and fine reticulate
ridges; inner surface whitish, many slight conical projections, fine anastomosing
lines formed by vascular bundles; fracture hard, short; odor fragrant,
aromatic; taste aromatic, bitter. POWDER, yellowish-gray, light brown--many
parenchyma fragments with thick cell walls, tracheae very small, calcium
oxalate prisms; with potassium hydroxide T.S.--yellowish. Solvents:
alcohol; water. Dose, gr. 15-30 (1-2 Gm.). OIL (flowers), a
pale yellow, slightly fluorescent, neutral liquid, distinctive fragrant
odor, similar to orange blossoms, and an aromatic sweet then bitter taste;
soluble in alcohol (1) with violet flourescence, neutral reaction, in 80
p.c. alcohol (2), with excess--cloudy; sp. gr. 0.874, dextrorotatory.
Should be kept cool, dark, in small, well-stoppered, amber-colored bottles.
[ILLUSTRATION] Citrus Aurantium (var. Amara): 1,
the end of a flowering twig; 2, flower, vertical section of ovary; 3, longitundial
section of ovary; 4, seed; 5, longitudinal section of seed; 6, diagram
Commercial. -- This bitter fruit grows mostly
in Spain, Madeira, India, China, being known as Seville or Bigarade Orange,
and is not in the fresh state a commercial article with us. The Mandarin
(C. sinen'sis), S. Europe, is much smaller, having flattened ends, very
thin rind, and pleasant taste. The celebrated Bizarria, of Italy,
produces on the same stem oranges, lemons, and citrons, and these often
in mixed parts. The oil is distilled from fresh flowers, when it
floats upon the water, and may easily be separated. There are four
commercial grades: 1. Ne'role (Essence de) Pe'tale, most delicate
-- from flowers of C. Aurantium. 2. Ne'role (Essence de) Bigarade
-- from flowers of C. amara (Bigaradia), N.F. 3. Ne'role (Essence
de) Portugal -- from immature fruits of C. Aurantium, 4. Ne'role
(Essence de) Petit Grain -- from immature fruits and leaves of C. amara.
Imported mostly from Grasse, Cannes, Messina, Nice.
[INTRODUCTION] Orange peel: transverse section, magnified 65 diam.
CONSTITUENTS. -- RIND: Volatile oil, naringin (aurantiin)
very bitter glucoside, aurantiamarin 1.5-2.5 p.c., leading bitter glucoside,
isohesperidin .4-3 p.c., aurantiamaric acid .1 p.c., hesperidin, hesperic
acid, (fixed oil, resin, gum, albumin, tannin, ash 4-7 p.c.). OIL
(flowers): Linomene, linalool, linalyl acetate 7-18 p.c., geraniol, methyl
anthranilate (to which odor and fluorescence are due.).
Oleum Auranti Amari, N.F. -- A volatile oil
obtained by expression from the fresh peel. It is a pale yellow liquid,
with characteristic, aromatic odor of Seville orange, and aromatic, bitter
taste, soluble in alcohol (4), solution neutral, in all proportions of
dehydrated alcohol, in glacial acetic acid (1); sp. gr. 0.845, dextrorotatory.
Should be kept cool, dark, in small, well-stoppered, amber-colored bottles.
PREPARATIONS. -- I. RIND: 1. Tinctura
Aurantii Amari. Tincture of Bitter Orange Peel. (Syn., Tr.
Aurant. Amar.; Br. Tinctura Aurantii; Fr. Teinture e'Ecorce d'Oranges ameres;
Ger. Pomeranzen-(schalen) tinktur.).
Manufacture: 20 p.c. Similar to Tinctura Veratri Viridis,
page 104, menstruum: 60 p.c. alcohol. Dose, 3j-2 (4-8 cc.).
Prep.: 1. Elixir Aurantii Amari, N.F.,
2. Tinctura Cinchonae Composita, 8 p.c. 3.
Tinctura Gentianae Composita, 4 p.c., 4. Infusum Gentianae Compositum,
N.F., 4/5 p.c. 5. Tinctura Amara, N.F., 6 p.c.
II. FLOWERS: 1. Aqua Aurantii Florum. Orange
Flower Water. (Syn., Aq. Aurant Flor.,Aqua Aurantii Florum Fortior,
Triple Orange Flower Water.)
Manufacture: Obtained as a by-product in distilling oil of orange
flowers, or by collecting 3 parts of distillate from 2 of flowers.
It is a saturated solution of the odoriferous principles of the fresh flowers
obtained by distilling with water and separating the clear, saturated portion
of the distillate; it is nearly colorless, clear or faintly opalescent,
strong pleasant odor, and taste of orange blossoms; must be free from empyreuma,
mustiness, or fungoid growths, and is best preserved by allowing a limited
access of fresh air to the container. Tests: 1. Evaporate 100
cc.--residue .001 Gm.; neutral, slightly acid. 2. With hydrogen
sulphide T.S., or sodum sulphide T.S.--no reaction (abs. of metallic impurities).
Dose, 3j-4 (4-15 cc.).
Preps.: 1. Syrupus Aurantii Florum.
Syrup of Orange Flowers. (Syn., Syr, Aurant. Flor.;
Fr. Sirop de Fleurs d'Oranges; Ger. Pomeranzenbluthensirup.)
Manufacture: Dissolve by agitation sucrose
85 Gm. in a mixture of orange flower water and distilled water, each 22.5
cc., without heat, add of the latter q.s. 100 cc., mix thoroughly, strain.
Dose, ad libitum; as a flavoring vehicle 2. Trochisci Acidi
Tannici, q.s. 3. Elixir Aurantii Amari, N.F., 2 p.c.
4. Elixir Amygdaloe Compositum, N.F., 15 p.c. 5. Elixir
Glycyrrhizoe Aquosum, N.F., 20 p.c. 6. Liquor Hypophosphitum
Compositus, N.F., 3.5 p.c. 7. Liquor Phosphatum Compositus,
N.F., 12.5 p.c. 8. Syr. Calc. Lactophos., N.F., 5 p.c.
III. OIL (RIND): 1. Elixir Aurantii Amari,
N.F., 2/5 p.c.
IV. OIL (Flowers): 1. Spiritus Odoratus, N.F.,
Unoff. Preps.: RIND: Fldext. (75 p.c. alc.).
Inf. (Br.), 5 p.c., 3 iv-8 (15-30 cc.). Inf. Comp. (Br.), 2.5
p.c. + lemon peel 1, clove .5. Wine (Br.) -- fermenting saccharine
solution + fresh bitter orange peel.
PROPERTIES. -- Stimulant, tonic, carminative, stomachic,
bitter; excessive doses of both peel and oil cause colic, convulsions,
USES. -- In indigestion, flatulence, corrigent to
purgatives; aromatic when in combination with gentian, calumba, quassia,
cinchona, etc.; most of the preparations are used as flavoring agents.
Workmen employed among the fruit have skin eruptions, nervousness, headache,
gastralgia, insomnia, muscular spasms.
Citrus aurantium var. Bergamia
Citrus Aurantium, var. Bergam'ia, Bergamot; Oleum
Bergamottae, Oil of Bergamot, N.F. -- The volatile oil obtained by
expression from the rind of the fresh fruit with not less than 36 p.c.
of ester, calculated as linalyl acetate; S. Italy, France; cultivated.
Small tree resembling the lemon and orange, flowers peculiar, delicious
odor, fruit pale lemon color, pyriform or globose, with concave receptacles
of oil in the rind. Oil obtained as that of lemon and orange, and
is a greenish-yellow liquid, neutral, faintly acid, characteristic fragrant
odor, aromatic bitter taste; forms clear solution with alcohol (1/2), not
turbid with further addition, soluble in glacial acetic acid, 80 p.c.,
alcohol (2), with slight cloudiness and no separation of oil globules;
sp. gr. 0.877, dextrorotatory; 2 Gm. evaporated to soft green residue--corresponds
to not more than 6 p.c. of the oil (abs. of fixed oils); contains limonene
(citrene), dipentene (bergaptene, bergamot camphor), linalool, and linalool
acetate 36-39 p.c., upon which the value chiefly depends. Stimulant,
excitant, aromatic; used exclusively as a perfume; 1. Spiritus Odoratus,
Citrus aurantium, var. sinensis
AURANTII DULCIS CORTEX. SWEET ORANGE PEEL, U.S.P.
Citrus Aurantium, var. sinensis, Linne'.
The fresh, outer rind of the ripe fruit.
Habitat. Same as C. Aurantium (var.
Syn.Aurant, Dulc. Cort., Curacao, Navel (Seedless)
Orange, Forbidden Fruit, Golden (Orange) Apple, Nerotia Flowers;
Fr. Ecorce (Zeste) d'Orange Douce; Ger. Apfelsinnenchalen.
Si-nen'sis. L. (Chinensis) Chinese,
of or belonging to China--i.e., its chief habitat.
[ILLUSTRATION] Citrus Aurantium, var. Sinensis
PLANT. -- Small tree, 4.5-6 M. (15-20 degrees) high,
identical with C. Aurantium (var. Amara), differing only in point of variety,
but having leaves and flowers more fragrant, and the fruit sweeter, larger,
deeper yellow. RIND (zest), the outer orange-yellow layer recently
separated by grating or paring, consisting of epidermal cells, parenchyma
cells of sarcocarp with chromoplastids, oil reservoirs and globules of
volatile oil; odor highly fragrant; taste pungently aromatic. Solvents:
alcohol; water. Dose, gr. 15-30 (1-2 Gm.).
LIMONIS CORTEX. LEMON PEEL, U.S.P.
Commercial. -- This sweet fruit grows only
by cultivation; was unknown to the Greeks and Romans, being introduced
first into Europe by the Portuguese in the 15th century. There are
now some fifty varieties cultivated in Spain, Portugal, Madeira, Azores,
China, West Indies, S. and S. W. United States, many of which have been
given commercial names after the districts of production, as China, Portugal,
Havana, Florida, California, Messina, and Malta (blood-red). These
are imported in boxes of 100-200, having each orange wrapped in tissue-paper,
the sweetest coming to us from Havana, Florida, and California.
CONSTITUENTS. -- Volatile oil, herperidin, (fixed
oil, resin, gum, tannin, ash 4-5 p.c.).
Oleum Aurantii. Oil of Orange, U.S.P. -- (Syn., Ol. Aurant.,
Oleum Aurantii Corticis, U.S.P. 1900, Orange Oil, Oil of Sweet Orange,
Oleum Aurantiorum, Essence (Essential Oil) of Orange; Fr. Huile d'Orange;
Ger. Pomeranzenschalenol.) This volatile oil is produced mostly in
S. Italy, Sicily, by expression from the fresh peel of the ripe fruit (sweet
orange and its varieties), or rupturing the oil-glands mechanically and
collecting the liberated oil, as with oil of lemon; if obtained by distillation
the product is decidedly less fragrant. It is a yellow liquid, characteristic
odor and taste of the outer part of sweet orange peel, sp. gr. 0.844; soluble
in dehydrated alcohol, carbon disulphide, glacial acetic acid (1); neutral
reaction, dextrorotatory; contains limonene (citrene, hesperidene), C10H16,
90 p.c., odor bearers (citral, citronellal, methyl ester of anthranilic
acid). Tests: 1. With 90 p.c. alcohol (2) -- does not form
clear solution (dif. from washed citrus oils). 2. Evaporate
25 Gm. To dryness -- residue not less than 2 p.c. (dif. from washed citrus
oils).) 3. Should not have a terebinthinate odor or taste (abs.
of oil of turpentine); must meet requirements for heavy metals. The
oil from the peel of bitter orange (N.F.) though chemically indistinguishable,
has a superior flavor, but a limited production, and usually is mixed with
this oil (sweet orange). Oil having a terebinthinate odor must not
be dispensed. Should be kept cool, dark, in small, well-stoppered,
completely filled, amber-colored bottles (to avoid developing terebinthinate
odor). Usually shipped in tinned-copper cans. Dose, mj-5 (.06-..3
ADULTERATIONS. -- Oil of turpentine, alcohol, etc.
PREPARATIONS. -- I. RIND: 1. Tinctura Aurantii
Dulcis. Tincture of Sweet Orange Peel. (Syn., Tr. Aurant. Dulc.;
Fr. Teinture d'Orange douce; Ger. Apfelsinenschalentinktur.)
Manufacture: 50 p.c. Similar to Tinctura
Cardamomi Composita, page 137--macerating 50 Gm. in alcohol 100 cc., filtering
through purified cotton, and finishing with alcohol q.s. 100 cc.
Dose, 3j-2 (4-8 cc.); as a flavoring vehicle.
Preps.: 1. Syrupus Aurantii. Syrup
of Orange. (Syn., Syr. Aurant., Syrupus Aurantii Corticis, Syrup
of Orange Peel; Fr. Sirop d'Encorce d'Orange; Ger. Pomeranzen(Orangen-schalen)-sirup.)
Manufacture: Triturate purified talc 1.5
Gm. with tincture of sweet orange peel 5 cc. And citric acid .5 Gm., and
add gradually distilled water 40 cc., filter, add through filter distilled
water q.s. 45 cc.: dissolve in this, by agitation, sucrose 82 Gm. (without
heat), add distilled water q.s. 100 cc., mix thoroughly, strain; must not
dispense when of terebinthinate odor or taste or shows other deterioration.
Dose, ad libitum -- flavoring.
2. Elixir Gentianae Gllycerinatum, N.F., 1.5
p.c. 3. Elixir Pepsini et Rennini Compositum, N.F., 5 p.c.
4. Elixir Taraxaci Compositum, N.F., 6 p.c. 5. Elixir
Terpini Hydrastis, N.F., 2 p.c.
II. OIL: 1. Spiritus Aurantii Compositus,
Compound Spirit of Orange. (Syn., Sp. Aurant. Co.; Fr. Esprit d'Orange
composee; Ger. Zusammengesetzter Orangengeist.)
Manufacture: 20 p.c. Dissolve oil 20
cc., + oil of lemon 5, oil of coriander 2, oil of anise .5 in alcohol
q.s. 100 cc. Should be kept in dark amber-colored bottles.
As a flavoring vehicle.
Preps.: 1. Elixir Aromaticum.
Aromatic Elixir. (Syn., Elix. Arom., Simple Elixir; Fr. Elixir
aromatique; Ger. Aromatisches Elixir.)
Manufacture: 1 1/5 p.c. To compound spirit of orange
1.2 cc., add alcohol q.s. 25, to this add syrup 37.5, in several portions
with agitation, distilled water 37.5, purified talc 3 Gm., filter until
clear, wash filter with 25 p.c. alcohol q.s. 100 cc. -- flavoring.
Preps.: 1. Elixir Glycyrrhizae, 87.5
p.c. 2. Numerous Elixirs -- as a vehicle.
2. Elixir Aletridis Compositum, N.F., 1 p.c., + 10 other N.F.
Elixirs -- flavoring. 3. Emulsa --
2. Elixir Ferri (Pyrophosphatis, Quininae
et Strychninae, N.F., 1/15 p.c. 3. Elixir Pepsini Compositum,
N.F., 1/5 p.c. 4. Liquor Ferri Peptonati, N.F., 1/66 p.c.
5. Liquor Ferri Peptonati et Mangani, N.F., 1/66 p.c. 6.
Spiritus Cardamomi Compositus, N.F., 2 p.c. 7. Spiritus Myrciae,
N.F., 1/20 p.c. 8. Spiritus Vanillini Compositus, N.F., 5 p.c.
9. Syrupus Quinidinae, N.F., 1/50 p.c. 10. Tabellae Sulphuris
et Potassii Bitartratis, N.F., 1/20 m, (.003 cc.). 11. Trochisci
Eucalypti Gummi, N.F., 1/20 m. (.003 cc.).
PROPERTIES AND USES. -- Aromatic; chiefly for flavoring
and in perfumery. Fruit deliciously edible.
Citrus medica, var. Limonum, (Risso) Hooker
filius. The outer yellow rind of the fresh ripe fruit.
Habitat. N. India; cultivated in subtropics,
Mediterranean Basin, United States (California, Florida), Australia,
Syn. Limon. Cort.; Fr. Ecorce (Zest)
de Citron (Limon); Citron, Limon; Ger. Cortex Fructus Citri, Flavido
Corticis Citri, Citronen Limonen)--schale; Limone, Citrone.
Med'i-ca. L. Medicus, medical,
curative -- i.e., properties useful in medicine.
Li-mon'um. L. a lemon, fr. Arab, limun,
limu, taken from Skr. nimbuka.
PLANT. -- Straggling bush or tree, 3-4.5 M. (10-15
degrees) high, more tender than the orange, having many angular branches
and sharp spines in the leaf-axils; bark gray, that of branches green,
of twigs reddish or purple; leaves evergreen, 5-6 Cm. (2-2 2/5') long,
ovate, acute, serrate, 12 Mm. (1/2') petioles; flowers all the year round,
sweet-scented, white to purplish-pink; fruit ovoid berry 7.5 Cm. (3') long
with nipple-shaped extremity, smooth, depressed punctations over the oil-glands,
structure like orange; pulp acid, yellow; seed as in orange, only smaller.
PEEL, the outer, lemon-yellow, dark yellow layer, recently separated by
grating, paring, and consisting of an epidermal layer, numerous parenchyma
cells containing yellow chromoplastids, and large oil reservoirs with globules
of the volatile oil; odor fragrant, distinctive; taste aromatic; sections
mounted in a fixed oil show epidermal layer (small tabular cells), hypodermal
layer containing numerous plastids, a mesocarp with colorless, thin-walled
parenchyma, large elliptical oil reservoirs, granular protoplasm, calcium
oxalate crystals. The inner spongy white portion should be removed
and discarded. Solvents: alcohol; wine; water. Dose, 3ss-1
[ILLUSTRATION] Citrus medica, var. Limonum: a, flower; b, fruit.
Commercial. -- Lemons reach us from California,
Florida, W. Indies, Mediterranean region (Sicily, Spain, etc.) packed in
boxes, each lemon being wrapped in white or brownish tissue-paper.
Foreign varieties are known as wax, imperial, gaeta, and all, when kept
several months, deteriorate, owing to the decomposition of citric acid,
into sugar and carbon dioxide, in consequence of which, to insure preservation
and permit long shipments, they must be coated with melted paraffin, dissolved
shellac, or varnish. The rind should be pared thinly from the fruit
with sharp knives and carefully dried.
CONSTITUENTS. -- Volatile oil, bitter principle,
hesperidin, ash 4 p.c.
Oleum Limonis. Oil of Lemon. U.S.P.
-- (Syn., Ol. Limon., Lemon Oil, Oleum de Cedro; Fr. Essence (Huile) de
Citron -- Cedrat; Ger. Citronol, Limonenol.) This volatile oil is
produced mostly in Sicily, S. France, Italy (Calabria), by expression from
fresh peel of the ripe fruit, using several processes that rupture mechanically
the oil-cells thereby liberating the oil and rendering it easily collected:
1, spugna -- collecting by sponge the oil from ruptured cells of the quartered
rind; 2, scorzetta -- of the halved rind; 3, machina -- substituting a
complicated machine for manual labor of expression and collection; 4, ecuelle
a piquer -- not much used but consisting of an instrument, bowl-shaped,
25 Cm. (10') wide, of tinned-copper, having a raised opening in the center
which forms with the outer edge a broad channel; to this there is a heavy
cover similarly shaped, whose inner surface as well as that of the machine
is armed with concentric rows of short 6 Mm. (1/4') spikes or ridges; an
opening in the bottom allows the escape of oil. By a handle the cover
is made to revolve rapidly one-half minute over the instrument, having
between the two 5 to 8 fruits, after which they are replaced by fresh ones.
About 7000 fruits can be exhausted daily by each machine. It is a
pale yellow, greenish-yellow liquid, characteristic odor and taste of the
outer part of fresh lemon peel, sp. gr. 0.853, dextrorotatory, soluble
in alcohol (3), dehydrated alcohol, carbon disulphide, glacial acetic acid;
neutral, slightly acid; contains at least 4 p.c. (7-8) of aldehydes calculated
as citral, C10H16O, which gives the aroma and value
(being also produced by oxidizing geraniol, C10H18O,
with chromic acid), limonene (citrene), C10 H16,
76 p.c., little cymene, C10H14, citronellal, C10H18O,
phellandrene, pinene, geranyl acetate, a sesquiterpene, octyl aldehyde,
nonyl aldehyde, methyl heptenone, terpineol. Should be kept cool,
dark, in completely filled, well-stoppered, amber-colored bottles, and
that having a terebinthinate odor must not be dispensed. Dose, mj-5
ADULTERATIONS. -- Oils of other Citrus fruits, fixed
oils, alcohol, oil of turpentine. The fragrant Oil of Petit Grain
Citronnier, from immature fruits, leaves, and twigs, closely resembles
Neroli Petit Grain, and may be used similarly.
-- A glucoside (bitter principle) from the white, spongy part or rind by
boiling water; bitter, yellowish-white powder or white needles; soluble
in diluted alkalies or acetic acid, black with ferric salts, and by diluted
sulphuric acid decomposed into hesperetin, C16H14O6,
and glucose, C6H12O6.
PREPARATIONS. -- I. PEEL: 1. Tinctura
Limonis. Tincture of Lemon. (Syn., Tr. Limon., Tinctura Limonis
Corticis; Fr. Teinture d'Ecorce de Citron; Ger. Citronenschalentinktur.)
Manufacture: 50 p.c. Similar to Tinctura
Cardamomi Composita, p. 137 -- macerating 50 Gm. in alcohol 100 cc., filtering
through purified cotton, and finishing with alcohol q.s. 100 cc.
Dose, 3ss-2 (2-8 cc.).
Preps.: 1. Syrupus Acidi Citrici, 1
p.c. 2. Emulsum Petrolati, N.F., 1.5 p.c.
II. OIL: Liquor Magnesii Citratis, 1/10 cc. In 350.
2. Spiritus Ammoniae Aromaticus, 1 p.c. 3. Spiritus Aurantii
Compositus, 5 p.c. 4. Acetum Aromaticum, N.F., 1/10 p.c.
5. Linimentum Terebinthinae Aceticum, N.F., 1.6 p.c. 6.
Mistura Oleo-Balsamica, N.F., 2/5 p.c. 7. Spiritus Odoratus,
N.F., 4/5 p.c. 8. Syrupus Eriodictyi Aromaticus, N.F., 1/20
p.c. 9. Syrupus Sennae Aromaticus, N.F., 1/7 p.c.
Unoff. Preps.: PEEL: Spirit, 5 p.c., + oil
5 p.c. (alcohol), 3ss-2 (2-8) cc.). Infusion. Syrup.
Juice (from fruit--used alone, neutralized by alkali, or made into
syrup; soon spoils, but will keep a short time byletting stand until albumin
is coagulated, straining into hot bottles, and covering with almond or
sweet oil; flavor is preserved best by making it into concentrated syrup);
yield 1/2-1 ounce (15-30 cc.) per lemon, dose, 3ij-5 (8-20 cc.).
PROPERTIES AND USES. -- Stimulant, stomachic, added
usually to infusions, tinctures, etc., chiefly for flavoring. Juice
refrigerant, relieves thirst, febrile inflammatory affections in agreeable
beverages; diaphoretic (neutral mixture), scurvy (seamen on long voyages
should take 3j (30 cc.) daily as a preventive, acute rheumatism; locally
in sunburn, pruritus of scrotum, uterine hemorrhage after labor, gargle
Limones, Lemons. The fruit, U.S.P.
1820-1850. Limonis Succus, Lemon Juice, U.S.P. 1860-1900.
C. Med'ica, Citron. -- Small tree, but fruit
very large, 20-22.5 Cm. (8-9') long, resembling pineapple in
shape. The rind is popular as a dessert, essence in perfumery,
and juice for similar purposes as that of lemon and line fruits.
C. Medica, var. Acida. Succus Citri, Lime Juice; contains citric
acid 5-10 p.c. Succus Citri et Pepsinum, lime juice 60 p.c.,
+ glycerite of pepsin 40.
Pix Carbonis, Coal Tar, Pix Lithanthracis, N.F.
-- The tar obtained as a by-product in the destructive distillation
of coal for illuminating gas. A nearly black, thick liquid or
semi-solid, heavier than water, odor characteristic, naphthalene-like,
taste sharp burning; soluble in benzene, carbon disulphide, chloroform,
partly so in alcohol, acetone, methyl alcohol, purified petroleum
benzin, slightly so in water, imparting its characteristic odor and
taste; alkaline reaction; burns with reddish, luminous sooty flame, being
consumed by strong heat, ash 2 p.c.; 1. Liquor Picis Carbonis,
Liquor Carbonis Detergens, 20 p.c. + quillaja 10 (70 p.c. alcohol).
Caffeina. Caffeine, C8H10O2N4H2O,
Coffea arabica, Linne'and Thea
sinensis, Linne'. A feebly basic substance (alkaloid)
from the seeds of the former and leaves of the latter (Theaceae), also
occurring in other plants; or prepared synthetically.
Habitat. 1. Tropical Africa (Arabia,
Abyssinia, Ceylon, Mocha); cultivated in tropical countries (Java,
W. Indies, S. America--Brazil (most), Guatemala (best), etc.). 2.
S. E. Asia (upper Aseam, China, Japan, Java, S. United States; cultivated.
Syn. Caff., Semen Coffea; Fr. Cafe'; Ger.
Kaffee (bohnen), Caffeia; Caffein, Ger. Coffeinum, Koffein, Kaffein,
Cof'fe-a. L. For coffee, after Coffee, a
province of Narea, in Africa, where it grows abundantly; Arabic name
of the decoction -- chaube', cave' cahua, caova.
A-rab'i-ca. L. Arabian -- i.e., its
PLANT. -- Handsome shrub or small tree 3-4.5 M.
(10-15 degrees) high, by cultivation trimmed down to 1.5-2 M. (5-6 degrees);
bark smooth, gray; leaves 10-15 Cm. (4-6') long; 2.5-5 Cm. (1-2') wide,
ovate, alternate, coriaceous, glossy, entire; flowers small, fragrant,
white, funnel-shape, cymes; fruit oval, 12 Mm. (1/2') long, scarlet, but
purple when ripe, 2-celled, 2-seeded drupe, each seed in a parchment-like
endocarp; pericarp with scanty, scarcely succulent pulp, dehiscent; seed
large, solitary in each cell, rounded back, flat on ventral surface (by
which they face each other), hard, bony, grayish, deep narrow fissure in
ADULTERATIONS. -- SEED: Inferior grades: natural
discolored (yellow and brown grain); artificial colored (Prussian blue,
indigo, sugar, egg-albumen) -- removed by soaking in water; factitious
coffee made of clay, kaolin, evaporated skimmed milk, etc. -- sink in ether,
have little taste and no groove on flat side. GROUND COFFEE: Sometimes
roasted dandelion, chicory, amylaceous roots, corn, peas, beans, acorns,
wheat, rye, sweet potatoes, coffee extract, etc.
CONSTITUENTS. -- Caffeine (free and combined with
caffeic acid) 1-2.3 p.c., caffearine, fat (olein, palmitin) 13 p.c., glucose,
dextrin 15 p.c., proteins 13 p.c., caffeo-tannic acid, (chlorogenic, coffalic),
volatile oil, citric acid, trigonelline, pectin, oxydase, moisture 12-15
p.c., ash 3-5 p.c., Mocha 7-8 p.c. -- K. Na, Mg, carbonates, phosphates.
Caffeina. Caffeine. -- While this is
now prepared commercially -- chiefly synthetically, or from tea and tea-dust
(sweepings), it may be obtained from a strong infusion of tea or unroasted
coffee by adding lead acetate to precipitate tannin, coloring matter, etc.,
filtering, removing excess of lead by hydrogen sulphide, concentrating,
crystallizing. It is in white flexible, silky, glistening needles,
usually matted together in fleecy masses, odorless, bitter, efflorescent,
soluble in water (46), hot water (5.5), alcohol (66), chloroform (5.5),
ether (530), benzene (100), boiling benzene (22), acetone (50); saturated
aqueous solution neutral; melts, when anhydrous, at 236 degrees C. (457
degrees F.). Tests: 1. Dissolve .01 Gm. In hydrochloric acid 1 cc.
add potassium chlorate .1 Gm., evaporate to dryness, invert the container
over a vessel containing a few drops of ammonia T.S. -- residue purple,
destroyed by fixed alkalies (murexide reaction). 2. Aqueous
solution + tannic acid T.S. -- precipitate, soluble in excess of reagent.
3. Dry to constant weight -- loses 9 p.c.; incinerate -- ash .05
p.c. 4. To .5 Gm. add sulphuric or nitric acid acid 5 cc. --
colorless, faintly yellow (abs. of readily carbonizable substances).
5. Aqueous solution (1 in 50) + mercuric potassium iodide T.S. --
no precipitate (abs. of alkaloids). Impurities: Alkaloids, readily
carbonizable substances. Dose, gr. 1-5 (.06-.3 Gm.).
[ILLUSTRATION] Coffea arabica: A, blooming and fruiting twig;
B, fruit; C, fruit, cross-section; D, fruit, longitudinal section; E, seed
still partly enclosed in the parchment-like endocarp.
Commercial. -- Tree resembles our cherry,
although more delicate, grows in clusters in hilly woods, 300-600 M. (1,000-2,000
degrees) elevation; first known in Europe, 1652, as coming from Arabia,
Abyssinia, where it was popular in the 15th century. The Dutch first
grew it in Europe, 1690, and introduced it into America at Surinam, 1718,
Cayenne, W. Indies, 1725. There are four varieties: 1, Mocha, best,
smallest, dark yellow, growing on the Arabian hills around Mocha; 2, Java
(E. Indian, Ceylon), largest, pale yellow; 3, Rio, Brazilian (W. Indian,
Demerara), intermediate size, bluish or greenish-gray; 4, Liberian C. Liberica
-- most hardy and resistent to diseases), larger berries, finer flavor.
The seeds are separated from papery endocarp by drying, passing between
wooden rollers, and through a winnowing mill. In roasting at 250
degrees C. (482 degrees F.), the fat, sugar, and tannin are destroyed,
some caffeine volatilized, and an emphyreumatic volatile oil (coffeol,
coffeone), or some other active principle, volatile or otherwise, is developed
-- losing 8 p.c. water, 9 p.c. organic matter, becoming pulverizable, more
aromatic, and more soluble in water. Much care should be exercised
in this process to use closed vessels and not too great heat. Caffeine
exists in all plants as a complex tannoid, and as such possesses decided
but different physiological activity from the free base (alkaloid).
Decaffeinated coffee results from incipient germination, or dissolving
out nine-tenths of the caffeine from raw beans, then roasting.
PREPARATIONS. -- 1. Caffeina Citrata.
Citrated Caffeine. (Syn., Caff. Cit.; Br. Caffeinae Citras, Caffeine
Citrate; Fr. Citrate de Cafeine; Ger. Koffeincitrat.)
Manufacture: Dissolve citric acid 50 Gm. in hot distilled water
100 cc., add caffeine 50 Gm., evaporate to dryness on water-bath, constantly
stirring toward the end, reduce to fine powder. It is a white powder,
odorless, slightly bitter, acid taste and reaction; forms clear syrupy
solution with small quantity of water, but caffeine precipitates on dilution,
being redissolved by additional water; compound unstable; contains 48-52
p.c. of anhydrous caffeine, C8H10O2N4. 1. Mix 2 cc. of aqueous solution
(1 in 10) with lime water (50) -- clear in the cold, but turbid upon boiling.
2. Dry to constant weight -- loses 5 p.c.; incinerate -- ash .1 p.c.
3. Aqueous solution (1 in 100) 5 cc. + mercuric sulphate T.S. 1 cc., heat
to boiling, add potassium permanganate T.S. 1 cc. -- white precipitate.
4. Heat .25 Gm. + sulphuric acid 5 cc.in dish on water-bath for 15
minutes, protected from dust -- may be yellow, but not brown (abs. of tartrate).
5. Aqueous solution (1 in 100) 10 cc., acidulated with hydrochloric
acid, + barium chloride T.S. -- no turbidity (abs. of sulphate).
Impurities: Heavy metals, tartrate, sulphate, water. Should be kept
in well-closed containers. Dose, gr. 2-10 (.13-.6 Gm.).
2. Caffeinae Sodio-Benzoas. Caffeine
Sodio-Benzoate. (Syn., Caff. Sod.-Benz.; Fr. Soude benzoate de Cafeine;
Ger. Caffeinum-Natrium benzoicum, Koffein-Natriumbenzoat.)
Manufacture: Mix caffeine and sodium benzoate
each 50 Gm., rub to smooth paste with alcohol q.s., dry in moderately warm
place. It is a white powder, odorless, bitter, soluble in water (1.1),
some caffeine separating on standing, alcohol (30), partly in chloroform;
aqueous solution (1 in 20) neutral, slightly acid or alkaline, not reddened
by phenolphthalein T.S.; contains 47-50 p.c. of anhydrous caffeine and
50-53 p.c. of sodium benzoate, NaC7O2H5.
Tests: 1. Heat -- decomposes with evolution of white vapors
of caffeine -- carbonaceous residue effervesces with acids and colors flame
yellow. 2. Aqueous solution + ferric chloride T.S. -- salmon-colored
precipitate; + diluted hydrochloric acid -- white precipitate (benzoic
acid). 3. Dry to constant weight -- loses 5 p.c. Impurities:
Heavy metals, water, chlorinated compounds, readily carbonizable substances.
Dose, gr. 2-10 (.13-.6 Gm.), in powder, capsule, effervescent draught,
Prep.: 1. Ampullae Caffeinae Sodio-Benzoatis,
N.F.,8.5 gr. (.55 Gm.). Dose, 2-4 ampuls.
3. Caffeinae Sodio-Salicylas, N.F.,
-- caffeine, sodium salicylate, aa, 50 p.c., alcohol q.s. Dose, gr.
1-5 (.06-.3 Gm.)
4. Pulvis Acetanilidi Compositus, N.F.,
5. Sal Pot. Brom. Eff. Co., N.F., 4/5
Unoff. Prep.: Effervescent Citrated Caffeine,
1.9 p.c. of anhydrous caffeine, 3j-2 (4-8 Gm.).
PROPERTIES. -- Tonic, stimulant, nervine, antiemetic,
laxative, diuretic, antiperiodic, antiseptic. Caffeine in small doses
stimulates appetite, digestion, secretion of bile, quickens heart action,
respiration, increases arterial tension, urine; normal doses, cerebral
stimulant, causing nervous restlessness, wakefulness, increased mental
activity; large doses (gr. 5-10 (.3-.6 Gm.) produce heaviness of head,
insomnia, delirium, rapid, feeble pulse, cold extremities, elevated temperature,
convulsions, paralyzes cardiac muscle, but death occurs from paralysis
of respiration; valuable as a hydragogue diuretic; ordinary salts not suitable
for hypodermic use as they decompose by the presence of water. Caffeine
sodio-benzoate as a diuretic, cerebral and cardiac stimulant has the advantage
of being moderately stable and non-irritating.
USES. -- Caffeine in neuralgia or nervous headaches,
diarrhea of cholera, phthisis, cardiac and renal dropsies, lithemia, gout,
insomnia of chronic alcoholism, adynamic fevers. Coffee in intermittents,
asthma paroxysms, opium narcosis, to antagonize general torpor of nervous
centers; it is used mostly as a beverage, for which alone about 1,500,000,000
pounds (680,272 Kg.) are consumed annually, making 1 pound (.46 Kg.) to
every living person; in the United States about 6-7 pounds (2.7-3 Kg.)
per capita; in Holland 10 pounds (4.6 Kg.); an average cup contains 2.61
gr. (.2 Gm.) of caffeine.
Derivative Products: 1. Coffea arabica
or C. Liber'ica; Coffea Tosta, Coffee, Roasted Coffee, N.F. -- The
dried ripe seed, deprived of most of the seed-coat, and roasted until a
dark brown color and characteristic aroma are developed yielding not less
than 1 p.c. of caffeine, 3-5 p.c. of ash, and 10 p.c. of fat. Seed
oval, variable size, one side convex, other flat with longitudinal groove
showing papery seed-coat traces in cleft; characteristic aroma, pleasantly
bitter taste. Powder, deep brown -- many seed-coat fragments of parenchyma
and stone cells, many endosperm cells with porous walls, oil and aleurone
grains; starch grains few or wanting, no tracheae. Dose, 3ss-1 (2-4
Gm.); 1. Fluidextractum Coffeae (1st menstruum: glycerin 6.5 cc.,
alcohol 25, water 68.5; 2d: 25 p.c. alcohol q.s. 100, dose 3ss-1 (2/4 cc).
Cola ni'tida, Kola, Cola,N.F. -- The dried
cotyledon of this or other species with not more than 1 p.c. of foreign
organic matter, yielding not less than 1 p.c. of caffeine; W. Africa, W.
Indies; cultivated. Tree 15-20 M. (50-65 degrees) high, smooth stem,
leaves 15-20 Cm. (6-8') long, lanceolate-ovate, acuminate, flowers, staminate
and pistillate, yellowish, fruit yellowish-brown, 5 segments, rough woody,
follicle 10-13 Cm. (4-5') long, each segment 1-3-seeded. Cotyledon
(seed) irregularly plano-convex, broadly oval, circular, 2.5-5 Cm. (1-2')
long, heavy, hard, tough; brown, outer surfaces wrinkled, inner lighter
and smoother, slightly incurved and sharp; odorless; taste slightly astringent.
Powder, reddish-brown--numerous starch grains, some altered, many show
lamellae and circular hilum or a central fissure, many parenchyma cells;
solvent: diluted alcohol; contains caffeine (kola-tannate) 2.7-3.6 p.c.,
theobromine, starch 34-42 p.c., tannin, kola-red, kolatin, volatile oil--kolanin
is a mixture of kola-red and caffeine, kolatine (only in fresh nuts, which
should not be used, action opposite to caffeine). Stimulant, tonic,
nervine, diuretic, astringent, similar to coffee, but resembles coca in
aiding the endurance of fatigue without food; neuralgia, headache, migraine,
diarrhea, indigestion, weak and irregular heart. Dose, gr. 15-30
(1-2 Gm.); 1, Fluidextractum Kolae (67 p.c. alcohol), dose, 3ss-1 (2-4
cc.). Elixir, 8 p.c., 3j-3 (4-12 cc.); Tincture, 15 p.c. (diluted
alcohol), 3j-2 (4-8 cc.).
[ILLUSTRATION] Cola nitida: a, leafy branch, ½ nat. Size;
also longitudinal section of fruit, cross and natural longitudinal
section of seed showing embryo enlarged.
Collinso'nia canaden'sis, Stone-root, Horse-balm.
-- N. America. Rhizome 10 Cm. (4') long, branches short, knotty,
white inside, inodorous, taste bitter, nauseous; contains volatile oil,
resin. Diaphoretic, diuretic, tonic, astringent, irritant.
MYRRA. MYRRAH, U.S.P.
Commiphora Myrrha, (Nees) Baillon, or other
species. A gum-resin yielding not less than 30 p.c. alcohol-soluble
extractive, nor more than 4 p.c. acid-insoluble ash.
Habitat. E. Africa, S. W. Arabia, Somali
country, around Hurrur; 450-900 M. (1500- 2000 degrees) elevation.
Syn. Myrrh, Gum Myrrh, Somali (Herabol)
Myrrh, Resina Balsamodendri, Gummi- resina Myrrha; Fr. Myrrhe; Ger. Myrrha,
Com-miph'o-ra. L. fr. Gr....Gum, +
..., bears, to bear -- i.e., produces gummy exudation.
Myr-rha. L. fr. Gr...., classic name -- Ar.
Murr; Heb. Mar, bitter -- i.e., gum-resin has bitterish taste.
PLANT. -- Low, stunted bush or small tree 2.5-3
M. (8-10 degrees) high; trunk considerable size, with many irregular, knotty,
abortive branches at right angles, terminating in sharp spines; bark whitish-gray;
leaves trifoliate, 2.5 Cm. (1') long, petiolate; leaflets sessile, 12 Mm.
(1/2') long, unequal, obovate, central one the largest; flowers dioecious;
fruit 12 Mm. 1/2') long, pyriform. GUM-RESIN (myrrh), in rounded,
irregular tears or masses of agglutinated tears, reddish-brown, covered
with yellowish dust; fracture waxy, granular, conchoidal, internally nearly
white spots or lines, oily, translucent at edges; odor balsamic, aromatic;
taste aromatic, bitter, acrid; triturated with water -- brownish-yellow
emulsion; with alcohol--brownish-yellow tincture, changing with nitric
acid to purplish-red; macerated with water -- neither swells nor dissolves.
POWDER, yellowish-brown -- numerous angular fragments of resin and gum,
few fragments or lignified tissue, few starch grains.
Reject tears dissolving completely in water, or those swelling with water.
Solvent: alcohol. Dose, gr. 5-30 (.3-2 Gm.).
[ILLUSTRATION] Commiphora Myrrha:1, fruit-bearing twig; 2, ripe fruit;
3, and 4, vertical section of pistillate and staminate flowers respectively;
ADULTERATIONS. -- Gum-resin of allied species (bdellium,
etc. -- fracture more transparent or opaque, odor and taste different),
vegetable fragments, sand, salt, dark gums swelling or adhesive with water.
Commercial. -- Trees form an undergrowth
in the Red Sea coast forests where vegetation is scant, water scarce, and
temperature high. Myrrh is formed in the bark and pith, and exudes
spontaneously, like cherry-tree gum, or from artificial incisions through
the stem-bark, being at first a juice, then oily, soft, yellowish, golden,
finally hard and reddish. It is collected mostly by the Somali, both
at home and across the Aden Gulf, Arabia, and formerly entered commerce
via Egypt and Lavant ports, hence the name Turkey myrrh, but now is conveyed
to the great fair of Berbera, there purchased by the Banians of India,
and shipped via Aden to Bombay, where it is assorted into grades (bdellium
separated) and put into chests, 100-200 pounds (46-90 Kg.). There
are three varieties: 1, Turkey (African), the best -- our official kind;
2, Arabian, cultivated in S. Arabia, east of Aden, called by Arabs mur,
by Somalis mulmul, heerabul, resembles the preceding, but smaller, tougher,
without white lines in fracture, less resin, volatile oil and fragrance,
only 25 p.c. soluble in alcohol; 3, Indian (Myrrha Indica), called natively
bissabul, by Somalis hebbakhade, resembles dark myrrh, but has mushroom-like
odor, strong, almost acrid, taste; contains resin 2l p.c., volatile oil
8 p.c., many impurities; in commerce as Opopanax.
CONSTITUENTS. -- Volatile oil 4-8 p.c., Resin 25-40
p.c., Gum 40-60 p.c., bitter principle (glucoside, soluble in alcohol,
water), ash 3-8.5 p.c. -- mostly calcium carbonate.
Volatile Oil, C10H14O.--Also
called myrrhol or myrrhenol, identical in formula with thymol and carvol,
but distinct from them; easily resinifies, pale yellow, thick liquid, sp.
-- Often called myrrhin, soluble in alcohol, chloroform, ether; consists
of 2 parts -- one soft the other hard and acid, the latter yielding protocatechuic
acid and pyrocatechin, and further divisible into 2 parts -- and commiphoric
Gum. -- Two kinds, one soluble, the other
swelling -- galactose and arabinose -- in water, adhesive, making stable
paste; one precipitated by neutral, the other by basic lead acetate.
PREPARATIONS. -- 1. Tinctura Myrrhae.
Tincture of Myrrh. (Syn., Tr. Myrrh.; Fr. Teinture de Myrrhe; Ger.
Manufacture: 20 p.c. Similar to Tinctura
Cardamomi Composita, page 137; menstruum: alcohol. Dose, mxv-60 (1-4
cc.); mostly used externally. 2. Pilulae Aloes et Myrrhae, N.F.,
1 gr. (.06 Gm.). 3. Tinctura Aloes et Myrrhae, N.F., 10 p.c.
4. Tinctura Capsici et Myrrhae, N.F., 12 p.c. 5. Pilulae Antiperiodicae,
N.F., 1/8 gr. (.008 Gm.). 6. Pilulae Rhei Compositae, N.F., 1 gr.
(.06 Gm.). 7. Tinctura Antiperiodica, N.F., 1/5 p.c.
Unoff. Preps.: Fluidextract, mv-30 (.3-2
cc.). Compound Iron Mixture (Griffith's), 1/8 p.c. Plaster.
PROPERTIES. -- Stimulant, tonic, expectorant, emmenagogue,
astringent, carminative, vulnerary; increases circulation and the number
of white blood corpuscles; it is eliminated by the genito-urinary and bronchial
mucous membranes, augmenting and disinfecting their secretions; large doses
vomit, purge, decrease bronchial secretion. Locally, stimulant, disinfectant,
and antiseptic to mucous membranes, ulcerated surfaces, etc.
USES. -- Atonic dyspepsia, amenorrhea, anemia, bronchial
catarrh, cystitis, pharyngitis, chronic uterine and vaginal leucorrhea.
Locally -- ulcerated spongy gums, diseased mucous surfaces, relaxed throat,
ptyalism, ozena, indolent ulcers; tincture freely diluted with water a
good disinfectant gargle to ulcerated sore throat; much used in tooth powders
Commiphora Mu'kul, Indian Bdellium,and C. Aftrica'na,
African Bdellium. -- Both occur in tears resembling myrrh, yellowish-brown,
dusty, translucent, the former only slightly aromatic, not bitter, the
latter with aroma distinct from myrrh, quite bitter; with nitric acid --
no purplish-red; both contain volatile oil, resin, gum -- the latter a
bitter principle; a third variety is non-translucent; yielding a tincture
blackened by ferric salts. C. (Balsemoden'dron) Opobal'samum, Mecca
Balsam (Gum). -- Bal'samum Gileaden'se, Balm of Gilead. Possibly
the myrrh of the Bible; opaque, yellowish, fragrant, viscid liquid; contains
volatile oil 10-30 p.c.; soft resin 70 p.c., hard resin 12 p.c.
Coni'um macula'tum, Conium, Poison Hemlock, N.F.
-- The dried full-grown, but unripe fruit with not more than 2 p.c. of
foreign fruits, seeds, or other foreign organic matter, yielding not less
than .5 p.c. of coniine; it is unfit for use when kept for more than 2
years, and should be carefully dried and preserved; Europe, Asia, N. Africa,
naturalized in N. And S. America -- waste places. Large branching
herb, 2-2.5 M. (6-8 degrees) high, stem furrowed, hollow, smooth, green,
mottled with port-wine-colored spots; root biennial, fusiform, 15 Mm. (3/5')
thick, exuding milky juice when cut; flowers white, small umbels; leaves
bipinnate, 15-30 Cm. (6-12') long, incised, dentate, mucronate, grayish-green
on drying. Fruit, cremocarp, broadly oval, greenish-gray, 2 mericarps
often separated, each 3 Mm. 1/8') long, 1.5 Mm. 1/115') broad, ovoid; inner
flattened side with deep longitudinal groove, outer convex with 5 pale
yellow crenate ribs, pericarp without oil tubes; odor slight, but with
solution potassium hydroxide T.S. strongly disagreeable, mouse-like; taste
characteristic, disagreeable, acrid. Powder, greenish-gray -- endosperm
tissue, parenchyma cells containing fixed oil, aleurone grains, calcium
oxalate rosettes, lignified fibers, seed-coat fragments, starch grains,
tracheae; solvent: alcohol, contains coniine (conine -- liquid) .5-1.5
p.c., methylconiine, conhydrine, pseudoconhydrine, volatile oil, fixed
oil, coniic acid, ash 8 p.c. Sedative, narcotic, anodyne, soporific,
antispasmodic, anaphrodisiac; depresses all motor nerves, beginning in
peripheries, thence to spinal cord, etc., causing motor paralysis without
loss of sensation; spasmodic chorea, whooping couth, melancholia, neuralgia,
delirium tremens, tetanus, asthma, epilepsy, pneumonia; scrofulous glandular
sores, affections of mammary glands, to check milk secretion, etc.
Poisoning: Vomiting, fatigue, heaviness of legs, numbness, drooped eyelids,
mydriasis, vertigo, impaired speech, slow pulse, paralysis of voluntary
muscles, loss of speech, and vision, death from paralysis of respiratory
muscles -- emetics, lavage, tannin, strychnine, diffusible stimulants,
atropine, warmth, epispastics, artificial respiration. Dose, gr.
1-5 (.06-.3 Gm.); 2. Extractum Conii (diluted alcohol + .3 p.c. of diluted
hydrocloric acid), dose, gr. ½-2 (.03-.13 Gm.). Fluidextract
(diluted alcohol + 2 p.c. of acetic acid), mj-5 (.06-.3 cc.); Ointment;
[ILLUSTRATION] Conium maculatum.
[ILLUSTRATION] Conium, fruit and longitudinal section magnified
3 diam.; transverse section magnified 8 diam.
[ILLUSTRATION] Consollaria majalis.
Convalla'ria maja'lis, Lily-of-the-Valley, Convallariae
Radix, Convallaria Root, Lily-of-the-Valley Root, N.F. -- The dried
rhizome and roots with not more than 5 p.c. of leaves or other foreign
organic matter, yielding not more than 6 p.c. of acid-insoluble ash; United
States; cultivated in gardens. Stemless perennial; leaves 2-3, radical,
smooth, elliptical; flowers campanulate, white, 1-sided raceme. Rhizome,
variable length, 1-3 Mm. (1/25-1/8') thick, brownish, few circular stem-scars,
3-5 thin, tortuous, branching roots on lower portions of nodes; fracture
short, fibrous, internally whitish; odor faint; taste sweetish, bitter,
acrid. Powder, brown -- cakes on standing, few starch grains and
calcium oxalate raphides, endodermal cells with porous walls, tracheae;
solvents; diluted alcohol, boiling water partially; contains convallamarin,
convallarin, resin. Heart tonic, diuretic, emetic, purgative, sternutatory,
poisonous, similar to digitalis, but non-cumulative; heart greatly slowed;
arrhythmia, "cardiac hurry", dropsy. Dose, gr. 2-10 (.13-.6 Gm.;)1.
Fluidextractum Convallariae Radicis (75 p.c. alcohol), dose, mij-10 (.13-.6
cc.). Extract or convallamarin, gr. 1/2-2 (.03-.13 Gm.); Infusion,
25 p.c. , 3ss-1 (15-30 cc.). Poisoning: Symptoms and treatment similar
Consol'vulus Mechoan'na, Mechoacanna Root.
-- Considered by some identical with Ipomaea pandurata; occurs in sections,
light, whitish, mealy, contains little resin.
[ILLUSTRATION] Consolvulus Scammonia: a, blooming plant, b, fruiting
twig; c, root (1/2 natural size); also flower, anther, pistil, fruit, seed,
diagram of flower, enlarged.
Convol'vulus Scammo'nia, Scam'mony, U.S.P.
(resin) 1820-1900; (root) 1910; W. Asia, Syria, Greece. Perennial
twining herb, 6-9 M. (20-30 degrees) long; leaves sagittate, bright green;
flowers yellow, funnel-shaped; fruit capsule, 4-seeded. Root, vertical,
cylindrical, 10-25 Cm. (4-10') long, 1-4.5 Cm. (2/5-1 4/5') thick, grayish-brown,
twisted, furrowed, root-scars, hard, heavy; fracture tough with projecting
wood-fibers; internally mottled, yellowish porous wood-wedges, separated
by whitish parenchyma containing starch and resin; odor slight, jalap-like;
taste slightly sweet; acrid. Powder, grayish-brown -- starch grains,
calcium oxalate prisms, resin cells, tracheae, wood-fibers, stone and cork
cells; solvents: alcohol, ether; contains resin 3-10 p.c., gum, tannin
3 p.c., sugar 15 p.c., starch, extractive. Hydragogue, cholagogue
cathartic -- acts locally on upper intestine like jalap, but being a greater
irritant causes more griping -- sometimes fatal purgation; should be combined
with aromatics, potassium sulphate and other cathartics; dropsies, cerebral
affections, torpid intestines with slimy mucus. Dose, gr. 5-20 (.3-1.3
Gm.); Resin, gr. 3-8 (.2-.5 Gm.).
COPAIBA. COPAIBA, U.S.P.
Copaiba, Miller, one or more S. American species.
Habitat. Brazil (Venezuela, Colombia), Amazon
valley, banks of the Orinoco River.
Syn. Copaib., Balsam of Copaiba, Copaiva,
Balsam Capivi; Fr. Copahu, Oleo-resine (Baume) de Copahu; Ger. Balsamum
Co-pai'ba. L., Sp., and Port, fr. Brazil.
cupauba -- i.e., native name of the tree and its product.
PLANT. -- Handsome tree, 4.5-18 M. (215-60 degrees)
high, much branched, bark brown, rather smooth; leaves alternate, paripinnate;
leaflets opposite, 3-5 pairs, 2.5-5 Cm. (1-2') long, ovate, entire, glabrous,
coriaceous, pellucid-punctate; flowers small, white; sepals 5; apetalous;
stamens 10; pod small, 2.5 Cm. (1') long, orange-brown, dehiscent into
2 valves, 1-seeded. OLEORESIN (copaiba), pale yellow, brownish-yellow,
viscid liquid, without fluorescence or with only slightly greenish fluorescence;
odor peculiar, aromatic; taste persistent, bitter, acrid; soluble in chloroform,
ether, carbon disulphide, fixed or volatile oils, petroleum benzin (1),
any addition producing a flocculent precipitate, partly soluble in alcohol,
more completely in dehydrated alcohol, insoluble in water; sp. gr. 0.940-0.995.
Tests: 1. Heat 2 Gm. on water-bath -- no odor of oil of turpentine, and
residual resin should be hard, brittle, and weigh 36 p.c. of original copaiba
taken (abs. of oil of turpentine, paraffin, fatty oils). 2. Float
3-4 drops of oil of copaiba on a mixture nitric acid 1 drop + glacial acetic
acid 3 cc.) -- no reddish zone; shake, no reddish or purple liquid (abs.
of gurjun balsam). 3. Shake 5 cc. + 15 cc, alcohol, boil
1 minute, cool -- no oil separates after standing 1 hour (abs. of paraffin
oils). 4. Not over 5 p.c. insoluble in dehydrated alcohol.
Dose, mx-60 (.6-4 cc.).
ADULTERATIONS. -- OLEORESIN: Those of allied species,
that partially deprived of oil, oil of turpetine, volatile oils, rosin,
rosin oil, paraffin, paraffin oils, fatty oils (linseed, castor, etc.),
Venice turpentine, African copaiba, gurjun balsam, alcohol -- often evinced
through different odors on slowly heating. OIL: Gurjun balsam oil,
increasing specific gravity, African copaiba oil -- insoluble in equal
volume of alcohol.
Commercial. -- Much was written concerning
copaiba during 1625-1638, but Marcgrav and Piso first described its collection,
also the tree, 1648; Jacquin studied the genus, 1760, as did Desfontaines
some years later, while Hayne, 1827, Bentham, 1870, Baillon, 1877, sparated
by the varying foliage 11 species in Brazil alone, all having similar flowers,
fruit, and valuable, hard, strong, tough, durable wood. However,
most of copaiba comes from 7 species: Brazil -- C. Langsdorf'fii, C. Confertiflo'ra,
C. Coria'cea, C. Oblongifo'lia; N. W. Orinoco Valley -- C. Officina'lis;
Amazonian region -- C. Guianen'sis, C. Multiju'ga. It is a pathogenic
product, possibly an antiseptic protective, occurring in schizogenic ducts
(cavities differing greatly in size), from which it is obtained by making
large auger holes or boxes, square or wedge-shape, into the center of the
tree, near the base, whence it usually flows at once, demanding alertness
to avoid loss, often giving 12 pounds (5.5 Kg.) in 3 hours; if none should
appear the aperture is closed with clay or wax and reopened in 2 weeks,
when, as a rule, the discharge is abundant. The flow at first is
thin, clear, colorless, but soon becomes thicker and yellowish, as it does
also with age. A tree may yield 10-12 gallons (38-45 L.), in 2-3
annual flows, and when abandoned, the ducts, some the length of the stem,
occasionally fill and, acting as high liquid columns, furnish sufficient
pressure to burst the trunk with a cannon-like report. It is exported
in casks, demijohns, cans, jugs, the value depending upon the amount of
contained volatile oil. There are several varieties: 1, Para, most
limpid, palest; contains volatile oil 60-90 p.c.; 2, Maranham, denser,
consistence of olive oil, odor slightly different; contains volatile oil
40-60 (rarely 80 p.c.; 3, Rio Janeiro, resembles closely the Maranham --
these three (Brazilian) form clear mixtures with one-third to one-half
their weight of ammonia water, but milky if more alkali or fixed oil present;
4, Surinam (C. Guianensis), rather thin, light yellow, soluble in ether,
chloroform, alcohol (4-5 parts, turbid with equal portion), violet with
bromine (1) + chloroform (20); contains volatile oil 70-80 p.c.;
5, Maracaibo, the thickest, turbid, dark yellow; solidifies with magnesium
oxide, not clear with ammonia water; contains volatile oil 20-40 p.c.,
and owing to large amount of resin is well adapted for Massa Copaibae,
N.F., as it combines with magnesium oxide forming resin soap, which gradually
becomes dry and hard; Para and other varieties may be used but sufficient
volatile oil must be evaporated to render residue viscid upon cooling.
Copaiba is exported not only from the above ports, but also from Angostura,
Cayenne, W. Indies, Trinidad, C. America, etc.
[ILLUSTRATION] Copaiba Langsdorffii.
CONSTITUENTS. -- Volatile oil, Resin, bitter principle,
copaivic acid, C20H32O2 (oxycopaivic acid,
C20H28O3, from Para, metacopaivic acid,
C22H34O4, from Maracaibo -- all three
acids crystalline). Has no benzoic or cinnamic acid, hence the name
balsam is misapplied.
Oleum Copaibae. Oil of Copaiba, C15H24
(Br. -- U.S.P. 1850-1900). -- This volatile oil is distilled from copaiba
with water or steam, and upon it most of the medicinal properties of the
oleoresin depend. It is a pale yellowish liquid, oxidizing by exposure,
characteristic odor of copaiba, aromatic, bitter, pungent taste; consists
chiefly of caryophyllene, C15H24; sp. gr. 0.900,
increasing with age; soluble in 2 volumes alcohol; that from Maracaibo
dark blue with hydrochloric acid gas. Should be kept cool, dark,
in well-stoppered amber-colored bottles. Dose, mv-15 (.3-1 cc.),
in emulsion, capsule, or on sugar.
Resina Copaibae. Resin of Copaiba.
-- (Acidum Copaibicum). The residue left after distilling off the
volatile oil from copaiba. It is brownish-yellow, brittle, slight
odor and taste of copaiba, to which the resin returns when mixed with the
volatile oil of copaiba; soluble in alcohol, ether, chloroform, benzene,
volatile oils; contains copaivic or metacopaivic acid, mixed with neutral
resin. Dose, gr. 5-15 (.3-1 Gm.).
PREPARATIONS. -- 1. Massa Copaibae, Solidified
Copaiba, N.F., 94 p.c. + magnesium oxide 6 p.c., water q.s. to dampen,
heat. Dose, gr. 15-30 (1-2 Gm.). 2. Mistura Copaibae, Lafayette
Mixture, N.F., 12.5 p.c. 3. Mistura Copaibae et Opii, Chapman's
Mixture, N.F., 25 p.c. + tinct. opii 3.2, sp. aeth. nitrit. 25, +.
Dose, 3j-2 (4-8 cc.).
Unoff. Preps.: Capsules. Emulsion. Electuary.
PROPERTIES. -- Similar to turpentine; diuretic,
stimulant, expectorant, laxative, nauseant, disinfectant; acts mainly on
the mucous membranes (genito-urinary), by which, and also skin, it is eliminated;
increases quantity as well as solids of the urine, and imparts odor to
urine, sweat, milk, breath; sometimes erupts the skin -- roseola, urticaria,
USES. -- Gonorrhea, cystitis, bronchitis, dysentery,
diarrhea, hemorrhoids, psoriasis, dropsy, leprosy; volatile oil is not
so valuable for gonorrhea, gleet, etc., as the oleoresin, but better for
throat affections. Externally--chilblains, sore nipples, anal fissures,
often added to varnishes and vice versa. Long usage may cause indigestion
and renal irritation.
Poisoning, Incompatibles, Synergists: Same
as for turpentine.
Allied Products: 1. Copaiba Mar'tii,
C. Cordifo'lia, C. Jus'sieui, C. Jac'quini, C. Nit'ida -- all furnish oleoresin,
usually poor in the amount of volatile oil.
2. Hardwick'ia pinna'ta. -- E. India.
Tree yields dark brown oleoresin, containing volatile oil 20-40 p.c., resin,
no copaivic acid.
3. Dipterocar'pus ala'tus. -- India.
Tree yields gurjun balsam or wood oil -- an oleoresin resembling copaiba,
containing gurjunic (metacopaivic) acid.
4. Copal, Gum Copal. -- A fossil resin of
Zanzibar or exuding from many leguminous plants of Africa, S. America,
W. Indies. Occurs in yellowish-brown masses, wrinkled surface, conchoidal
fracture, glossy, odorless, tasteless; when melted becomes soluble in alcohol,
ether, and oil of turpentine. Same medicinal properties as copaiba,
only weaker; used mainly in preparing varnishes.
Cop'tis trifo'lia, Coptis, Goldthread, N.F.
-- The dried plant with not more than 3 p.c. of foreign organic matter;
N. America, damp, mossy woods. Plant with scape 7.5-12.5 Cm. (3-5')
high, leaves radical, 3-foliate; evergreen, obovate-cuneate, coriaceous,
flowers May, whitish; fruit 7 follicles, seed black. Rhizome, in
loose, matted masses (rhizome, roots, leaves), golden-yellow; odor faint;
taste bitter without astringency. Powder, yellowish-green--starch
grains, elliptical stomata, chloroplastids, root cells with reddish contents,
tracheae; contains berberine, coptine (white, possibly identical with hydrastine),
resin, ash 8 p.c. Masticatory; mouth wash for canker-sores, gargle
for sore throat, ulcerated mouth. Dose, gr. 15-60 (1-4 Gm.); 1. Fluidextractum
Coptis (diluted alcohol). Tincture, 10 p.c.; Infusion, Decoction,
CORIANDRUM. CORIANDER, N.F.
Oleum Coriandri. Oil of Coriander, U.S.P.
Coriandrum Sativum, Linne'. The
volatile oil distilled from the dried ripe fruit.
Habitat. C. Asia, S. Europe (Chine,
Italy; cultivated in the United States, Europe.)
Syn. Coriand., Coriander Seed, Colander;
Br. Coriandri Fructus; Fr. Coriandre; Ger. Koriander(samen); Ol.
Coriand., Coriander Oil; Fr. Essence de Coriandre; Ger. Korianderol.
Co-ri-an'drum. L. Fr. Gr...., a bed-bug
-- i.e., from a resemblance in odor of the leaves, also the entire plant
and fruit when young.
Sa-ti'vum. L. Sativus, sown,
cultivated -- i.e., kind used, in contradistinction to the wild- grown.
PLANT. -- Annual herb, odor of bed-bugs; stem .3-.6
M. (1-2 degrees) high, solid; leaves bi- or tripinnate; leaflets linear,
pointed, lobed, light green, resembling parsley; flowers June, white, rose-colored,
umbels small, 4 Cm. (1 3/5') broad, 5-8-rayed. Fruit -- Coriandrum,
Coriander (Seed), N.F. -- The dried ripe fruit with not more than 5 p.c.
of other fruits, seeds, or other foreign organic matter, yielding not more
than 1.5 p.c. of acid-insoluble ash, nor less than .5 p.c. of volatile
ether-soluble extractive; mericarps usually coherent, but easily separated,
cremocarp nearly globular, 2-5 Mm. (1/12-1/5') broad, yellowish-brown,
apex with 5 calyx teeeth and short stylopodium; mericarps 2, each with
5 prominent, straight primary ribs and 4 distinct secondary ribs; commissural
surface deeply concave with 2 vittae; odor and taste agreeably aromatic.
Powder, light brown -- chiefly endosperm and lignified tissues of percarp,
many calcium oxalate crystals in rosettes, aleurone grains, numerous globules
of fixed oil, yellow oil tubes (vittae); solvents: alcohol, water partially.
Dose, gr. 10-30 (.6-2 Gm.).
CONSTITUENTS. -- Volatile oil .5-1 p.c., fat 13
p.c., tannin, malic acid, mucilage, ash 7 p.c.
Oleum Coriandri. Oil of Coriander.
-- This volatile oil, distilled with water or steam from the dried ripe
fruit crushed between rollers, is a colorless, pale yellow liquid, characteristic
odor and taste of coriander, soluble in 3 vols. of 70 p.c. alcohol, sp
gr. 0.870, dextrorotatory; contains a terpene -- d-pinene, C10H16,
5 p.c., geraniol, borneol, and an alcohol--linalool (coriandrol), C10H18O,
45-90 p.c., from which 1 molecule of H2O may be withdrawn, leaving
C10H16. Should meet the requirements of the
tests for heavy metals in volatile oils and be kept cool, dark, in well-stoppered,
amber-colored bottles. Dose, mij-5 (.13-.3 cc.).
ADULTERATIONS. -- FRUIT: Stems, fragments of leaves;
OIL: Oils of turpentine, sweet orange, cubeb and cedar-wood-all recognized
by being less soluble in 70 p.c. alcohol.
Commercial. -- Coriander was popular with
the ancients; in the fresh state all parts upon being bruised are fetid,
the fruit becoming fragrant only upon drying; when ripe plants are cut
down with sickles, dried, and fruit thrashed out. Russia produces the bulk
of the crop, although we grow mostly our home consumption; that from Bombay
(Indian) is larger and ovoid but seldom reaches the United States.
[ILLUSTRATION] Coriandrum: fruit and longitudinal section magnified
3 diam.; transverse section magnified 8 diam.
PREPARATIONS. -- OIL: 1. Fluidextractum Cascarae
Sagradae Aromaticum, 1/100 p.c. 2. Spiritus Aurantii Compositus,
2 p.c. 3. Syrupus Sennae, ½ p.c. 4. Confectio Sennae,
N.F., ½ p.c. 5. Emulsa, as preferred. FRUIT:
1 Fluidextractum Stillingiae Compositum, N.F., 6.3 p.c. 2.
Infusum Gentianae Compositum, N.F., 4/5 p.c. Fluidextractum,
mxv-30 (1-2 cc.). Infusion, 5 p.c., 3j-2 (30-60 cc.).
PROPERTIES. -- Aromatic, carminative, stimulant,
USES. -- Indigestion, flatulency, corrective to
griping medicines, such as senna, rhubarb, jalap, flavoring to gin and
in cooking. Oil also used in colic, rheumatism, neuralgia.
[ILLUSTRATION] Cornus florida.
Cor'nus flor'ida, Cornus, Dogwood Bark, N.F.,
Cornaceae. -- The dried root-bark with not more than 5 p.c. of adhering
wood nor 2 p.c. of other foreign organic matter; N. America. Small
tree, 4.5-10.5 M. (15-35 degrees) high, 12.5-25 Cm. (5-10') thick, flowers
greenish with 4 large white involucral leaves, petaloid; fruit bright red.
Bark, in irregular, chiplike pieces, portions of quills less than 5 Cm.
(2') long, bark 1-4 Mm. (1/25-1/6') thick, scaly, dingy brown, reddish
where corky layers removed, heavy cork patches wanting (abs. of trunk bark);
inner surface reddish-brown, short striae; fracture short, roughened from
stone cells; odor slight; taste bitter, astringent. Powder, reddish-brown
-- parenchyma cells with amorphous substance, stone cells, numerous calcium
oxalate rosette crystals, starch grains, cork with brownish pigment; lignified
fibers and trcheae very few or wanting (abs. of trunk bark and wood); solvent:
diluted alcohol; contains cornin (cornic acid), tannin 3 p.c., resin, ash
10 p.c. Astringent, tonic, febrifuge, stimulant; when fresh -- emetic;
formerly in large doses as an antiperiodic, given between the paroxysms,
instead of cinchona, but owing to inferiority now seldom employed.
Dose, gr. 15-60 (1-4 Gm.); 1. Fluidextractum Corni (glycerin 15, diluted
alcohol 85). Decoction, 5 p.c. 3j-2 (30-60 cc.).
C. Circina'ta, Round-leaved Dogwood. -- The
bark, U.S.P. 1820-1860; N. America. Shrub 1.6-3 M. (5-10 degrees)
high, branches greenish, warty; leaves round, 10-12.5 Cm. (4-5') wide,
woolly beneath; flowers white cymes; fruit, blue drupe. Bark quilled,
curved greenish, brownish-gray, with suberous warts or longitudinal lines,
inside cinnamon-gray, with suberous warts or longitudinal lines, inside
cinnamon-brown; used like C. Florida, but is more bitter and less astringent.
C. Amo'mum (seric'ea), Silky Cornel, Swamp
Dogwood. -- The bark, U.S.P. 1820-1870; N. America. Shrub 1.6-3 M.
(5-10 degrees) high, branches purple; leaves elliptical, silky beneath;
flowers yellowish, woolly cymes. Fruit pale blue. Bark quilled,
thin, outside purplish-brown, less warty than preceding, otherwise resembles
it; used like C. Florida, but is less bitter and astringent.
Corsican Moss. -- Mediterranean. A mixture
of 20-30 different algae species, mainly Sphoerococcus (Fucus) genus; these
[ILLUSTRATION] Crocus sativus. Crocus: a, stigma, upper part magnified
4 diam.; b, style with stigmas; c, papillose margin of stigma, magnified
Cro'cus sati'vus, Crocus, Saffron, N.F. --
The stigma with not more than 10 p.c. of yellow styles and 2 p.c. of other
foreign organic matter, yielding not more than 7.5 p.c. of total ash; W.
Asia, Spain, France. Low perennial bulbiferous herb with depressed
globular corn (bulb), 2.5 Cm. (1') thick; leaves grass-like; flowers lilac,
bluish-purple. Stigmas 3, united or separate, attached to apex of
style, 25 Mm. (1') long, cornucopia-shaped, dark, rich red (developed by
toasting after being collected), margin dentate or fimbriate, styles 10
Mm. (2/5') long, solid, yellowish, odor strong, peculiarly aromatic; taste
bitterish, aromatic, colors saliva orange-yellow; with sulphuric acid --
blue, gradually changing to violet, deep red-wine; macerated in water --
yellow solution, in methyl alcohol -- deep orange; contains picrocrocin
(saffron-bitter -- by hydrolysis yielding volatile oil and fructose), crocin
(impure -- amorphous), fixed oil, ash 7.5 p.c. Adulterations -- common:
florets, dyed stamens, petals, moisture 12 p.c., mineral matter (sodium
bicarbonate, biborate, sulphate, potassium nitrate, Rochelle salt, lactose,
etc.), increasing ash 17-32 p.c. There are three varieties: 1. Austrian
(best); 2, French (Gatinais); 3, Spanish (inferior from presence of style
bases and stigmas); known as hay saffron, as distinguished from cake saffron,
which is no longer in commerce. Diaphoretic, carminative, emmenagogue,
anodyne; to promote exanthematous eruptions in measles, etc., dysmenorrhea,
conjunctivitis. Should be kept dark, in tightly closed containers.
Dose, gr. 5-30 (.3-2 Gm.); 1. Tinctura Croci, 10 p.c. (diluted alcohol),
dose, 3j-2 (4-8 cc.); 2. Tinctura Opii Crocata, 2.5 p.c.; 3. Pilulae Antiperiodicae,
1/4 gr.; 4. Tinctura Antiperiodica 2/5 p.c. Infusion (tea), 2 p.c.,
3ij-4 (60-120 cc.).
Croton Elute'ria, Cascarilla. -- The dried
bark, U.S.P. 1820-1890; Bahama Islands. Plant 1.5-6 M. (5-20 degrees)
high, stem, 2.5-20 Cm. (1-8;) thick, leaves 2.5-7.5 Cm. (1-3')long, ovate,
lanceolate, petiolate, under side bronzed-silver, flowers monoecious, white
odorous, fruit 15 Mm. 3/5') thick, ovate, silvery-gray, 3-furrowed, 3-celled;
bark in quills or curved pieces, 10 Cm. (4;) long, 3-8 Mm. (1/8-1/3') broad,
1-3 Mm. (1/25-1/8') thick, silvery-gray from lichen, or brown when this
is absent, the exposed surface wrinkled, transversely fissured, inner surface
reddish-brown, smooth, fracture short, resinous, thin whitish medullary
rays, odor aromatic, musk-like especially when burned, taste aromatic,
bitter; contains volatile oil 1.6 p.c., cascarillin, betaine, resin 15
p.c., tannin, pectin, vanillin. Stimulant, tonic, febrifuge; intermittents,
dyspepsia, diarrhea, poor substitute for cinchona. Dose, gr. 15-30
(1-2 Gm.); tincture 20 p.c. (70 p.c. alcohol), dose, 3ss-2 (2-8 cc.); extract,
dose, gr 5-8 (.3-.5 Gm.); infusion, 5 p.c., dose, 3 iv-8 (15-30 cc.).
C. lu'cidus, growing with the preceding plant; C. Ni'veus (pseudochi'na),
Copalchi Bark, Mexico, and C. Malam'bo, Malambo Bark, Venezuela.
All produce barks that resemble closely.
[ILLUSTRATION] Cascarilla: bark quill. Cascarilla: 1, cross-section
enlarged; 2, cross-section 8 times enlarged; k, cork; M, middle bark; I,
[ILLUSTRATION] Croton Eluteria.
PEPO. PEPO, U.S.P.
Cucurbita pepo, Linne'. The dried
ripe seed of cultivated varieties with not more than 5 p.c. broken or defective
seeds, or foreign organic matter.
Habitat. Tropical Asia, America; cultivated.
Syn. Pumpkin Seed, Pumpkin, Pompion,
Cold Seeds Semen Peponis, Semina Cucurbitae; Br. Cucurbitae
Semina Praeparata; Fr. Semences d Potirons; Ger. Kurbissamen.
Cu-cur'bi-ta. L. See etymology, page
597, of Cucurbitaceae.
Pe'po. L. Fr. Gr...., pumpkin, old
form, pompon, lit. cooked by the sun, ripe, mellow -- i.e., not eaten until
PLANT. -- Trailing annual; stem rough, hollow, hairy
3-9 M. (10-30 degrees) long, tendrils branched; leaves large, .25 -.5 M.
(10-20') long, 15-30 Cm. (6-12') wide, obtusely cordate, hispid, palmately
5-lobed, serrate, petioles 7.5-20 Cm. (3-8') long; flowers July, large,
5-12.5 Cm. (2-5') wide, yellow, bell-shaped, monoecious, axillary; anthers
3, syngenesious; fruit Oct., large, round, oblong, smooth, fleshy, yellow,
furrowed, .25-.5 M. (10-20') in diameter. SEED, broadly elliptical,
ovate, 15-23 Mm. (3/5-5/6') long, 6-9 Mm. (1/4-3/8') broad, 2-3 Mm. (1/12-1/8')
thick; yellowish-white, smooth, occasionally with thin transparent fragments
of adhering pulp, shallow groove parallel to and within 1 Mm. (1/25') of
the margin; fracture short, seed-coat consisting of a white coriaceous
outer layer and a membranous inner layer (sometimes dark green; embryo
whitish, straight with small conical hypocotyl and 2 plano-convex cotyledons;
slightly odorous when contused; taste bland, oily. POWDER, yellowish-white,
-- epidermal cells, stone cells, parenchyma cells, endosperm cells with
aleurone grains, cotyledons with cells containing fixed oil and many small
aleurone grains; integuments 21 p.c., kernel 79 p.c. Solvent: alcohol.
Dose, 3j-2 (30-60 Gm.).
CONSTITUENTS. -- Resin (yielding phytosterin, etc.),
.5 p.c. Fixed oil 30 p.c., proteins (myosin, vitellin), cucurbitine
(?), salicylic acid, sugar, ash 3-4 p.c.
Resin. -- Probably the active principle,
residing in the tegmen or embryo, obtained by treating the seed, after
the removal of fixed oil, with alcohol, ether, chloroform; it is soft,
greenish-brown, acrid, bitter. Dose, gr. 15 (l Gm.).
Fixed Oil. -- Claimed to possess 3 iv; 15
cc.) the medicinal power of the drug, due no doubt to the presence of some
resin, and is obtained by expression, or by treating seed with benzin;
consists of the glycerides of oleic, myristic, and palmitic acids.
The seed-infusion saturated with sodium chloride precipitates myosin, and
when CO2 is added vitellin separates, which behaves like egg-yolk (due
to its contained vitellin); the protein is possibly its emulsionizing principle.
PREPARATIONS. -- (Unoff.): Fluidextract, dose, 3ss-1
(15-30 cc.). Emulsion (3ij-4; 60-120 Gm. fresh seed, deprived of
testa, should be beaten into a paste with sucrose + water or milk Oj; .5
L.), dose, 3v (150 cc.) at 2-hour intervals beginning at 10 o'clock A.M.
Patients should remain quietly in bed all day; on the night before, and
also before breakfast, give saline purgative to remove mucus, and about
3-4 hours after the pint (.5 L.) has been taken administer castor oil 3j-2
(30-60 cc.). Should fast the day previous to taking the medicine.
[ILLUSTRATION] Cucurbita Pepo. Pumpkin seed; entire
and longitudinally divided, showing embryo.
PROPERTIES AND USES. -- Tenifuge, vermifuge, diuretic,
valuable because of its freedom from taste and harshness of action, but
has the disadvantage of uncertainty. Same treatment applies to tape-
and lumbricoid worms.
Roccel'la (tincto'ria) and Lecano'ra (tarta'rea)
species, or other lichens; Persio, Cudbear, N.F. -- Parmeliaceae.
A purplish-red powder prepared from these lichens, yielding 12 p.c. ash;
Holland. Made by heating lichens for a week with diluted ammonia,
drying, powdering; alcoholic preparations deep red--lighter with acids,
purplish-red with alkalies. To color preparations; 1, Tinctura Persionis,
10 p.c. (75 p.c. alcohol): Prep." 1. Syr. Phos. Co., 1/6 p.c. 2.
Tinctura Persionis Composita, 1.5 p.c. + caromel 10 p.c. (33 p.c. alcohol):
Preps.: 1. Elix. Ammon. Valer., 1/6 p.c.; 2. Elix. Cinchon, Alk., 5 p.c.;
3. Syr. Bromidor., 1/6 p.c.; 3. Elixir Aromaticum Rubrum, 1/5 pc.; 4. Elixir
Bromidorum Trium, 1/5 p.c.; 5. Elixir Pepsini Compositum, 1/10
p.c.; 6. Liquor Aromaticus Alkalinus, 1/5 p.c.; 7. Syrupus
Pini Albae Compositus, 1/10 p.c. Lacmus, Litmus, a blue pigment from
these lichens by mixing (powder) with potassium carbonate, diluted ammonia
water, exposing to air 6 weeks for fermentation, when it gradually turns
red, purple, blue, and at the different stages is mixed with chalk and
formed into cakes. Orchil is prepared likewise adding diluted ammonia,
sulphuric acid and sodium chloride -- deep purple.
[ILLUSTRATION] Curcuma starch.
Cur'cuma lon'ga, Turmeric. -- The rhizome,
U.S.P. 1820-1870; S. Asia, Indian Ocean Islands. Plant is a perennial;
leaves radical, 1 M. (3 degrees) long, lanceolate; flowerscape short, spike
15 Cm. (6') long, flowers orange- yellow, in pairs; rhizome 2.5-5 Cm. (1-2')
long, 12 Mm. 1/2') thick (long turmeric) to 18-25 Mm. (3/4-1') thick
(round turmeric), sometimes in sections, yellowish-gray, annulate, inside
orange-yellow, fracture resinous; odor ginger-like; taste warm, aromatic;
contains volatile oil 1 p.c., viscid oil 11 p.c., pungent resin, curcumin
(coloring matter) .3 p.c., starch, ash 5-7 p.c. Powder deep yellow,
brownish-red by alkalies or borax. There are several varieties: 1,
Madras (best, bright yellow, often in cut pieces--Pubna preferred); 2,
Bengal (reddish, mostly round); 3, Java (reddish-gray); 4, Chinese (often
branched); 5, Cochin (possibly from C. Viridiflo'ra). Used as stimulant,
tonic, aromatic, condiment, for jaundice, and as ginger. Tincture,
15 p.c., (diluted alcohol) for coloring ointments, solutions, etc.
[ILLUSTRATION] Turmeric rhizome and stem.
Cur'cuma Zedoa'ria, Zedoaria, Zedoary, N.F.
-- The dried rhizome with not more than 2 p.c. of foreign organic matter;
India, largely cultivated. Perennial reed-like plant. Rhizome
(tuber) occurs as into transverse rounded sections, twisted, wrinkled,
1-4 Cm. (2/5-1 3/5') broad, 5-10 Mm. (1/5-2/5') thick, grayish-brown, hairy,
rough, few root-scars, transverse surface brownish, dark circular endodermis
separates cortex from central cylinder; stele with yellowish resin cells,
lighter fibro-vascular bundles, fewer in cortex; fracture short, mealy,
waxy; odor aromatic, camphor-like; taste aromatic, warm, bitter.
Powder, brownish -- numerous starch grains and thick-walled hairs, parenchyma,
few bast-fibers; no calcium oxalate crystals or stone cells; contains volatile
oil .5-1 p.c., resin (pungent taste), starch, mucilage, ash 7 p.c.
Stomachic, aromatic, stimulant; dyspepsia, flatulence -- weaker than ginger.
Dose, gr. 10-30 (.6-2 Gm.); 1. Pilulae Antiperiodicae, 1/8 gr.; 2. Tinctura
Amara, 2 p.c. 3. Tinctura antiperiodica, 1/5 p.c.
Cuspa'ria Angostu'ra, (Galipe'a Cusparia (officina'lis)),
Angustura (Bark); Cuspariae Cortex, Cusparia Bark. The bark,
U.S.P. 1820-1870; Northern South America. Tree 4.5-6 M. (15-20 degrees)
high, leaves with 3 leaflets, 15-25 Cm. (6-10') long, 5-10 Cm. (2-4') broad,
spotted white, tobacco odor, flowers white; bark in flat, curved, or quilled
pieces 2.5 Mm. (1/10') thick, ochrey-gray, friable periderm, inside cinnamon-red,
striae of calcium oxalate, aromatic, bitter; contains volatile oil, resin,
angusturin, 4 alkaloids. Used for diarrhea, dysentery, dyspepsia,
typhoid, stimulant, febrifuge, large doses emetic; in infusion, tincture,
extract. Dose, gr. 10-30 (.3-2 Gm.) False Antustura Bark (Strychnos
Nux-vomica) has stone-cells, no striae of calcium oxalate; is very bitter,
not aromatic, contains strychnine, brucine.
[ILLUSTRATION] Angustura bark; one-half natural size.
Cydo'nia (Py'rus) Cydonia, Quince. -- Pomaceae.
The seed; U.S.P. 1850-1880; W. Asia. Tree 2.5-6 M. (8-20 degrees)
high, with crooked, straggling branches; leaves like pear leaves; flowers
white or purplish; fruit pear-shaped; seed 6 Mm. (1/4') long, ovate, triangular,
brown, covered with whitish, mucilaginous, epithelium causing seed of each
cell to adhere; swell with water, forming heavy mucilage; 2 cotyledons,
white, oily, bitter-almond taste; very similar to apple seed. Contain
mucilage (cydonin) 20 p.c. (not precipitated by borax or potassium silicate,
soluble in cold and hot water), fixed oil, proteins; used as demulcent,
protective; fruit astringent. Mucilago Cydonii (1 part + water 50),
U.S.P. 1880; may use rose water, or camphor water--externally.
[ILLUSTRATION] Cydonia (pyrus) Cydonia.
Cyt'sus Scopa'rius, Scoparius, Broom Tops, N.F.
-- The dried tops with not more than 5 p.c. of stems over 3 Mm. (1/8')
thick nor 2 p.c. of other foreign organic matter; W. Asia, S. Europe, United
States. Shrub 1.2-2.4 M. (4-8 degrees) high, with many pentangular,
wand-like branches in close fascicles--suitable for broom-making; leaves
downy, trifoliate; leaflets sessile, 6-12 Mm. (1/4-1/2') long, lanceolate;
flowers numerous, large, brilliant yellow, papilionaceous; fruit pod, 4
Cm. 1-3/5') broad, compressed. Tops -- stems thin with branched twigs,
1-3 Mm. 1/25-1/8') thick, angled, winged, dark green, nearly glabrous,
many brownish cork patches; internally yellowish; fracture short-fibrous
(thin), tough and splintery (thick); leaves scarce; odor slight on bruising
more distinct; taste disagreeable, bitter. Powder, dark green --
non-glandular, non-lignified hairs, chlor-enchyma, stomata, pith and wood
parenchyma, tracheae, starch grains, pollen grains; solvent: diluted alcohol;
contains sparteine (colorless oily liquid alkaloid) .3 p.c., scoparin (diuretic),
volatile oil, tannin, fat, wax, sugar, ash 5 p.c. Cardiac stimulant,
narcotic, diuretic, poisonous, large doses paralyze respiratory and motor
centers, causing convulsions and death by asphyxia; cardiac
affections palpitation -- inferior to digitalis, although quicker and without
cumulative tendency. Poisoning: similar to digitalis in effect and
treatment. Dose, gr. 15-30 (1-2 Gm.); 1. Fluidextractum Scoparii
(diluted alcohol). Decoction, Infusion, each 5 p.c., 3j-2 (30-60
cc.); juice, 75 p.c., + alcohol 25, 3j-2 (4-8 cc.); sparteine sulphate,
gr. 1/6-1/2 (.01-.03 Gm.); scoparin, gr. 1-10 (.06-.6Gm.). Spar'tium
jun'ceum, Spanish Broom--leaves soft, hairy; seed reniform; properties
similar to Cytisus Scoparius; fibers used for cordage, coarse cloth, etc.
[ILLUSTRATION] Cytisus Scoparius: flowering branch.