The Cayce Herbal 
 A Comprehensive Guide to the  
Botanical Medicine of Edgar Cayce
A Manual of Materia Medica and Pharmacology
by David M. R. Culbreth, Ph.G., M.D. (1927)
Daemonorops draco

    Daemon'orops (Cal'amus) Dra'co, Draconis Resina (Dragon's Blood). -- Borneo, Sumatra.  A spontaneous resinous exudation from the ripening fruit; occurs in tears, globular pieces 4 Cm. (1 3/5') thick, cylindrical sticks .3 M. (12') long, or in irregular cakes, dark brown, inside bright red, fracture dull, irregular, inodorous; when heated aromatic like benzoin, tasteless; contains red resin (draconin), benzoic acid or cinnamic acid, or both wanting, dracoresinotannol, dracoresin, dracoalban, ash 8-9 p.c.  Mild stimulant, astringent.  Used in tooth powders, plasters, varnishes.


    Ag'athis loranthifo'lia (Dam'mara), Dammar. -- E. India.  A spontaneous resinous exudation, in transparent, straw-colored rounded masses, almost odorless, and tasteless, fracture conchoidal; contains resin of which 40 p.c. is insoluble in alcohol and 60 p.c. soluble; by distillation get terpene, C10H16.  Used mostly in varnishes, rarely in plasters.  That from New Zealand--Kauri Resin--is found also fossil and often sold as copal.


    Daph'ne Meze'reum, D. Gnid'ium, or D. Laure'ola, Mezereum, Mezereon, N.F. -- Thymelaeaceae.  The dried bark from aerial portions with not more than 2 p.c. of foreign organic matter; Europe, Siberia, New England.  Small slender herbs, .3-1.3 M. (1-4 degrees) high, branching; leaves 5-7.5 Cm. (2-3') long, obovate sessile, entire; flowers fragrant, tubular, rose red (1), white (2), yellowish-green (3); fruit ovate, bright red (1), scarlet (2), purplish-black (3).  Bark in flexible, tough quills flattened strips up to 90 Cm. (3 degrees) in length, .3-1 Mm. 1/75-1/25') thick, yellowish-brown (1), purplish-brown (2), purplish-gray (3), smooth, numerous lenticels, brownish-black apothecia, corky layer easily separable from middle bark, inner surface yellowish-white, satiny, lustrous, finely striate; fracture tough, fibrous; odor slight; taste at first  slight, increasingly pungent, acrid.  Powder, light grayish-brown--numerous bast-fibers, attenuated ends, walls free from pores, brownish cork cells, starch-bearing medullary rays, few starch grains; solvents; diluted alcohol, boiling water; contains acrid resin, acrid volatile oil, daphnin, wax, sugar, yellow coloring matter, malic acid; by dry distillation yields umbelliferon.  Alterative, stimulant, diuretic, diaphoretic, sialagogue, vesicant; syphilis, scrofula, rheumatism, skin diseases; externally -- local irritant like cantharides, applied to indolent ulcers to make them again active, also to maintain discharges from setons, fly blisters, etc.  Poisoning; Have voliting, purging, cold sweats, prostration, collapse, convulsions, death -- evacuate stomach with warm demulcent drinks, then milk, fatty oils, opium, stimulants.  Dose, gr. 1-10 (.06-.6 Gm.); 1. Fluidextractum Mezerei, (67 p.c. alcohol): Prep.: 1. Linimentum Sinapis Compositum, 20 p.c. 2. Fluidextractum Sarsaparillae Compositum, 3 p.c.  Decoction; Extract. Daphne saliciflo'lia; Mexico -- leaves used natively as a vesicant; fruits of the various species contain 31 p.c. of fixed oil.

[ILLUSTRATION]  Transverse section, magnified 15 diam.

[ILLUSTRATION]  Daphne Merzereum.


    Datura Stramonium, Linne'.   The dried leaves and flowering tops, with not more than 3 p.c. stems over 8 Mm. (1/3') thick, nor 4 p.c. acid-insoluble ash, yielding not less than .25 p.c. alkaloids
    Habitat.  Asia; naturalized universally (Europe, England, N. America, etc.)
    Syn.  Stramon., Jamestown Weed, Jimson Weed, Thorn-apple, Devil's (Mad) Apple,  Stink-weed, Stink-wort, Devil's Trumpet, Fire-weed, Jamestown Lily, Apple of Peru; Br.  Stramonii Folia; Fr. Stramoine, Pomme Epineuse, Feulles de Stramoine; Ger. Stechapfel,  Dornapfel, Stechapfelblatter.
    Da-tu'ra.  L. Fr. Hind. D'hotura, a plant, or an alteration of Ar. Tatorah -- i.e., their name  for the plant.
    Stra-mo'ni-um.  L. Contr. of Gr..., used by Dioscorides for this and for Atropa  Belladonna.
    Jimson-weed.  For Jamestown, Va., where first found growiwng on ship rubbish.
    PLANT. -- Course annual bushy herb, rank, noxious odor; stems cylindrical, flattened, longitudinally wrinkled, occasionally 1-more-furrowed, succulent, greenish, purplish-brown, nearly solid, 1-1.5 M. (3-5 degrees) high, 2.5-4 Cm. (1-1 3/5') thick, 2-3-branched above ground; root tapering, white; flowers June-Sept., calyx tubular, green, 4 Cm. (1 3/5') long, 5's, corolla white, purplish, tubular, funnel-shaped, 7.5-10 Cm. (3-4') long, 5 Cm. (2') broad, 5's; fruit capsule, 5 Cm. (2') long, ovate, obtusely quadrangular, covered with unequal, sharp, rigid spines, 4-celled, dehiscing half-way down into 4 segments; ovary 2-carpelled, 2-celled; seed numerous, brownish-black, angled, flattened, 4 Mm. (1/6') long.  LEAVES, 5-30 Cm. (2-12') long, 4-15 Cm. (1 3/5-6') broad, usually matted, wrinkled, crushed, petiolate, inequilaterally ovate, acuminate, sinuate-toothed or angled, teeth few, acute with rounded sinuses, sparsely hairy, dark green, under surface light green; stems often flattened, wrinkled, furrowed; odor distinct, heavy, narcotic taste unpleasant, nauseous.  POWDER, brownish-green -- stomata with 3 neighboring cells, calcium oxalate in rosette aggregate crystals; non-glandular hairs, few glandular hairs, tracheae, stem fragments with spiral tracheae, wood-fibers, collenchymatous cells, Microcrystals, no bast-fibers Solvents: 75 p.c. alcohol; diluted alcohol; hot water partially.   Dose; gr. 1-5 (.06-.3 Gm.).

[ILLUSTRATION]   Datura Stramonium:  flowering branch.

[ILLUSTRATION]  Datura Stramonium: a, fruit; b, stramonium seed and section, magnified 3 diam.

    ADULTERATIONS. -- Leaves of allied species (usually smaller), belladonna, French cultivated, and Xan'thium Struma'rium.
    Commercial. -- Plants were known possibly to the ancients, but not described until the 10th century (Gerarde), nor introduced into medicine before 1672 (Storck).  They infest fields, roadsides waste places, near houses (never in mountains or woods), exhale rank, heavy, repellant narcotic odor, and grow well with us, especially in Michigan and other western States, all parts being medicinal.  Gypsies brought leaves and seeds to Europe from Asia in the middle ages, and used the smoke therefrom to intoxicate their dupes.  Leaves should be gathered while flowering, by pulling up entire plant, then quickly removing and drying, by which they often become broken or cut into pieces.
    CONSTITUENTS. -- Daturine .2-.4 p.c., volatile oil (containing daturic acid, C17H34O2, chlorophyll, mucilage, albumin, potassium nitrate, ash 17-20 p.c.
    Daturine. -- An alkaloid combined with malic (daturic) acid, and consisting of hyoscyamine, atropine (the former usually predominating), and probably little scopolamine (hyoscine); forms salts (hydrochloride, sulphate, etc.).  Dose, gr. 1/120-1/60 (.0005-.001 Gm.).
    PREPARATIONS. -- 1. Extractum Stramonii.  Extract of Stramonium.  (Syn., Ext. Stramon.; Fr. Extrait de Feuilles de Stramoine; Ger. Stechapfelblattterextrakt.)
    Manufacture: PILULAR, macerate, percolate 100 Gm. with 75 p.c. alcohol until exhausted, reclaim alcohol, evaporate residue at 70 degrees C. (158 degrees F.) to pilular consistence, frequently stirring, mix thoroughly; after assay add enough glucose for extract to contain 1 p.c. of total alkaloids, mix thoroughly.  POWDERED, macerate, percolate 100 Gm. with alcohol, reserve first 100 cc. and continue until exhausted (100 cc.); reclaim alcohol from second percolate until residue in still is 10 cc., to which add first reserve and distill until residue of syrupy consistence; transfer to a dish, rinse still with little warm alcohol, which add to dish and evaporate at 70 degrees C. (150 degrees F.) to soft extract, frequently stirring, add dried starch 5 Gm., heat, with stirring, until nearly dry, thoroughly incorporate dried starch 2 Gm., expose to current of warm air until dry, pulverize; after assay add enough dried starch for extract to contain 1 p.c. of total alkaloids, mix thoroughly, pass through fine sieve; contains .9-1.1 -- 1 p.c. of the alkaloids; 1 Gm. represents 4 Gm. of the drug.  Should be kept in small, wide-mouthed, tightly-stoppered bottles.  Dose, gr. 1/6-1/2 (.01-.03 Gm.).
    Prep.: 1.  Unguentum Stramonii, N.F., pilular ext. 10 p.c., hydrous wool fat 20, benzoinated lard 65, diluted alcohol 5.
    2. Tinctura Stramonii.  Tincture of Stramonium; Fr. Teinture de Stramoine; Ger. Stechapfeltinktur.)
    Manufacture: 10 p.c.  Stimilar to Tinctura Veratri Viridis, page 104; menstruum: diluted alcohol--percolate 95 cc., assay, and add enough menstruum for the 100 cc. to contain .0225-.0275 Gm. of total alkaloids.  Dose, mv-30 (.3-2 cc.).
    3.  Fluidextractum Stramonii, N.F., (80 p.c. alcohol).  Dose mj-5 (.06-..3 cc.).
    Unoff. Preps.: Plaster, Juice (Succus Stramonii), Cigarettes, Fomentation.
    PROPERTIES. -- Narcotic, anodyne, antispasmodic, diuretic, mydriatic.  Internally very similar but stronger than belladonna; weaker externally.  Large doses produce dry throat, cardiac irregularity, high fever with delirium, increase sexual desire, possibly laughing and hallucinations (like in cholera, alcoholism), dizziness, fainting, red eruptions, dilated pupils, insomnia, black objects appear green; pneumogastric becomes paralyzed, thus stopping the inhibitory action, hence whole system paralyzed finally by over-stimulation, including the heart, then delirium, stupor, convulsions, death by asphyxia; in case of recovery remember nothing that has occurred; does not affect some animals, as caterpillar, tribe, goats, etc.
    USES. -- Insanity, mania, melancholia, epilepsy, nervous asthma (gr. 15 (1 Gm.) of leaves smoked with tobacco or sage at each paroxysm), whooping- cough, dysmenorrhea, retention of urine, hepatic colic, laryngeal cough, chorea.  Ointment in ulcers, hemorrhoids, fissures, skin diseases, poison-ivy eruptions, rheumatism, bruises, sprains.  In the absence of belladonna may use stramonium with good results.
    Poisoning, Incompatibles, Synergists: Same as for belladonna.
    Allied Plants:
    1.  Datura Tat'ula, Purple Thorn-apple. -- Similar to official and considered by some the same, but has purple stems, petiole, and corolla; was recognized, along with D-Stramonium, U.S.P. 1910.
    2.  D. Fastuo'sa (al'ba) -- Daturae Folia, Daturae Semina (Br.); India.  Used natively as a criminal poison; capsule small, subglobular, spinous, seed yellowish-brown, trangular, rough.  D. Met'el, Entire-leaved Thorn-apple, Africa, S. Asia; capsule and seed like (D. Fastuosa), (alba), leaves nearly entire, downy.  D. Sanguin'ea, Peru; large shrub, or tree, leaves nearly entire, downy beneath, flowers large, upper half of corolla yellow, lower half blood-red.


    Dau'cus Caro'ta, Carrot (Seed). -- The fruit, U.S.P. 1820-1870; N. Asia, Europe; biennial herb, .6-1 M. (2-3 degrees) high, hispid; flowers July-Sept., white, root fleshy, fusiform, aromatic, edible; fruit 4 Mm (1/6') long, oval, flat, grayish-brown, each mericarp with 9 ribs, 6 vittae; odor aromatic; taste pungent; contains volatile oil, fixed oil.  Stimulant, diuretic, excitant; dropsy, strangury, nephritic affections, amenorrhea, ulcers, eczema, itching; in infusion,  fluidextract.  Dose, gr. 10-30 (.6-2 Gm.).

[ILLUSTRATION]  Daucus Carota;  magnified 5 diam.


    Delphin'ium Aja'cis, Delphinium, Larkspur Seed. N.F. -- The dried ripe seed with not more than 2 p.c. of foreign seeds or other foreign organic matter; S. Europe, cultivated as ornament, naturalized in United States.  Plant, annual, hairy, bearing attractive flowers.  Seed, irregularly tetrahedral, triangulate, 2 Mm. (1/12') long and broad, blackish-brown, seed-coat crustaceous, endosperm whitish, fleshy, oily, embryo small; odor faint; taste bitter, then biting, acrid.  Powder, gray-brown -- endosperm parenchyma filled with fixed oil and aleurone grains, elongated cells from inner layer of seed-coat; contains alkaloids ajacine, sjaconine, (activity), fixed oil, volatile oil, resin, ash 7 p.c. Parasiticide, sedative, poisonous -- similar to aconite and staphisagria; locally to destroy vermin, lice,  itchmite; rheumatism, neuralgia; rarely used internally. 1. Tinctura Delphinii, 10 p.c. (alcohol).  D. Consol'ida, Field Larkspur, U.S.P. 1820-1870, is a near related species with beautiful blue flowers, similar seed (tetrahedral, 1-2.5 Mm. (1/25-1/10') broad, black, pitted), constituents, properties and uses.  D. Urceola'tum (exalta'tum), Penn., Minn., and D. Caro-linia'num (azu'reum), Wis., Ark. supply seeds having similar properties.

[ILLUSTRATION] Delphinium Consolida.

[ILLUSTRATION] Stavesacre seed; a, natural size; b, cross-section; C, longitudinal section.

    2. D. Staphisag'ria, Staphisagria, Stavesacre, Ripe seed, U.S.P. 1880-1910, Mediterranean Basin, cultivated.  Annual herb, 1-1.3 M. (3-4 degrees) high, branched, downy; root large, tapering; leaves 10-12-5 Cm. (4-5') broad, palmately 5-9-parted, long, hairy petioles, flowers purplish, racemes; fruit 3-follicles, each 12-seeded, seed irregularly triangular, tetrahedral, flattened, dark brown, grayish, lighter with age, 4-7 Mm. (1/6-1/4') long, 3-6 Mm. (1/8-1/4') broad, coarsely reticulate; odor slight, disagreeable; taste bitter, acrid.  Powder, grayish-black -- parenchyma and endosperm cells enclosing aleurone grains and fixed oil; solvents: alcohol, boiling water; contains alkaloids 1 p.c.: delphinine, delphinoidine, delphisine, staphisagrine, fixed oil, volatile oil, resin, ash 9 p.c.  Parasiticide, sedative irritant, poisonous; popular with Greeks, Romans, etc., but too dangerous for internal use -- locally to kill vermin, lice, itchmite; rheumatism, neuralgia, earache, toothache.  Poisoning: Symptoms and treatment similar to aconite and veratrum viride.  Dose, gr. 1-2 (.06-.13 Gm.).  Fluidextract; Extract; Tincture, 10 p.c., mv-15 (.3-1 cc.); Ointment, 20 p.c. Delphinine, gr. 1/60-1/10 (.001-.006 Gm.).


    Dicen'tra Canaden'sis or D. Cuculla'ria, Corydalis, Turkey (Squirrel) Corn, N.F. -- The dried tubers with not more than 3 p.c. of foreign organic matter; N. America, Canada to Ky.  Low glaucous perennial herb, leaves dissected, scapes several, each with 4 greenish-white, purple-tinged flowers.  Tubers spheroidal, ovoid, 10-15 Mm. (2/5-3/5') thick, single, clusters 2-3, smooth or pitted, grayish-brown, translucent; fracture hard, horny, whitish, waxy interior, or granular and tough
nearly odorless; taste bitter.  Powder, yellowish -- numerous starch grains, few tracheae, stone cells, few calcium oxalate rosette crystals; contains corydaline, fumaric acid, bitter extractive resin, starch.  Tonic, diuretic, alterative; syphilitic, scrofulous and cutaneous affections.  Dose, gr. 10-30 (.6-2 Gm.); 1. Fluidextractum Corydalis (75 p.c. alcohol): Prep.: 1. Elixir Corydalis Compositum, fldext. 6 p.c., + fldexts. stillingia 6, xanthoxylum 3, blue flag 9, potassium iodide 5, dose, 3j-2 (4-8 cc.).  2. Fluidextractum Stillingiae Compositum, 25 p.c.


    Dioscore'a villo'sa, Dioscorea, Wild Yam Root, Colic (Rheumatism) Root, N.F. -- Dioscoreaceae.  The dried rhizome with not more than 2 p.c. of foreign organic matter; United States; moist thickets.  Slender twining climber, dioecious; leaves ovate, cordate, acute; flowers greenis, panicles; fruit triangular winged capsule.  Rhizome, knotted, woody, elongated, 6-20 Mm. (1/4-4/5') thick, often compressed, bent, branched, nodular, stem-scars above, slender tough roots beneath, pale brown, scaly; fracture short, tough, yellowish, scattered wood-bundles; odorless; taste starchy, insipid, acrid.  Powder, whitish -- parenchyma cells, starch grains, few calcium oxalate raphides, fibrovascular bundles with tracheae and tracheids, epidermal tissue; contains resin, saponin body, starch (dioscorein--"Eclectic" resinoid), ash 2-7 p.c.  Diaphoretic, expectorant, emetic; rheumatism, bilious colic.  Dose, 3ss-1 (2-4 Gm.); 1. Fluidextractum Dioscoreae (diluted alcohol).  2. Tinctura Viturni Opuli Composita, 3.5 p.c.  Decoction, Tincture, Dioscorein. gr. 1-4 (.06-.25 Gm.).


    Dios'pyros virginia'na, Persimmon. -- Ebenaceae.  The unripe fruit dried, U.S.P. 1820-1870; United States.  Tree, 6-21 M. (20-70 degrees) high, much smaller northward; wood hard, blackish; leaves 7.5-12.5 Cm. (3-5') long, entire, glaucous beneath, elliptical; flowers yellowish; fruit plum-like, 2.5 Cm. (1') thick, green, 4-lobed calyx at base; short style at apex, 6-celled,6-seeded; taste astringent, when ripe orange-red, by frost sweet, edible; contains tannin, malic acid.  Astringent for diarrhea, chronic dysentery, uterine hemorrhage, leucorrhea, sort throat; in infusion, tincture, syrup.  Dose, gr. 15-60 (1-4 Gm.).  Permisson beer, made by fermenting ripe fruit with hop, as a beverage, and the bark as tonic and astringent, are popular to some extent.

Dipteryx odorata

    Coumarou'na (Dip'teryx) odora'ta, Tonka Bean; Coumarinum, Coumarin, N.F. -- The anhydride of ortho-oxycinnamic acid occurring naturally in this plant, also in Melilo'tus officina'lis and others, or prepared synthetically; Guiana.  Large tree; fruit resembles mango, peach, oblong-ovate, single-seeded; seed 4 Cm. (1 3/5') long, compressed, rounded at each end, testa dark brown, thin, wrinkled, somewhat glossy, often covered with small white crystals (coumarin); kernel brownish, oily; odor agreeably aromatic, resembling vanilla; taste bitter, aromatic.  There are two varieties: 1, Dutch; 2, English; contains coumarin (odorous principle) 1.5-2 p.c., fixed oil 25 p.c., sugar, mucilage.  Coumarin, C9H8O2 -- developed in process of curing by steeping seed in rum, or 80 p.c. alcohol, for 1-2 days, concentrating, adding water to separate fixed oil; occurs in colorless, prismatic crystals, charateristic fragrant odor, bitter, aromatic, burning taste; soluble in alcohol, ether, chloroform, fixed or volatile oils, sparingly in water, more readily in hot water.  Saturated aqueous solution + iodine T.S. -- brown, flocculent precipitate, which clots on shaking, forming dark green curdy mass and clear liquid (dist. from vanillin); solution in ether -- not extracted by ammonia water (dist. from vanillin).  Narcotic, stimulant, insecticide, paralyzant to the heart; whooping-cough (fluidextract), flavoring sachets, cigars, tobacco, butter, perfumery, deodorizing iodoform.  Dose, gr. 5-10 (.3-.6 Gm.).  Coumarin 65 times stronger; 1. Oleum Ricini Aromaticum, 1/100 p.c.

Dorema Ammoniacum

    Dore'ma Ammoni'acum, Ammoniacum, Ammoniac -- The gum-resin, U.S.P., 1820-1890; E. Persia, Turkestan.  Plant of striking appearance, dying after flowering; stem 1.6-2 M. (5-7 degrees) high, greenish, joints greenish-purple; flowers small, white; leaves -- radical and cauline.  Gum-resin (ammoniac) exudes from stem and root, through fissures (due to varying temperature) or animal and insect punctures.  It is in tears or cakes, the former preferred when 1.5-6 Mm. (1/16-1/4') thick, yellowish, fracture conchoidal, waxy, milk-white; odor peculiar; taste acrid, bitter, nauseous; contains gum 18-28 p.c., resin 70 p.c., volatile oil 1-4 p.c., ash 1-4 p.c.  Stimulant, expectorant, rubefacient, similar to but less powerful than asafetida; bronchitis, chronic catarrh, asthma, pleurisy; externally resolvent in white swelling, tumors, glandular enlargements.  Dose, gr. 10-30 (.6-2 Gm.); emulsion (water -- milky), 4 p.c., 3ss-1 (15-30 cc.).  The root, under the name of Bombay Sumbul or Boi, although of closer texture, firmer, denser, and more reddish is used largely to adulterate the "false sumbul" so prevalent with us in the past, but it in reality resembles more closely our present Ferula Sumbul root of the N.F.  D. Au'cheri, W. Persia, yields also a similar product (ammoniac), while D. Robus'tum gives a dissimilar gum-resin.  Ferula Tingita'na, African Ammoniac, is believed to be the "Ammoniacum" of the ancients; it is darker than our ammoniac, with agreeable odor like benzoin, but bitter, acrid taste; contains gum 9 p.c., resin 68 p.c., and yields umbelliferon.

[ILLUSTRATION] Dorema Ammoniacum.


    Dorste'nia Contrayer'va, Contrayerva. -- The root, U.S.P. 1820-1850; W. Indies, C. And S. America.  Acaulescent perennial; leaves lobed, radical, 10 Cm. (4') long; flowers staminate and pistillate, fruit capsule, disperses seed by hygroscopism; root (rhizome) fusiform, 1-2-headed, 5-7.5 Cm. (2-3') long, 12 Mm. 1/2') thick, reddish; odor unpleasant; taste acrid, bitter; contains contrayerbine, cajapine, volatile oil, resin, bitter principle, starch.  Stimulant, tonic, aromatic, stomachic; low fevers, typhoid, diarrhea, dysentery, serpent bites; in decoction, tincture.  Dose, gr. 30 (2 Gm.).


    Dri'mys Win'teri (Win'tera aroma'tica). -- The bark, U.S.P. 1820-1860; S. America; small tree; leaves coriaceous; flowers white; fruit black berries, 4-8; bark in quills or curves, 2.5-8 Mm. 1/10-1/3') thick, grayish-brown, striate, fracture granular, with white stone cells and yellow resin cells, odor of canella and cinnamon, for which drugs it has been substituted; sometimes called Winter's cinnamon; contains volatile oil (which has winterene, C15H24), tannin 9 p.c., pungent resin 10 p.c.  Used for colic, flatulence, scurvy; in infusion or tincture.  Dose, gr. 5-30 (.3-2 Gm.).

[ILLUSTRATION]  Drimys Winteri.

Drimys (Coto)

    Coto Bark. -- Bolivia.  May be from Dri-mys Win'teri var. grana-ten'sis.  In flat or curved pieces 12 Mm. (1/2') thick, cinnamon color and odor, taste pungent, bitter; contains cotoin, C24H12O4, hydrocotoin, protocotoin, volatile oil, resin.  Dose, gr. 1-5 (.06-.3 Gm.); cotoin, gr 3/4-2 (.05-.13 Gm.).


    Dro'sera rotundifo'lia, or D. An'glica and D. Lonifo'lia, Drosera, Sundew, N.F. -- Droseraceae.  The air-dried flowering plant of the former, frequently mixed with the two latter closely allied species, or at times wholly replaced by them with not more than 5 p.c. of foreign matter, yielding not more than 10 p.c. of acid-insoluble ash; N. Temperate zone, N. America.  Small moss-like plant, glittering in sunshine when covered with dew.  Matted or broken leaves, stems and fibrous black  rootlets, reddish throughout; leaves mostly basal, petiolate; blade orbicular, 15 Mm. (3/5') broad, reddish glandular tentacles above, scape filiform, smooth, 10-30 Cm. (4-12') long, few 5-parted, small white fugacious flowers, raceme.  D. Anglica -- leaves linear, obovate, glabrous or sparsely hairy petioles; D. Longi'folia -- leaves spatulate, blades 2-3 times longer than broad, petioles and scape smooth; odorless; taste faintly bitter, acidulous.  Powder, reddish-brown -- oval-headed tentacles, few glandular hairs, stomata, fibro-vascular bundles, tracheae, parenchyma containing reddish substance, few starch grains; solvent: 67 p.c. alcohol; contains resin (acrid, odorous, greenish-brown), glucose, citric, malic acid, ferments (converts albumin into peptone), ash 30 p.c.  Stimulant, expectorant; cronic bronchitis, whooping cough, tuberculosis -- of doubtful efficacy.  Dose, 3ss-1 (2-4 Gm.); 1.  Fluidextractum Droserae (67 p.c. alcohol).  Tincture 10 p.c.


    Duboi'sia myoporoi'des. -- Australia.  Small tree having properties similar to those of belladonna and hyoscyamus; leaves 7.5-10 Cm. (3-4') long, 12-25 Mm. (1/2-1') broad, petiolate, midrib prominent, entire, taste bitter; contains duboisine .3-1 p.c., a volatile alkaloid (mixture of hyoscyamine, scopolamine, and atropine), which forms numerous salts.  Dose of leaves. Gr. 1-3 (.06-.2 Gm.), duboisine hydrobromide or sulphate, gr. 1/120-1/60 (.0005-.001 Gm.); used externally for eye affections, in solution (1 p.c. in water).


    Dulse (Halyme'nia Fucus) palma'tus and H. E'ulis). -- Atlantic and Mediterranean coasts; blood-red--when dry dark purple, fronds flat.

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