A Manual of Materia Medica
by David M. R. Culbreth, Ph.G., M.D. (1927)
ECBALLIUM. SQUIRTING CUCUMBER.
Elaterinum. Elaterin, C20H28O5,
Ecballium Elaterium, (Linne') A. Richard.
A substance obtained from the juice of the fruit.
Habitat. W. Asia, N. Africa, S. Europe
-- Mediterranean Basin, dry waste places; cultivated.
Syn. Squirting or Wild Cucumber, Wild Balsam
Apple; Fr. Concombre sauvage, Elaterine, Elatine; Ger. Eselsgurke,
Ec-bal'li-um. L. fr. Gr. ek, out, +
... , to throw -- i.e., the fruit expelling its contents when fully
El-a-te'ri-um. L. fr. Gr...., driving
out, , purging -- i.e., its medicinal property. El-a-te- ri'num,
Elat'er-in -- both simply derivative names.
PLANT. -- Common perennial, squash-like vine; stem
trailing, tendril-bearing, succulent, bristly, .6-1.3 M. (2-4 degrees)
long; leaves cordate, 7.5-12.5 Cm. (3-5') long, lobed, hispid, pale green;
flowers monoecious, yellow; fruit 5 Cm. (2') long, 2.5 Cm. (1') broad,
oblong, pale yellowish-green, beset with fleshy prickles, 3-celled, containing
bitter, watery, mucilaginous juice in which are many light brown seed.
CONSTITUENTS. -- Elaterin 44 p.c., green resin 17
p.c., starch 6 p.c.; prophetin, ecballin (elateric acid), hydroelaterin,
Elaterinum. Elaterin. -- Obtained by
exhausting elaterium (a substance deposited by the juice of the fruit)
with hot alcohol and precipitating with water, or treating with hot chloroform
and precipitating with ether, washing with ether and recrystallizing from
alcohol or chloroform. It is in minute, white, hexagonal scales,
prismatic crystals; odorless; slightly acrid, bitter taste, permanent,
soluble in alcohol (325), boiling alcohol (100), chloroform (15.5), ether
450, benzene (310); insoluble in water; alcoholic solution neutral.
Tests: 1. Solution of .01 Gm. in 5 cc. of melted phenol, + a few
drops of sulphuric acid -- crimson, rapidly changing to scarlet; incinerate
-- ash negligible. 2. Shake .1 Gm. With distilled water 9 cc.
+ diluted hydrochloric acid 1 cc.; to separate portions of filtrate add
.5 cc. mercuric potassium iodide T.S., or iodine T.S.--no turbidity (abs.
of alkaloids). Impurities: Alkaloids, readily carbonizable substances.
Dose, gr. 1/20-1/10 (.003-.006 Gm.).
ADULTERATIONS. -- ELATERIUM: Starch, calcium carbonate,
various minerals colored green. Owing to this adulteration and the
irregular treatment in collecting and curing, it becomes a very uncertain
product, hence the official Elaterin is much to be preferred, which as
a rule is pure.
Commercial. -- Fruit when ripe is yellow
and falls to the ground from its attachment, and at the instant of separation
the entire contents are expelled violently (hence called squirting cucumber),
through the socket or peduncle orifice -- due to osmosis from pericarp
to central pulp, causing engorgement, therefore tension and rupture at
weakest point. Elaterium should be prepared from the fruit collected
with the stalk, just before ripe, cutting fruit lengthwise, lightly pressing
(best without pressure), straining, the juice, setting aside to deposit,
and putting this (sediment) on porous tiles to dry by gentle heat, avoiding
exposure to the sun. Forty cucumbers without pressure yield 6 gr.
(.4 Gm.), and 40 pounds (18 Kg.) yield only 240 gr. (15.5 Gm.). Elaterium
occurs in grayish fragments or scales, odor tea-like, taste bitter, acrid;
should not effervesce with hydrochloric acid. Dr. Clutterbuck's is
PREPARATIONS. -- (Unoff.) ELATERIN: Trituration,
10 p.c., gr. 1/2-3/4 (.03-.05 Gm.). Pulvis Elaterini Compositus,
2.5 p.c., gr. 1-4 (.06-.26 Gm.). ELATERIUM, dose, gr. 1/8-1/4 (.008-.016
Gm.). Solution of Elaterium, 1/4 p.c., in alcohol + ½ p.c.
nitric acid, dose, mxxx (2cc.).
PROPERTIES. -- Hydragogue cathartic (most powerful
known), producing profuse watery evacuations with griping and much prostration;
large doses nauseate, vomit, inflame stomach and bowels, increase flow
of urine, and may kill. Does not vomit nor purge dogs, rabbits, but
kills them by convulsions. Those working in it often have ulcerated
fingers, eyes, etc.
USES. -- The fruit was employed by the ancients,
being recommended by Dioscorides in mania, melancholia. Sydenham
used it in dropsy, but it fell into disfavor through its severity, until
brought forward again by Dr. Ferriar. Useful in dropsy, Bright's
disease with dropsy (as it is believed to eliminate more urea through the
bowels than any other cathartic), brain and lung congestion, uremia, but
never in heart disease.
Poisoning.: Same as for aloe, etc.
Evacuate stomach, give demulcents, opium, stimulants.
Brauner'ia pal'lida, or B. Angustifu'lia, Echinacea,
Pale purple Cone-flower, N.F. -- The dried rhizome and roots with not
more than 3 p.c. of foreign organic matter; S. United States -- Kansas.
Perennial herb; stem simple, naked above, single large head; leaves alternate,
3-5-nerved. Rhizome, with circular or angular pith, nearly entire;
cylindrical, tapering twisted, 10-20 Cm. (4-8') long,, 4-15 Mm. (1/6-3/5')
thick, brownish, annulate, occasional stem-scars, wrinkled, furrowed, fracture
short, fibrous; bark 1 Mm. (1/25') thick; yellowish and black wood-wedges;
odor faint, aromatic; taste sweetish, then tingling, as in aconite, but
without its persistent, benumbing effect -- must not be used after it has
lost its characteristic odor and taste. Powder, grayish -- many strongly
lignified stone cells carrying characteristic carbon-like deposits, tracheae
with pores and markings, inulin-bearing parenchyma tissue with oil or resin
canals filled with brownish content, cork fibers; solvent: alcohol; contains
acrid resin (activity) 1 p.c., alkaloid, ash 6 p.c. Diaphoretic,
sialagogue, alterative; syphilitic and strumous conditions, eczema, chronic
ulcers; Sioux Indians used fresh scraped root for hydrophobia, snake-bites,
septicemia. Dose, gr. 15-30 (1-2 Gm.); 1. Fluidextractum Echinaceae
(80 p.c. alcohol), dose, mxv-30 (1-2 cc.).
CARDAMOMI SEMEN. CARDAMOM SEED, U.S.P.
Elettaria Cardamomum, Maton.
The dried ripe seed, recently removed from the capsules, yielding not more
than 5 p.c., acid-insoluble ash.
Habitat. Malabar, cultivated.
India, Mountains, 750-1,500 M. (2.500-5,000 degrees) elevation; ceylon,
Syn. Cardam, Sem., Cardamomum, U.S.P.
1900, Malabar, Ceylon or Bastard Cardamom; Br. Cardamomi Semina,
Cardamom Seeds, Cardamomum (Minus) Malabari (am)-cum; Fr. Cardamomes,
Petit Cardamome; Ger. Fructus (Semen) Cardamomi (Minoris), Malabar-(Malabarische)
Kardamomen, Kleine Kardamomen.
El-et-ta'ri-a. L. Fr. Elettari -- i.e.,
native name of plant in Malabar.
Car-da-mo'mum. L. Fr. Gr...., thistle,
+ ..., blameless, classic name.
PLANT. -- Perennial herb; stems green, 2-4 M. (6-12
degrees) high, tapering, shining, covered with leaf-sheaths; leaves .3-.8
M. (1-2 ½ degrees) long, 2.5-12..5 Cm. (1-5') broad, lanceolate,
flower stalk from stem base lies on the ground; flowers, in rainy season,
Jan.-May, greenish-white; rhizome tuberous, woody, fibrous roots below,
scars above; fruit capsule, ellipsoidal, triangular, 10-20 Mm. (2/5-4/5')
long, 6 Mm. (1/4') broad, pale buff, striate, 3-locular, pericarp thin,
leathery, nearly tasteless. SEED, 10-20, mostly agglutinated into
groups of 2-7 by adhering membranous aril, oblong-ovoid, irregularly 3-4-sided,
3-4 Mm. (1/8-1/6') long; convex on dorsal surface, strongly longitudinally
grooved on ventral side, coarsely tuberculated, reddish-gray brown; odor
aromatic; taste aromatic, pungent. POWDER, brownish--endosperm and
perisperm cells filled with starch grains .001-.004 Mm. (1/25000-1/6250')
broad, or with 1-more calcium oxalate prisms, fragments of seed-coat and
spiral tracheae, few bast- fibers. Seed constitute 75 p.c. of the
fruit, keep best in the pericarp, from which they should only be removed
just prior to using. Solvents: diluted alcohol; boiling water.
Dose, gr. 5-15 (.3-1 Gm.).
[ILLUSTRATION] Elettaria Cardamomum; A, leaf with ligule, b; B,
bracts; C, flower, natural size; D, flower with calyx and corolla-tube
partially removed; E,F,G, capsule form; H, seed with arillus, a; J, cross-section
of seed 8 times enlarged; K, longitudinal section 5 times enlarged; p,
perisperm; em, embryo; e, endosperm.
ADULTERATIONS. -- SEED: Rare -- those of various
varieties and allied species taken from the pericarp; ENTIRE FRUIT -- with
orange seed, green coffee, etc.; POWDER: Starch, sodium carbonate, ginger
(recognized by its larger starch grains), etc.
Commercial. -- Plant grows wild but mostly
by cultivation in Malabar (W. Mysore) and Ceylon, on spaces cleared in
mountain forests affording shade, or on betel-nut plantations, and yields
the fourth year and many thereafter. Fruit is gathered mostly in
dry weather, Oct.-Dec., preferably prior to maturity to minimize splitting,
then dried artificially on tiers of trays in curing houses (brownish),
or better in the sun, guarding against rain and excessive heat exposure,
that cause the moist seed to swell and rupture pericarp (yellowish); the
slower the drying, the less the splitting. Bleaching is effected
by exposing to sulphur fumes, or to dew and sunlight, the finest by washing
with alternating solutions of lathery soap-berry and astringent acacia
pods, finally drying in the sun. Value is determined by size, color,
plumpness, smoothness (the best being creamy white, smooth, silky) and
are assorted through sieves into 4 kinds: (a) Shorts, 12 Mm. (1/2') long,
6 Mm. (1/4') broad, plump, heavy; (b) Mediums, 18-25 Mm. (3/4-1') long,
6 Mm. (1/4') broad, paler buff, finer ribbed; (c) Longs, 25-31 Mm. (1-1
1/4') long, 4 Mm. (1/6') broad, rarely imported; (d) Tiny, least desirable.
There are several varieties: 1, Mysore (Ceylon-Mysore, Alleppi), shorts,
best, bleached and unbleached (greenish), exported from Alleppi, Calicut;
2, Malabar, shorts, mediums, high grade, preferred by some, exported from
Ceylon, India (Bombay), brown, striated; 3, Madras, usually mediums, pale
buff, exported from Madras, Pondicherry; 4, Mangalore; 5, Ceylon Mangalores,
round valuable. The Ceylons are the wild-grown fruits of Ceylon,
and the Siam of Cochin, Annam, Tonquin (Tonking) combined; the shorts of
all varieties are best and most desired; imported in chests, 60-100-200
pounds (27-46-91 Kg.). The shelled seed, deteriorating rapidly, should
never be used.
CONSTITUENTS. -- Volatile oil 5 p.c., fixed oil
10 p.c., potassium salts 2.5 p.c., starch 3 p.c., nitrogenous mucilage
1.8 p.c., yellow coloring matter .4 p.c., ligneous fiber 77.3 p.c., manganese
.8 p.c., ash 6-8-15 p.c.
Oleum Cardamomi, N.F. -- This volatile
oil (mostly in the testa) distilled from the seed, is a colorless, pale
yellow liquid, characteristic, aromatic, penetrating, somewhat camphoraceous
odor of cardamom, and persistent, pungent, strongly aromatic taste; soluble
in alcohol, 70 p.c. alcohol (4), sp. Gr. 0.935, dextrorotatory; contains
terpinene, C10H16, possibly dipentene, a body of the composition
C10H18O (terpineol?), acetic and formic acids; also
extracted by ether, giving a more durable oil mixed with fixed oil, this
latter being easily separated. The distilled oil readily deteriorates,
and should be kept cool, dark, in small well-stoppered, amber-colored bottles.
[ILLUSTRATION] Ceylon cardamom: a, capsules; b, transverse section of
capsule; c, seed, d, section of seed with embryo; magnified.
PREPARATIONS. -- SEED: 1. Tianctura Cardamomi.
Tincture of Cardamom. (Syn., Tr. Cardam.; Fr. Teinture de Cardamome;
Manufacture: 15 p.c. Similar to Tinctura
Veratri Viridis, page 104; menstruum: diluted alcohol. Dose, 3j-2
2. Tinctura Dardamomi Composita. Compound
Tincture of Cardamom. (Syn., Tr. Cardam. Co.; Fr. Teinture de Cardamome
composee; Ger. Zusammengesetzte Kardamomentinktur.)
[ILLUSTRATION] Cardamom seed: transverse and longitudinal section, magnified
[ILLUSTRATION] Malabar cardamom: a, short, b, medium; c, long.
Manufacture: 2 p.c. Macerate, for 3
or more days, with frequent agitation, in a stoppered container, in a moderately
warm place, cardamom seed 2 Gm., cinnamon 2.5, caraway 1.2, cochineal .5,
with 75 cc. of mixture of glycerin 5 cc. + diluted alcohol 95, finishing
with diluted alcohol q.s. 100 cc. Dose, 3j-2 (4-8 cc.).
Preps.: 1. Elix. Euphorb. Co., N.F.,
5 p.c. 2. Elix. Gentian. Glycerin., N.F., 6 p.c. 3. Elix. Tarax.
Co., N.F., 3 p.c. 4, Elix Viburn. Prun., N.F., 7.5 p.c. 5.
Syr. Eriodict. Arom., N.F., 6.5 p.c.
3. Extractum Colocynthidis Compositum,
5 p.c. 4. Tinctura Gentianae Composita, 1 p.c. 5. Tinctura
Rhei, 3 p.c. 6. Pulvis Aromaticus, N.F., 15 p.c.
7. Pulvis Cretae Aromaticus, N.F., 2 p.c. 8. Tinctura Aromatica,
N.F., 2 p.c. 9. Tinctura Rhei Dulcis, N.F., 1 p.c.
OIL: 1. Spiritus Cardamomi Compositus, N.F., 10 p.c.
Preps.: 1. Elixir Cardamomi Compositum,
N.F., 1 p.c. 2. Elixir Gentianae, N.F., 1.5 p.c. 3. Elixir
Glycerophosphatum Compositum, N.F., 1/5 p.c. 4. Elixir Glycyrrhizae
Aquosum, N.F., ½ p.c. 5. Liquor Pancreatini, N.F., .35
2. Spiritus Vanillini Compositus, N.F.,
Unoff. Preps.: Fluidextract. Infusion,
5 p.c., 3j-2 (30-60 cc.).
PROPERTIES. -- Carminative, stomachic, stimulant,
USES. -- Adjuvant or corrective to cordials, tonics,
purgatives, flavoring liquors, cakes, breath, etc.
1. Elettaria ma'jor,Ceylon Cardamom.
-- About 40 Mm. (1 3/5')( long, triangular, prolonged into a beak 15 Mm.
(3/5') long, brownish-gray color.
2. Amo'mum Cardamo'mum, A. ve'rum and A. Globo'sum,
Round Cardamom. -- Siam, Java, China, globular-ovate. A. Aromat'icum,
Bengal Cardamom, 9-winged at apex. A. Zanthoi'des, Wild or
Bastard Cardamom, A. Max'imum, Java Winged Cardamom, 9-12-winged
from base to apex, and A. Gra'num-paradi'si, Grain of Paradise.
Fruit resemble cardamom seed, several varieties, used for ginger.
Empleu'rum serrula'tum. -- Leaves sometimes
mixed with buchu, occasionally constituting the main bulk; may be distinguished
by their acrid taste, peculiar odor -- differing from buchu -- longer,
narrower than even B. Serratifolia, sides parallel, apex acute and glandless,
coarsely dentate (serrulate); when held up to the light lateral veins not
as straight, shorter and less strongly developed; contain peculiar volatile
oil .64 p.c., possessing characteristic odor. Properties considered
to differ from those of bushu.
ERGOTA. ERGOT, U.S.P.
Claviceps purpurea, (Fries) Tulasne.
The dried sclerotium, developed on rye plants with not more than 5 p.c.
seeds, fruits, or other foreign organic matter.
Habitat. Eastern countries, Russia;
cultivated in Spain, Germany, France.
Syn. Ergot of Rye, Spurred Rye, Cockspur
Rye, Smut of Rye, Mother of Rye, Hornseed, Secale Clavatum, Mater
Secalis, Clavus Secalinus; Fr. Ergot de Seigle, Seigle Ergote' (noir),
Ble' Cornu; Ger. Secale cornutum, Mutterkorn, Zapfen, Hunger-korn.
Er'go-ta. L. Fr. Fr. ergot, argot,
a spur -- i.e., its spur shape.
Clav'i-ceps. L. Clava, a club -- i.e.,
shape of the mycelium or sclerotium.
Pur-pu're-a. L. Purpureus, purple colored
-- i.e., the purple claviceps -- color of the sclerotium.
Scle-ro'ti-um. L. Fr. Gr.... Hard --
i.e., a hard body formed by certain fungi.
PLANT. -- Rye: culm 1.5-2 M. (5-6 degrees) high;
leaves .25-.5 M. (10-20') long, upper surface rough; spike 10-15 Cm. (4-6')
long, 2-sided, 2-flowered spikelet, June; fruit July; seed (grain) oblong,
grooved on upper side, hairy at summit, brownish. SCLEROTIUM (ergot),
cylindraceous, obscurely 3-angled, fusiform, obtuse, somewhat curved, 1-4.5
Cm. (2/5-1 4/5') long, 3-5 Mm. (1/8-1/5') thick, purplish-black, longitudinally
furrowed; fracture short, white, tinged with purple or gray; odor characteristic
but free from mustiness of rancidity; taste oily, somewhat acrid, disagreeable.
POWDER, grayish-brown -- purplish and whitish fragments of outer tissue
and thin-walled cells. Tests: 1. Shake 1 Gm., for 5 minutes in a
closed flask, with ether 20 cc. + 15 drops of 20 p.c. sulphuric acid, shake
filtrate thoroughly with 15 drops of cold saturated sodium bicarbonate
solution, the separated lower aqueous layer -- red or violet (pres. Of
sclererythrin). 2. Hot water added to crushed or powdered -- no rancid
or ammoniacal odor.
Ergot that breaks with a sharp snap, devoid of pinkish
fracture, hard, brittle between the teeth, odorless and tasteless, should
be rejected. Should be dried at a low temperature, and as it deteriorates
with age should not be kept longer than one year. Solvent: diluted
alcohol. Dose, gr. 15-60 (1-4 Gm.).
Commercial. -- Rye is to Russia what corn
is to America, its bread approximating nearer that of wheat than any other
grain. The origin of the sclerotium is the biennial thallophyte (fungus)
Claviceps purpurea, parasitic during moist seasons on the ovary of grains,
grasses, sedges -- Carex, Cyperus species, etc., (that of rye alone being
collected for medicine), -- the development having three stages: 1, Mycelial
-- when blooming a few ovaries in some grain heads become covered with
sweet, yellow mucus, honey-dew of rye, whose disagreeable odor repels bees,
but attracts ants, beetles, and flies -- the once supposed cause of the
diseased grain, but now known only to aid its dissemination and thereby
the spreading of the disease; the filamentous cells (hyphae), collectively
forming the mycelium, spread over the lower portion of the ovary and cause
decomposition of ovarian tissue, production of honey-dew (sugar), and innumerable
reproductive bodies (conidia) imbedded therein; 2, sclerotial -- when this
conidial formation is at its height the mycelium ceases its superficial
gowth, presses into the ovary and begine to form a denser tissue at its
base and central portion, and, growing upward, horn-like body, sclerotium
(official ergot) -- the dormant or resting form of the fungus; 3, thalloidic
-- when in the following spring ergot sprouts in many heads (stromata),
consuming its fixed oil and other constituents, and becoming shriveled
and worthless; have formed upon the head's surface spherical-topped excrescences,
size of small pin's head, containing the orifices of flask-shaped cavities
(conceptacles, perithecia) from whose base many cells (spore-sacs, asci)
arise, each containing 8 filiform spores formed synchronous with rye flowers,
so that the two (spores, flowers) acting together develop again the sphacelia
(sclerotium), hence the necessity of using fresh ergot in medicine, at
the end of the second stage, prior to the beginning of the third.
Ergot must be dried (too much causing injury, too
little moldiness) and stored (very dry, in well-stoppered bottles) with
great care, as the fixed oil soon inclines to become rancid, and a mite
ofttimes will attack it, in either case rendering the product worthless.
This deterioration may be prevented largely by either (1) deoleation --
extracting fixed oil with ether or petroleum benzin, drying (2) adding
occasionally a few drops of chloroform to the closed container, (3) suspending
in the container a tube of potassium sulphate saturated with formaldehyde,
(4) keeping over unslaked lime, (5) coating with ethereal solution of Tolu
or (6) mixing powdered drug with benzoin (5 pc.); in any event only the
preservation of the sclerotium (entire) can be relied upon. There
are three varieties: 1, Spanish, largest, finest-looking, highest-priced,
bluest; 2, Russian, reddish-purple, considered most active; 3, German,
CONSTITUENTS. -- Alkaloids .38-.6 p.c.: Ergotoxine,
Parahydroxyphenylethylamine (Tyramine), Histamine, Isoamylamine, Ergamine,
Enzymes (2). Fixed oil 30 p.c., sclererythrin (coloring matter),
scleromucin (mucilage); ergotininic acid, clavine, ergotinine, all three
more or less inactive; ash 5 p.c. Such names as cornutine, sphacelotoxine,
ergotinic acid, etc., only represent indefinite substances and should be
Ergotoxins. -- This, the essential active
constituent, produces the true therapeutic effect of ergot (bluing of the
cock's comb, contracting uterus, etc.): it is amorphous, but forms crystalline
salts, phosphate, sulphate, tartrate, suitable for hypodermic injection;
its presence in the other constituents often contribute its marked properties;
action may largely be due to the amino group, in which fresh ergot is richest
-- just before rye is ripe.
-- This and other amines (ammonia from putrefaction) may stimulate the
uterine muscular wall (nerve-endings) and raise blood pressure, while histamine
stimulates uterine action, but lowers decidedly blood pressure, both serve
chiefly as synergists to the action of ergotoxcine.
Enzymes. -- These (one diastasic, the other
hydrolyzing fats) rapidly deteriorate and reduce the physiological activity
of ergot that has been dried slowly and imperfectly, forming a rancid,
fatty odor (tramethylamine); both enzymes lose hydrolytic power by prolonged
keeping or complete drying of the ergot, hence the necessity of proper
care in this process.
Fixed Oil. -- This is a dark brown liquid
containing eleic acid 68 p.c., oxyoleic acid 22 p.c., palmitic acid 5 p.c.,
sp. gr. 0.925, and when removed by ether or petroleum benzin the ergot
retains full alkaloidal strength which remains unimpaired for years if
kept with care.
PREPARATIONS. -- 1. Fluidextractum Ergotae,
Fluidextract of Ergot. (Syn., Fldext. Ergot., Fluid Extract of Ergot;
Br. Extractum Ergotae Liquidum; F. Extrait fluide d'Ergot de Seigle; Ger.
Extractum Secalis cornuti fluidum, Mutterkornfluidextrakt.)
Manufacture: Percolate 100 Gm., with sufficient
purified petroleum benzin to remove fixed oil, discard benzin percolate;
remove ergot from percolator, expose it to air, when dry moisten with sufficient
1st menstruum (diluted alcohol 98 cc. + hydrochloric acid 2) to keep damp
while macerating 6 hours in a tightly covered container, pack in percolator,
add remainder of 1st menstruum, then 2d menstruum (diluted alcohol) to
saturate and cover; macerate 48 hours, percolate with 2d menstruum until
exhausted; reserve first 85 cc., reclaim alcohol from remainder, concentrate
residue at 60 degrees C. (140 degrees F.) to soft extract, which dissolve
in the reserved portion, mix thoroughly, add 2d menstruum q.s. 100 cc.
When administered by intramuscular injections to single-comb, white Leghorn
cocks, in doses of .5 cc. for each Kg. Of body weight of cock--the comb
becomes darkened in degree as by same dose of standard fluidextract; contains
alcohol 37-42 p.c. Dose, mxv-60 (1-4 cc.).
2. Extractum Ergotae Aquorum, Ergotine,
N.F. -- Ergot 200 Gm., chloroform water q.s. to exhaust, evaporate
to 100 cc., cool, add alcohol 100, evaporate to pilular consistence.
Dose, gr. 1-5 (.06-.3 Gm.) + water, hypodermically.
Unoff. Preps.: Emmenagogue, ecbolic, parturient,
astringent, hemostatic, excitomotor, poisonous. Value depends upon
(1) bluing (gangrene) of the cock's comb. (2) contracting the uterus, (3)
raising the blood pressure: contracts all unstriped (involuntary) muscle,
especially uterus and intestine, expelling their contents. Depresses
heart muscle, hence slows pulse, contracts arterioles (hemostatic), thus
increasing arterial pressure; diminishes sweat, saliva, milk, urine.
In large doses gastro-intestinal irritant, causes nausea, vomiting, colic,
thirst, purging, convulsions, "acute ergotism," or by many small doses
may have "chronic ergotism:' this last may be in two forms: 1. Convulsive,
causing tetanoid spasms of the flexors, respiratory muscles, death by asphyxia.
2. Gangrenous, causing cold, numb limbs, loss of sensibility, gangrene
of lower extremities, buttocks, etc., epileptic convulsions, coma, death.
USES. -- In labor to increase the power and duration
of uterine contractions--tetanic spasm; these are continuous while natural
labor-pains are intermittent, hence ergot is dangerous in thoughtless hands.
Should never be used until after head is born, when it simply promotes
firm uterine contraction; it is still wiser to withhold it until after
birth, to prevent postpartum hemorrhage and aid uterine contraction (fluidextract
3j (4cc.) by mouth, or better, hypodermically. A small dose (one-third)
often controls uterine inertia in labor, where nerve-stimulants (coffee,
strychnine, etc.) fail; this does not bring on constant tetanic contraction,
but simply the "to-and-fro" movements. Effect lasts half an hour,
being felt in 15 minutes, and should be repeated every 15 minutes until
action manifest. Used also in epistaxis, night-sweats, dysentery
(bloody), diarrhea (serous), hemorrhoids (bleeding), chronic metritis,
dysmenorrhea, menorrhagia, fibroids polypi, plethoric amenorrhea, atonic
spermatorrhea, atonic arterial hemorrhage (males and females), spinal congestions,
splenic enlargement, lax sphincters, incontinence of urine, aneurisms,
diabetes. Externally to hemorrhoids.
For hypodermic injection -- employ "Ergot Aseptic,"
or "Ergone," or solid extract deprived of alcohol and dissolved in water
-- introduce near seat of trouble; results here much better than by mouth;
should have bladder and bowels freely open. The ergot formed on grasses
is often sufficient to cause grazing animals to abort, and flour made of
grain containing much of it will also sometimes act medicinally.
Poisoning: Have gastric disturbance, vomiting,
diarrhea, thirst, burning pain in feet, tingling in fingers, cramps in
extremities, dilated pupils, cold surface, dizziness, small and feeble
pulse, convulsions. Evacuate stomach (pump, emetics, purgatives),
use tannic acid, stimulants, amyl nitrite (inhallation), strychnine, digitalis,
friction, hot baths.
Incompatibles: Cardiac and motor depressants
(aconite, veratrum, lobelia, etc.), caustic alkalies, metallic salts.
Synergists: Digitalis, belladonna (circulation),
strychnine (nerves), ustilago, cotton root bark, hydrastine, emmenagogues.
Erig'eron canaden'sis, Canada Fleabane, Horseweed,
Fireweed. -- The herb, U.S.P. 1820-1870; the volatile oil distilled
from the fresh flowering herb, U.S.P. 1860-1900; N. America, fields, waste
places; naturalized in other countries. Annual herb, .3-2.5 M. (1-8
degrees) high; stem branching, hairy, furrowed; leaves linear-lanceolate,
entire, dentate; flowers small, numerous, white, terminal panicles; contains
volatile oil .2-.4 p.c., bitter principle (amaroid), tannin, gallic acid.
Oil is a pale yellow liquid, darker and thicker with age and exposure;
odor peculiar, aromatic, persistent; taste aromatic, pungent, sp. gr. 0.850;
contains d-limonene, C10H16, terpinol, a substance
easily decomposed or polymerized by heat making distillation difficult
at ordinary pressure. Test: 1. Soluble in equal volume of alcohol
(dist. From oil of fireweed, Erechthi'tes hieracifo'lia, and oil of turpentine),
also in equal volume of glacial acetic acid, which solution with bromine
yields crystals of C10H16Br4. Stimulant,
tonic, diuretic, diaphoretic, styptic; diarrhea, dysentery, gravel, dropsy,
hemorrhages of uterus and bowels; similar to oil of turpentine, but less
irritating and stimulating. First employed by the "eclectics."
Should be kept cool, dark, in well-stoppered, amber-colored bottles.
Dose, gr. 15-60 (1-4Gm.); decoction, 5 p.c. 3ss-1 (15-30 cc.); oil, mv-10
(.3-.6 cc.). E. An'nuus (heterophyl'lus), Various-leaved Fleabane,
Sweet Scabious; the herb, U.S.P. 1830-1860. Biennial herb, 1-1.5
M. (3.5 degrees) high, branched, hairy, leaves sharply, coarsely toothed;
flowers Aug., corymbs, rays white tinged with purple, disk yellow; in fields,
waste places. E. Philadel'phicus, Philadelphia Fleabane; the herb,
U.S.P. 1820-1850. Perennial herb, .3-1 M. (1-3 degrees) high, pubescent,
slender, leafy; leaves 5-10 Cm. (2-4') long, 12-18 Mm. (1/2-3/4') wide,
midrib broad, flowers June-Aug., numerous, panicled corymbs, rays 150-200,
filiform purplish, disk yellow. Both have same constituents and properties
as E. Canadensis.
ERIODICTYON. ERIODICTYON, U.S.P.
Eriodictyon californicum, (Hooker et Arnolt)
Bentham et Torrey. The dried leaf with not more than 5 p.c. stems
nor 2 p.c. other foreign organic matter.
Habitat. California, Northern Mexico;
dry hills, mountains.
Syn. Eriodict, Yerba Santa, Bear's-,
Consumptive's- or Tar Weed, Mountain Balm, Gum Plant, Gum-bush.
Er-i-o-dic'ty-on. L. fr. Gr...., wool,
+ ..., a net i.e., woolly, net-veined leaves.
Cal-i-for'ni-cum. L. Californicus,
California, of or belonging to California -- i.e., its habitat.
[ILLUSTRATION] Eriodictyon leaves, natural size; a, upper surface; b,
PLANT. -- Evergreen shrub, 1-1.5 M 3-5 degrees) high;
stem smooth, resinous; flowers 12 Mm. (1/2') long, bluish-purple, funnel-shaped;
5's, racemes. LEAVES (LEAF), lanceolate, 5-15 Cm. (2-6') long,
1-3 Cm. (2/5-1 1/5') broad, acute, base slightly tapering into short broad
petiole irregularly serrate, crenate-dentate; upper surface yellowish-green,
covered with a more or less glistening resin; under surface yellowish-white,
conspicuously reticulate with greenish-yellow veins; minutely tomentose
between the reticulations; thick, brittle; odor aromatic; taste balsamic,
bitter, sweetish. POWDER, greenish -- non-glandular hairs; glandular
hairs, tracheae, lignified fibers, few starch grains, numerous calcium
oxalate crystals in rosette aggregates. Solvent: 80 p.c. alcohol.
Dose, 5ss-1 (2-4 Gm.).
Commercial. -- Plant grows among rocks and
presents a striking appearance from its shining resinous coating on all
CONSTITUENTS. -- Volatile oil .1 p.c., resin (complex,
nearly soluble in ether) 30 p.c., triacontane, C30H62, pentatriacontane,
C35H41O6, .23 p.c., eriodictyol, phenol, glucose, phytosterol, tannin,
PREPARATIONS. -- 1. Fluidextractum Eriodictyi.
Fluidextract of Eriodictyon. (Syn., Fldext. Eriodict., Fluid Extract
of Eriodictyon, Fluidextract of Yerba Santa; Fr. Extrait fluide d'Eriodictyon;
Manufacture: Similar to Fluidextractum Colchici,
page 111; menstruum: 80 p.c. alcohol; reserve first 80 cc. Dose,
mxv-60 (1-4 cc.).
Preps.: 1. Elixir Eriodictyi Aromaticum,
N.F., 6 p.c., + syrup 50, elix. tarax. co. 44, mag. Carb. 1, pumice
3. Dose 3j-w (4-8 c.). 2. Syrupus Eriodictyi Aromaticus, N.F., 3.2
p.c., + liq.pot. hydrox. 2.5, tr. cardam. co. 6.5 ol.sassaf., ol.limon.
aa, 1/20, ol. caryoph. 1/10, alcohol 3.2, sucrose 80, mag. carb.
1/2, water q.s., 100. Dose, 3j-2 (4-8 cc.).
Unoff Preps.: Extract, gr. 2-10 (.13-.6 Gm.).
Syrup -- made like syrup of tolu (pineapple odor and taste).
PROPERTIES. -- Stimulating expectorant, bitter tonic.
USES. -- Bronchitis, asthma, to disguise bitterness
of quinine. E. Tomento'sum grows along with the official plant, and
differs in being larger and having a dense coat of short villous hairs,
which become whitish or rust-colored by age; corolla salver-form; leaves
Eryn'gium aquat'icum (yuccaefo'lium), Button Snakeroot.
-- The root, U.S.P. 1820-1860; United States. Plant .6-1.8 M. (2-6
degrees) high, leaves rigid, pointed, .3-1 M. (1-3 degrees) long, bristly;
flowers white; root tuberous, 6-12 Mm. (1/4-1/2') long, branched, cupshaped
scars, central pith, aromatic; taste sweet, acrid aromatic, resembles parsnip;
contains volatile oil. Diaphoretic, expectorant, sialagogue, emetic;
dropsy, gravel, jaundice, substitute for senega; infusion, decoction, tincture.
Dose, 3ss-1 (2-4 Gm.).
Erythrae'a Centau'rium, Centaurium, Centaury,
N.F. -- The dried flowering herb with not more than 3 p.c. of foreign
organic matter; C. and S. Europe. Plant glabrous, 15-50 Cm. (6-20')
high, branched, leaves opposite, entire, sessile, ovate, obovate; flowers
cyme, rose-colored, calyx 5-parted, stamens 5, bright yellow, pistil 2,
carpelled; odor faint, characteristic; taste persistently bitter.
Powder, brownish-yellow--wood-fibers, wood parenchyma and tracheae, calcium
oxalate rosettes or prisms, non-glandular hairs, few stomata, chlorophyll,
tissue of petals and calyx with papillated cells, abundant pollen grains,
small stone cells of seed-coat, pith and cortical parenchyma; solvent:
diluted alcohol; contains erythrocentaurin (bitter glucoside), erytaurin,
waxy and saline substances. Tonic, bitter; dyspepsia, similar to
gentian and chirata. Dose, 3ss-1 (2-4 Gm.); 1. Tinctura Amara,
Erythro'nium america'num, Yellow Adder's- Tongue.
-- The root and herb, U.S.P. 1820-1850; United States. Perennial
herb, scape 15.-22.5 Cm. (6-9') high, slender, leaves 2, pale green, equal
length 12.5 Cm. (5'), one twice as wide as the other, brown-spotted, flowers
yellow, 2.5-5 Cm. (1-2') long, root (bulb or corm) solid, brown; inside
white. All parts of the plant active; used like colchicum.
Dose, gr. 20-30 (1.3-2 Gm.) in infusion. Large doses emetic.
Cocaina Cocaine, U.S.P.
EUCALYPTUS. EUCALYPTUS, U.S.P.
Erythroxylon Coca, Lamarck, and other
species. An alkaloid obtained from the leaves.
Habitat. Peru, Bolivia, Ecuador--eastern
slopes of the Andes (Colombia, Brazil, India, Ceylon, Javal); cultivated.
Syn. Erythroxylon, Spadic, Coca leaves,
Cuca, Hayo, Ipado, Coca Folia; Fr. Feuilles de Coca; Ger. Kokablatter;
Cocain, Methyl-benzoyl-ecgonine; Br. Cocaina; Fr. Cocaine; Ger. Cocainum,
Er-y-throx'y-lon. L. See Etymology,
above, of Erythroxylaceae.
Co'ca. Sp. From native name, meaning
tree or plant, par excellence.
PLANT. -- Shrub 1-2 M. (3-6 degrees) high, with
many spreading, purplieh, brown branches, wrinkled bark, smooth twigs;
flowers small, yellow petals 5, stamens 10; fruit reddish drupe, oval,
12 Mm. (1/2') long, sarcocarp scanty. Leaves oval-elliptical, 2.5-7.5
Cm. (1-3') long, 2-4 Cm. (4/5-1 3/5') broad, greenish-brown or clear brown,
smooth, slightly glossy and coriaceous, shortly petioled, base short and
abruptly narrowed, entire, midrib prominent underneath, with conspicuous
line of collenchyma tissue running longitudinally on either side, one-third
the distance between it and the margin, the enclosed areola of slightly
different color; odor characteristic; taste bitterish, faintly aromatic,
followed by numbness of tongue, lips, and fauces; powder yellowish-green.
Dose, gr. 15-60 (1-4 Gm.).
ADULTERATIONS. -- Leaves that are smudgy brown or
with dull surface, also small jaborandi leaves, sometimes 40-50 p.c.; Inga
and Pacay flowers by accident.
Commercial. -- Coca, although not introduced
into England until 1870, was used in S. America prior to the Spanish conquest,
1569, by the aborigines, who extolled it as a God-given plant ("The Divine
Plant of the Incas") that satisfied hunger, strengthened the weak, and
banished man's misfortunes; but the invaders, intolerant of such homage,
forbade its use and cultivation until they observed that it enabled the
conquered to perform better work and service. Previous to 1884 the
alleged properties were thought legendary and imaginative, when, being
considered simply a mild stimulant like tea, Koeler proclaimed its local
anesthetic power. Species differ when wild and under cultivation,
and escaping this soon degenerate and show marked changes in leaf-characteristics.
It is cultivated extensively in the Andes on terraced plantations, cocales,
cleared from the forests on the warm declivities, thriving best in a moist
atmosphere and amid scattered trees, but not deep shade, which, as well
as low elevation, develops bitterness, consequently any variation in this
or in the prescribed soil, exposure and curing may affect quality.
Propagation is similar to our peach, yielding leaves the second year and
continuing for fifty thereafter. Leaves when bright green above and
yellow-green below are picked carefully to avoid breaking, or injuring
young leaf-buds that form the next crop, removed in baskets, spread on
unroofed floors, and dried quickly for a few hours in the sun, if too rapidly
losing odor and green color, if too slowly acquiring disagreeable odor
and taste; after remaining 2-3 days in the coca-house, in loose piles,
they are exposed again for a short time to the sun, to drive off developed
sweat, and then compressed into bales (cestos), 25-50 pounds; 11.6-23.3
Kg., or better, tin-lined boxes that prevent likely deterioration in shipping
through fermentative decomposition. Irrespective of the care in drying
and keeping impairment begins at once, cocaine decreasing materially, especially
in dampness, owing to which they should be discarded after a few months.
Although in some localities collection is almost continuous there are at
least 2-3 yearly harvests, the September being best, the April next, each
yielding when dried 60-80 pounds (27-37 Kg.) per acre; the annual production
is about 80,000,000 pounds (37,383,177 Kg.), exported largely from Huanuco,
Lima, Truxillo, etc. There are two varieties: 1, Huanuco (Cuzco--E. Coca,
short-styled), after cities of S. Peru, has best aroma, most cocaine, and
less isatrophyl-cocaine; grown mostly in Bolivia, S. Peru, thriving and
yielding maximum product at 1,050-1,800 M. (3,500-6,000 degrees), in 18
degrees south, and inferior grades at lower elevations; the true Bolivian
(E. Bolivia'num, long-styled) is prized most highly, has larger fruit,
smaller leaves, and owing to home demand seldom is exported; 2, Truxillo
(Trujillo--E. Truxillense, short-styled), leaves ovate-oblanceolate, 1.6-5
Cm. (2/3-2') long, one-half as broad, pale green, thin, brittle, usually
much broken, smooth, shining, petiole short and stout, slight point at
apex, entire, the two collenchyma lines underneath frequently incomplete
or obsure; odor more tea-like than preceding; taste and numbing effect
similar; powder pale green; grown more northward, thriving well at lower
elevations and preferred by natives for chewing. Java and India coca
(E. Coca, var. Sprucea'num, long-styled, styles exceeding stamens) seems
identical with this variety but owing to inferiority is not exported.
CONSTITUENTS. -- Cocaine (1860) .5-1 p.c., cinnamyl-cocaine,
truxilline (truxil-cocaine, isatrophyl-cocaine, cocamine), C19H23O4N
-- all three upon hydrolysis yielding ecgonine and methyl alcohol; pseudotropine,
ecgonine, coca-tannic acid, wax, volatile oil, ash 8-10 p.c.; hygrine (volatile
aromatic liquid) is doubted by some, while cocainidine, probably isomeric
with cocaine, but weaker, has not yet been studied thoroughly.
Cocaina. Cocaine, C17H21O4N.
-- This alkaloid, composed of methyl alcohol, benzoic acid, and ecgonine,
into which it separates by heating with strong sulphuric acid, is obtained
by moistening leaves with sodium hydroxide solution, treating with benzin
(kerosene), from which the alkaloids and cocaine are precipitated (hygrine,
etc., remaining in solution); cocaine may now be separated by filtering
and expressing, and purified by crystallizing from alcohol. It is
in colorless crystals, white crystalline powder, odorless, permanent, soluble
in water (600), hot water (270), alcohol 6.5), chloroform (.7), ether (3.5),
olive oil (12), liquid petrolatum (30-50), very soluble in warm alcohol,
melts at 97 degrees C. (207 degrees F.); forms salts (hydrochloride, nitrate,
sulphate, etc.). Dose, gr. 1/8-2 (.008-.13 Gm.).
PREPARATIONS. -- 1. Cocainae Hydrochloridum.
Cocaine Hydrochloride, C17H21O4NHCl.
(Syn., Cocain. Hydrochl., Cocainum hydrochloricum, Cocaine Chloride,
Cocainae Hydrochloras, Cocaine Hydrochlorate; Fr. Chlorhydrate de Cocaine;
Ger. Cocainum hydrochloricum, Kokainhydrochlorid.)
Manufacture: Dissolve pure alkaloid, cocaine,
in alcoholic solution of hydrochloric acid, and allow anhydrous salt to
crystallize. It is in colorless, transparent crystals, lustrous leaflets,
white, crystalline powder, permanent, odorless, soluble in water (.4),
alcohol (3.2), warm alcohol (2), chloroform (12.5), glycerin, insoluble
in ether; aqueous solution (1 in 20) neutral, levorotatory; melts at 183-191
degrees C. (362-376 degrees F.), the higher point indicating greater purity.
Tests: 1. Aqueous solution (1 in 20) + silver nitrate T.S. -- white
precipitate, insoluble in nitric acid. 2. Aqueous solution
(1 in 50) 5 cc. + 5 drops of chromium trioxide solution (1 in 20) -- yellow
precipitate, redissolved on shaking; now add hydrochloric acid 1 cc. --
permanent orange crystalline precipitate. 3. Dissolve .5 Gm. in sulphuric
acid 1 cc. -- not more than slight yellow tint (abs. of readily caronizable
substances) -- add cautiously distilled water 2 cc. -- aromatic odor of
methyl benzoate, on cooling -- crystals of benzoic acid separate; incinerate
.5 Gm. -- ash negligible. 4. Aqueous solution (1 in 50) 5 cc. + N/1
sulphuric acid .3 cc. + N/10 potassium permanganate .1 cc. -- violet color
does not disappear entirely in half hour (abs. of cinnymyl-cocaine).
Impurities: Cinnamyl-cocaine, isatropyl-cocaine, readily carbonizable substances.
This salt is dispensed generally under the name of cocaine in (hypodermic)
solutions, 2-4-5-10 p.c. Dose, gr. 1/8-2 (.008-.13 Gm.).
Unoff. Preps.: I. LEAVES: Fluidextract (diluted
alcohol), 3ss-2 (2-8 cc.). Infusion, 5 p.c., 3j-2 (30-60 cc.).
Tincture, 20 pc. (diluted alcohol), 3j-4 (4-15 cc.). Wine, 6.5 p.c.,
3ij-4 (8-15 cc.). II. COCAINE: Oleate, 5-10 p.c. Unguentum
Cocainae (Br.), 4 p.c. III. COCAINE HYDROCHLORIDE: Injectio
Cocainae Hypodermica (Br.), 5 p.c., mv-10 (.3-.6 c.). Lamellae Cocainae,
Discs (Br.), 1/50 gr. (.0013 Gm.).
PROPERTIES. -- Cerebral stimulant, bitter tonic,
diuretic, mydriatic, diaphoretic, anaphrodisiac, narcotic. Locally,
has little action upon the unbroken skin, but acts upon mucous membranes
and subcutaneous tissue as anesthetic and analgesic, producing also its
constitutional effects. It increases digestion, respiration, heart
action, temperature, arterial tension, and the irritability of the sensory
nerves, followed by mental, moral, and muscular depression. It anesthetizes
the gastric mucous membrane, thereby temporarily deadening the sensations
of hunger and thirst, which, however, seem all the greater as the effects
wear off; the brain is stimulated by increasing the blood supply, producing
wakefulness, a sense of hilarity and well-being (similar to cannabis),
increased muscular strength and endurance. Acts as a diuretic by
checking waste processes, lessening the quantity of urea, but increases
that of urine; dilates the pupil by stimulating the ends of sympathetic
nerve in the iris. When full amount (leaves) chewed one works cheerfully
as long as the effect lasts, irrespective of meal hour, which may continue
3-4 days from repeated doses -- usually, however, food is taken at night,
and only the meal of mid-day bridged over. Natives drink its tea
like Chinese tea elsewhere, and carry a bag of leaves and one of ashes
or lime; after forming a quid of the leaves deprived of ribs (3j-4 Gm.),
a little ash or lime is added to give pungency and to aid the secretion
of saliva; each chew lasts an hour, when a new one follows. Cocaine,
in general action, resembles atropine; causes little injury to native,
but strangers soon become haggard-looking and idiotic.
USES. -- In melancholia, hysteria, epilepsy, spinal
paralysis, insanity, diabetes, headache typhoid state, opium-habit, uterine
inertia, vomiting of pregnancy, gastric irritability, cholera morbus, spermatorrhea,
debiity, poisoning by chloral hydrate, opium, or bromides. Locally,
to burns, painful ulcers, fissures of anus, hay fever, sore throat, laryngitis,
hemorrhoids, bronchitis, coryza, and in surgical operations; hypodermically
in fingers, toes, small tumors--for amputation; for spinal anesthesia not
as safe as novocaine, stovaine, eucaine; no more than gr. 3/4 (.045 Gm.)
should be applied at once.
Poisoning: Have nervous excitement, oppression,
and fullness of head, sometimes nausea and vomiting, pulse and respiration
at first rapid, then slow, breathing labored, face cyanotic, pupils dilated,
extremities cold, convulsions, coma, death; may have delirium and unconsciousness
early, or only asphyxia. Place in horizontal position and fresh air,
empty stomach, stimulants -- strong coffee, etc., and if circulation fails
-- strychnine, ether, alcohol, amyl nitrite, caffeine, atropine, oxygen
and ammonia inhalations; chloral hydrate (gr. 30-60 (2-4 Gm.), paraldehyde,
sulphonal, chloroform, ether or morphine injections; artificial respiration;
nitroglycerin (hypodermically) for convulsions. Chronic poisoning
(cocainism or habit), marked by loss of flesh, disordered circulation,
insane delusions and hallucinations, collapse, is more rapid and nearly
as degenerative and serious as that of opium, and may be treated similarly,
but usage does not create nerve irritation to the same extent, consequently
one with strong will power may desist abruptly its use without suffering
other than the denial of mental satisfaction and pleasures, the craving
for which it tends to establish.
Incompatibles: Alkalies, alkaline carbonates
and bicarbonates, mercuric chloride, iodine, iodides, ammonia, zonc chloride,
Synergists: Cerebral effects -- alcohol,
cannabis, belladonna; analgesic--atropine, phenol, conium, opium; mydriatic--atropine.
Eucalyptus globulus, Labillardiere.
The dried scythe-shaped leaf, with not more than 3 p.c. of of stems, fruits,
or other foreign organic matter.
Habitat. Australia (Tasmania,
Victoria); cultivated in subtropics, Europe, N. Africa, S. United
States (California, Florida, etc.); rich valleys, moist slopes of wooded
Syn. Eucalypt, Blue Gum Leaves, Gum
Tree (Wood); Fever Tree of Australia, Blue Gum-tree, Woolly Butt,
Iron Bark Tree; Fr. Feuilles d'Eucalyptus; Ger. Eucalyptus- blatter.
Eu-ca-lyp'tus. L. fr. Gr. eb, well,
good, + ..., covered -- i.e., the calyx-limb covers the flower bud
before expansion and afterward, at anthesis, falls off in the shape of
a lid or cover -- the outer operculum of the bud (not the inner of
Glob'u-lus. L. globulus, globulosus,
a little ball, globular -- i.e., the thick button-like form of the
PLANT. -- Rapid-growing tree, 60-90 M. (200-300
degrees) high, 3-6 M. (10-20 degrees) thick (the largest being 141 M. (470
degrees) high, 27 M. (87 degrees) in circumference -- E. amygdalina); bark
ash-color; flowers Nov.-Dec., hermaphrodite, pedunculate, pinkish-white,
buds very glaucous, consisting of calyx-tube covered by conical lid (perculum)
of calyx-limb and united petals, fruit capsules, 18 Mm. (3/4') broad half-globular,
4-5-ribbed, dehiscing at apex, many-seeded. LEAVES (LEAF) -- Blades
lanceolate, curved, 8-30 Cm. (3-12') long, 2-7.5 Cm. (4/5-3') broad, acute,
base unequal, rounded; petiole twisted, 5-35 Mm. (1/5-1 2/5') long; margin
uneven, revolute, coriaceous, both surfaces pale yellowish-green, glaucous,
glandular-punctate, numerous small circular brown dots of cork; veins of
the first order anastomosing to form a vein nearly parallel with margin;
stomata deeply depressed (level or elevated in spurious leaves); odor aromatic,
taste aromatic, bitter, cooling. POWDER, light green -- fragments
of epidermis with stomata nearly invisible, chlorenchyma with broken oil
reservoirs, brownish cork, bast-fibers, tracheae, calcium oxalate in rosette
aggregates. Solvents: diluted alcohol; boiling water. Dose,
gr 15-60 (1-4 Gm.)
ADULTERATIONS. -- LEAVES: Various leaves having
stomata level with leaf-surface, not deeply depressed as in genuine; POWDER:
Should not reveal epidermal fragments with guard-cells of stomata visible
upon vertical view, nor should any fragments, without stomata, exhibit
wavy epidermal cells upon certical view; OIL: Oils of various species of
Eucalyptus containing much phellandrene, castor oil 12-20 p.c.
Commercial. -- The blue-gum tree of Tasmania
(exuding blue-gum), discovered by Labillaradiere, French botanist, 1792,
and introduced into Europe, 1856, is sensitive to cold, but under favorable
conditions attains the height of 15 M. (50 degrees) in 6 years; there are
135 species, the wood of many being hard, resinous and valuable.
The aborigines knew something of its virtues, while the Spaniards used
it for fever and ague, 1867, but Drs. Brunel and Ramel extolled and proved
its antiperiodic properties, 1868-1869. Leaves are picked, dried
carefully, and enter trade very little broken, those that are ovate, equilateral,
thin and sessile, "junior," being rejected; only the Australian variety
should be used, as they vary less in the yield of oil; however, most of
our supply comes from California.
CONSTITUENTS. -- Volatile oil 6 p.c., tannin, cerylic
alcohol, 3 resins (1 acid, crystallizable), eucalyptic acid.
Oleum Eucalypti. Oil of Eucalyptus,
U.S.P. -- (Syn., Ol. Eucalypt., Eucalyptus Oil; Fr. Essence d'Eucalyptus;
Ger. Eukalyptusol.) This volatile oil, distilled from the fresh leaves
(old leaves containing very little oil) of this and other species, is a
neutral, colorless, pale yellow liquid, characteristic, aromatic, somewhat
little camphoraceous odor, pungent, spicy, cooling taste, soluble in 4
vols. of 70 p.c. alcohol, sp. gr. 0.915, dextrorotatory; congeals at not
below -15.4 degrees C. (4 degrees F.); contains at least 70 p.c. of eucalyptol
(cineol), C10H18O, 20 p.c. of cymene, C10H14,
eudesmol, C10H16O, phellandrene, C10H18,
eucalyptene, C10H18, terpene -- d-pinene (small amount),
C10H14, also a little valeric, butyric and capronic
aldehydes; with hydrochloric acid yields eucalypteol (eucalyptene hydrochloride),
C10H16.2HCl, in white hygroscopic, aromatic crystals;
with phosphoric oxide yields eucalyptolene, thickish liquid. Tests:
1. Mix oil (2) with glacial acetic acid (4), add 20 p.c. aqueous solution
of sodium nitrite (3), stir gently--no crystals of phellandrene nitrite
(abs. of other eucalyptus oils containing much phellandrene). Impurities:
Castor oil 12-20 p.c., etc. Should be kept cool, dark, in well-stoppered,
amber-colored bottles. Dose, mv-15 (.3-1 cc.).
Eucalyptol. Eucalyptol, C10H18O,
U.S.P. -- (Syn., Cineol, Cajuputol; Fr. Eucalyptol, Oxyde de Terpilene;
Ger. Eucalyptolum, Eukalyptol, Zineol.) This substance obtained from
oil of eucalyptus and other sources (cajuput, canella, curcuma, laurus,
mentha, rosemary, salvia, santonica) is the most valuable constituent of
eucalyptus oil, being neutral and with a definite chemical composition,
which is not true of the oil, and may be obtained by distilling the volatile
oil and placing in a freezing mixture that portion coming over between
150-176 degrees C. (302-347 degrees F.), from which it crystallizes in
long, colorless needles; a more satisfactory method is to treat the oil
with hydrochloric acid gas or phosphoric acid, add warm water to separate
eucalyptol on the surface, then wash with dilute alkali solution and distil.
It is a colorless liquid, characteristic, aromatic, distinctly camphoraceous
odor, pungent, spicy taste; slightly soluble in water, miscible with alcohol,
chloroform, ether, glacial acetic acid, fixed or volatile oils, sp gr.
0.922, boils at 176 degrees C. (349 degrees F.), congeals at 0 degrees
C. (32 degrees F.). Tests: 1. Optically inactive (dist. from oil
of eucalyptus, many other volatile oils); alcoholic solution (1 in 10)
-- neutral. 2. Place 1 cc. in freezing mixture, add gradually phosphoric
acid (1) -- solid, white, crystalline mass (eucalyptol-phosphoric acid),
+ warm water -- eucalyptol separates. 3. Shake 5 cc. with sodium
hydroxide T.S. (5) -- eucalyptol volume not diminished (abs. of phenols,
etc.). 4. Shake 1 cc. with distilled water (20), after liquids separate,
add to aqueous layer 1 drop ferric chloride T.S. -- no violet color (abs.
of phenols). Impurities: Oil of eucalyptus, volatile oils, saponifiable
oils, phenols. Dose, mv-15 (.3-1 cc.).
PREPARATIONS. -- LEAVES: 1.Fluidextractum Eucalypti.
Fluidextract of Eucalyptus. (Syn., Fldext. Eucalypt., Fluid Extract
of Eucalyptus; Fr. Extrait fluide d'Eucalyptus; Ger. Eucalyptusfluidextrakt.)
Manufacture: Similar to Fluidextractum Sarsaparillae,
page 126; menstruum; 75 p.c. alcohol, reserve first 80 cc. Dose,
mxv-60 (1-4 cc.). OIL: 1. Curatio Parafinni, N.F., 2 p.c. EUCALYPTOL:
1. Nebula Eucalyptolis, N.F., 5 p.c., + light-liquid petrolatum 95.
2. Petroxolinum Eucalyptolis, N.F., 20 cc. In 100 cc. product. 3.
Liquor Antisepticus, N.F., ½ p.c. 4. Liquor Aromaticus Alkalinus,
N.F., 1/10 p.c. 5. Liquor Pepsini Antisepticus, N.F., 1/20 p.c.
6. Nebula Aromatica, N.F., 1/5 p.c. 7. Nebula Mentholis Composita,
N.F., 1/5 p.c. 8. Petroxolinum Sulphuratum Compositum, N.F., 3 cc.
In 100 cc. product. 9. Pulvis Antisepticus, N.F., 1-10 p.c.
Unoff. Preps.: LEAVES: Extract, gr. 2-10
(.13-.6 Gm.). Infusion, 3j-2 (30-60 cc.). Tincture, 15 p.c.,
3ss-2 (2-8 cc.). OIL: Unguentum Eucalypti (Br.), 10 p.c. Water
(Aqua), 3j-4 (4-15 cc.).
PROPERTIES. -- Antiperiodic, antipyretic, expectorant,
stimulant, astringent, antiseptic, disinfectant, diaphoretic; like quinine
arrests white blood corpuscle movement; increases flow of saliva, gastric
juice, heart action, appetite, digestion; large doses produce indigestion,
diarrhea, vomiting, muscular weakness, low temperature, renal and cerebral
congestion, paralyzed respiration, death; destroys low forms of life, reduces
arterial tension and enlarged spleen. It antagonizes malaria thus:
1, its dead leaves elevate the low moist soil; 2, being a rapid grower,
its leaves roots, etc., absorb much malarial soil-water and noxious germs,
thus causing the surrounding country to become dry, thereby purifying the
atmosphere; 3, its enormous foliage protects large areas from direct sun-rays
which favor the generation of animalculae; 4, its aseptic emanations purify
the air. Owing to these properties it is cultivated largely in malarial
districts, to render them sanitative, and to reclaim infected localities,
as portions of Australia, Jamaica, Roman Campagna, etc. It is eliminated
by skin, bronchia, kidneys, lungs, with more or less irritation, imparting
odor to breath and urine.
USES. -- Intermittent fever, genito-urinary and
pulmonary catarrh, chronic bronchitis, mucous membrane affections, asthma
(smoked with stramonium). Used when quinine is contra-indicated,
intermittents, typhoid, scarlatina, whooping-cough, cancer, hemorrhages;
externally--as antiseptic in ulcers, gonorrhea, spongy gums, gleet, deodorizer
in diseases with disagreeable odor, preventive of putrefaction; spray beneficial
in diphtheria, gangrene of lungs, fetid bronchitis. Tincture (1)
added to cod-liver oil (100) removes fishy flavor; the leaves deter moths
entering woolen cloth; bark used for tanning, dyeing.
Incompatibles: Agents aiding waste, alkalies,
mineral acids, salts.
Synergists: Aromatic bitters, antispasmodics,
copaiba, cubeb, oil of turpentine, etc.
Bosisto found the yield of volatile oil from 100
pounds (45.5 Kg.) of leaves from each of the several species to vary considerably:
E. globulus -- 12 ounces (.3 L.), the only one having eucalyptol to an
appreciable extent, E. Amygdali'na, Peppermint Tree -- 50 ounces (1.5 L.);
E. Dumo'sa--30 ounces (.9 L.); E. obli'qua, Stringy-bark Tree -- 8 ounces
(.2 L.); E. Leucox'ylon (Siderox'ylon, Iron-bark Tree -- 16 ounces (.5
L.); E. Oleo'sa, Mallee Tree -- 20 ounces .6 L.).
1. Eucalyptus rostra'ta; Eucalyptus Gummi,
Eucalyptus Gum (Kino), Red Gum, N.F. -- A dried gummy exudation from
the bark of this and other species; Australia. Many species (50),
all large trees, yield this product from cavities and hand-made incisions,
when it is dried by artificial heat -- the yield per tree about the same
as of ordinary kino. It is in reddish-brown grains, angular masses,
in thin layers transparent ruby-red; brittle, forming plastic mass adhering
to teeth when chewed, coloring saliva red; odor slight, taste very astringent.
Powder, dark reddish-brown -- angular fragments with conchoidal fracture,
thinner pieces yellowish-brown; aqueous solution faintly acid, reddish--intensified
by an alkali; diluted solution + ferric chloride T.S. -- dark green color,
more concentrated -- dark green precipitate; almost completely soluble
in alcohol without becoming plastic; 80-90 p.c. soluble in water, solubility
lessens with age; contains kino-tannic acid 45-50 p.c., kino-red, catechin,
pyrocatechin, volatile oil, ash 2 p.c. Properties and Uses: similar
to kino. Dose, gr. 5-15 (.3-1 Gm.); 1. Trochisci Eucalypti Gummi,
1 gr. (.06 Gm.), + tragacanth 1 gr., acacia 2 gr., sucrose 6 gr., oil of
orange 1/20 m., fldext, rose ½ m.
Eugenia Jambola'na, Jambul, Java Plum. --
E. Indies. Large tree producing edible fruit; all parts astringent,
but seed and bark also arrest formation of sugar in diabetes; seed 1.2
Cm. (1/2') long, a third as thick, oval, one end truncate, blackish-gray,
hard, heavy, little odor and taste; capsules, fluidextract. Dose,
gr. 5-10 (.3-.6 Gm.).
Euon'ymus atropurpu'reus, Euonymus, Wahoo Bark,
N.F. -- Celastraceae. The dried bark of the root with not more
than 5 p.c. of adhering wood, nor 2 p.c. of other foreign organic matter,
yielding not more than 4 p.c. acid-insoluble ash; United States, east of
the Mississippi. Ornamental shrub, 1.5-4.6 M. (5-15 degrees) high;
wood white; leaves oval, serrate; flowers dark purple cymes; fruit smooth,
4-lobed crimson capsule. Bark, usually transversely curved pieces,
occasionally single quills 2-7 Cm. (4/5-3') long, bark 1-4 Mm. (1/25-1-6')
thick, light weight, grayish, wrinkled, soft scaly cork, transverse lenticels
(fissures); inner surface grayish-white, striate and porous, fracture short
with silky fibers of caoutchouc-like substance; odor distince; taste bitter,
acrid. Powder, light brown -- starch grains, cork, secretion cells,
starch-bearing parenchyma, calcium oxalate rosettes, but no prisms; solvents:
hot water, diluted alcohol; contains euonymin, volatile oil 1.3 p.c., resins,
atropurpurin, fixed oil, bitter extractive. Laxative, diuretic, tonic,
antiperiodic, expectorant; constipation, torpid liver, dropsy, pulmonary
affections; overdoses -- gastro-intestinal irritant. Owing to its
uncertain and irregular absorption, hence toxic (cumulative) action, physicians
should watch its tolerance and thereby regulate its dosage. Dose,
3ss-1 (2-4 Gm.); 1. Extractum Euonymi (diluted alcohol), dose gr. 1-6 (.06-.4
Gm.); 2. Fluidextractum Euonymi (diluted alcohol), dose 3ss-1 (2-4 cc.).
Decoction, 5 p.c. Infusion, 5 p.c. each, 3j-2 (30-60 cc.); euonymin
("Eclectic"), root-bark -- brownish; stem-bark -- greenish, gr. 1/2-3-6
(.03-.2-.4 Gm.). E. America'nus, Strawberry Bush, low or trailing,
with crimson capsules. E. Europae'us, common Spindletree of hedges,
2.5-6 M. (8-20 degrees) high, cultivated, flowers greenish-yellow, capsules
pale red, arillus orange-red; emetic, purgative. Both poisonous to
Eupato'rium perfolia'tum, Eupatorium, Thoroughwort,
Boneset, N.F. -- The dried leaves and flowering tops with not more
than 10 p.c. of stems nor 2 p.c. of foreign organic matter; N. America,
swamps, meadows, banks. Hairy perennial, .6-1.2 M. (2-4 degrees)
high, branched at summit; usually more or less broken. Leaves opposite,
the pair united at the base, 8-20 Cm. (3-8') long, 1.5-5 Cm. (3/5-2') broad,
tapering from base to apex, crenate-serrate, rugosely-veined, green, gray-green,
tomentose, resinous-dotted beneath; flower-heads corymbed, campanulate
involucre of imbricated scales, flowers 10-15, tubular, yellowish-white
florets, bristly pappus; odor faintly aromatic; taste strongly bitter.
Powder, dark green -- multicellular non-glandular hairs, glandular hairs
short-stalked, ellipsoidal pollen grains, hairs of pappus branched, tracheae
spiral, fragments of leaf epidermis with elliptical stomata; fragments
of achene pericarp having cells with brownish walls; fragments of stem
tissue showing epidermal cells, parenchyma, non-lignified fibers, tracheae
and pith parenchyma; numerous fragments of corolla tissue; solvents: diluted
alcohol, water partially; contains eupatorin, volatile oil, resin, tannin,
gum, sugar, yellow coloring matter, ash 10 p.c. Stimulant, tonic
diaphoretic (diuretic); large doses emetic, aperient, antispasmodic, similar
to chamomile; intermittents, rheumatism, influenza, bronchitis. Dose,
3ss-1 (2-4 Gm.); 1. Fluidextractum Eupatorii (diluted alcohol), dose, mxv-60
(1-4 cc.). Infusion, 5 p.c., 3j-2 (30-60 cc.); when cold -- tonic,
when warm -- emetic, diaphoretic. E. Purpu'reum, Gravel Root, Queen
of the Meadow. The root, U.S.P. 1820-1830; N. America, dry woods,
meadows. Perennial herb, 1-2 M. (3-6 degrees) high, stem green, purplish,
purple band at joints, 2.5 Cm. (1') broad; leaves petiolate, 3-6 in whorl,
20-25 Cm. (8-10') long, 10-12.5 Cm. (4-5') broad, downy beneath; flowers
purple, whitish, corymbs; contains euparin; taste bitter, aromatic; astringent.
E. Verbenafo'lium (teucrifo'lium), Wild Horehound, Rough Boneset.
The herb, U.S.P. 1820-1830. Perennial hairy herb .6-2.5 M. (2-8 degrees)
high -- low grounds; leaves ovate, oblong, truncate at base, toothed; flowers
August, white, panicled corymb; considered by some only a variety of E.
Perfoliatum -- all three possess similar properties. E. Capillifo'lium
(foenicula'ceum), Dog-fennel, Hogweed; Virginia-Florida. Plant smooth,
1-3 M. (3-10 degrees) high; juice relieves pain from insect-bites.
Euphor'bia hir'ta, Euphorbia, Euphorbia Pilulif'era,
Pill Bearing Spurge, N.F. -- The dried herb with not more than 5 p.c.
of foreign organic matter, nor yielding more than 3 p.c. of acid-insoluble
ash; Australia, W. Indies -- Tropics, open rich grounds. Pubescent
bristly-hairy, especially upper nodes (dist. from spurious variety), reddish-purple;
roots usually present; stems slender, sparsely leafed at base, greenish-brown,
rough or hairy; leaves opposite, oblong, serrated, rusty pale green, pubescent
on lower surface veins, much broken; flowers numerous, small; fruit 3-celled
capsule; seed triangular-ovoid, pale brown; odor aromatic, characteristic;
taste faintly bitter, aromatic, acrid. Powder, light yellowish --
wood-fibers, wood parenchyma, medullary ray and pith parenchyma with tracheids
and tracheae, pores, markings cork cells with amorphous content; starch
grains, lignified fibers, leaf epidermis with non-glandular hairs; solvents:
diluted alcohol, water; contains acrid resin, glucoside, ash 12 p.c.
Cardiac and respiratory stimulant; asthma, asthmatic, chronic, subacute
bronchitis; may occasion gastric pain, nausea, death. Dose, 3ss-1
(2-4 Gm.); 1. Fluidextractum Euphorbiae (diluted alcohol): Prep.: 1.
Elixir Euphorbiae Compositum, Antiasthmatic Elixir, 5.25 p.c., + fldext.
Lobelia .7, sodium bromide 3.5, sodium iodide 3.5, spirit of glyceryl trinitrate
.875, comp. tinct. of cardamom 5, oil of peppermint .1, glycerin 12.5,
alcohol 20, dist. water q.s. 100, dose, 3j-2 (4-8 cc.).
Euphor'bia corolla'ta, Flowering (Blooming) Spurge.
-- The root U.S.P. 1820-1870; S. United States. Perennial herb, .6-1
M. (2-3 degrees) high; leaves lanceolate; flowers umbels, 5- (3-7-) forked,
white; root many-headed, .5 M. (18') long, 5-25 Mm. (1/5-1') thick, blackish-brown,
fissured, bark thick, white inside, sweet, bitter, acrid; contains glucoside,
resin, euphorbon; yields milky juice when punctured. Diaphoretic
(gr. 5; .3 Gm.), cathartic (gr. 10; .6 Gm.), emetic (gr. 20; 1.3 Gm.),
expectorant (gr. 2-5; .13-.3 Gm.), vesicant; in infusion, decoction
E. Ipecacuan'hae, Ipecac Spurge, Wild Ipecac.
-- The root, U.S.P. 1820-1870; United States. Plant resembles preceding,
being a green or purple perennial, 12.5-25 Cm. (5-10') high, stem forked
from the base; leaves obovate, glabrous; flowers inconspicuous; fruit angled
pod, smooth; seed white, dotted; root several-headed, .6 M. (2 degrees)
long, knotty, with stem-scars, 10 Mm. (2/5') thick, branched, brown, wrinkled,
bark thick, white inside, sweet, bitter, acrid; constitutents, properties,
and uses similar to preceding.