The Cayce Herbal 
 A Comprehensive Guide to the  
Botanical Medicine of Edgar Cayce
A Manual of Materia Medica and Pharmacology
by David M. R. Culbreth, Ph.G., M.D. (1927)


    Gale'ga officina'lis, Galega, European Goat's Rue, N.F. -- The dried flowering herb with no stems over 4 Mm. (1/6') thick or more than 3 p.c. of foreign organic matter; S. Europe.  Small perennial; stem smooth, 15-45 Cm. (6-18') long, usually cut and broken; leaves imparipinnate, leaflets bright green, lanceolate, 2-5 Cm. (4/5-2') long, 2-6 Mm. (1/12-1/4') broad; flowers white, violet, racemes; odor indictinct; taste mucilaginous, slightly bitter, astringent -- colors saliva yellowish-green.  Powder, yellowish-green -- stomata, non-glandular hairs, tracheae, crystal-fibers with calcium oxalate monoclinic prisms, isodiametric parenchyma, pollen grains, few or no starch grains; solvent: diluted alcohol; contains bitter principle, tannin, ash 12 p.c.  , diuretic, diaphoretic, vermifuge.  Dose, 3ss-1 (2-4 Gm.); 1. Fluidextractum Galegae (diluted alcohol).


    Garcinia Hanburyi, Hooker filius.   The gum-resin with not more than 1 p.c. foreign organic matter, yielding not more than 1 p.c. acid-insoluble ash, nor less than 65 p.c. alcohol-soluble extractive.
    Habitat.  Annam, Camboja (Cambodia), Siam, Cochin-China.
    Syn.  Cambog., Pipe Gamboge, Gummi-resina Guttae (Gutti), Gutta Gamba, Cambodia;  Fr. Gomme-gutte; Ger. Gutti, Gummigutt.
    Gar-cin'i-a.  L. named after Laurent Garcin, French botanist and oriental traveler, who  first described it in 1734.
    Han-bu'ry-i.  L., in memory of Daniel Hanbury, named by Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker.
    Cam-bo'gi-a.  L. usually called Cambodia, a French protectorate in farther India, where  it is indigenous.
    Gamboge.  The trade name, corruption of Camboge.
    PLANT. -- A tree 10.5-15 M. (35-50 degrees) high, with many spreading branches; bark orange-brown, thick; leaves 10-17.5 Cm. (4-7') long, laurel-like; flowers Feb., dioecious, small, yellow, in 4's, staminate ones on pedicels (pedicula'ta) 6 Mm. (1/4') long; fruit may-June, size of crab apple, 3 Cm. (1 1/5') in diameter; smooth, orange-green color, with 4 dissepiments, each having 1 seed 12-18 Mm. (1/2-3/4') long.  GUM-RESIN (gamboge), in hard, brittle, cylindrical pieces, usually hollow in center, 10-20 Cm. (4-8') long, 2-5 Cm. (4/5-2') thick, grayish-orange-brown, longitudinally striate; fracture brittle, conchoidal, smooth, dull orange-red surface; odorless; taste acrid.  POWDER, bright yellow -- few or no starch grains; mounted in chloral hydrate T.S. all particles slowly dissolve leaving a few scattered fragments of vegetable tissues.  Tests: 1. Dissolve completely by successive treatments of ether or alcohol, and water.  2. Rub with water -- yellow emulsion, darker and almost transparent upon adding ammonia T.S.; + iodine T.S. -- not green (abs of starch); not more than 35 p.c. should be insoluble in alcohol.  Solvents: alcohol or ether dissolves at least 65 p.c.  Dose, gr. 1/2-5 (.03-.3 Gm.).
    ADULTERATIONS. -- Wheat and rice flour, sand, stones, nails, spikes, powdered wood or bark -- mostly in the cake variety, giving greater hardnesss and coarser fracture; when many fragments of rice paper present -- "ricey."
    Commercial. -- Gamboge secretes in latex-tubes (ducts) in the middle bark and to some extent in the pith, alburnum, leaves, flowers, and fruit; it is at first a yellow milky juice obtained in drops from broken leaves, twigs, or artificial incisions, being caught in leaves, cocoanut shells or bamboo joints.  There are two varieties: 1, Pipe (Roll, Fine), the best, resulting from making, at the beginning of the rainy season, June-Oct., a spiral incision in the bark half around the tree trunk from the ground upward a number of feet, and collecting the slowly exuding juice in a hollow bamboo joint placed at the lower end of the incision, requiring 1-2 months to fill and harden, in which the contraction toward the sides often affords a central cylindrical cavity; upon cracking off the bamboo shell, that usually imparts its markings, the contents are ready for market; trees should only be tapped biennially and each should yield 3 bamboo joints 50 Cm. (20') long, 4 Cm. (1 3/5') thick; 2, Cake (Lump, Saigon, Cochin, Coarse), inferior, resulting from collecting the juice in leaves and various vessels, being subjected to exposure and adulteration, thereby becoming less uniform and brittle with dull brownish non-conchoidal fracture; usually in masses, 2-3 pounds (.7-1 Kg.), sometimes much larger, being pressed or run into boxes or tubs.  Enters market via Canton, Calcutta, Singapore, Saigon, Bangkok, etc.
    CONSTITUENTS. -- Gum 16-25 p.c., resin (cambogic acid) 66-80 p.c., volatile oil, phenol ester, methyl alcohol and other alcohols, isovitinic and acetic acids, liquid with fruity odor resembling an aldehyde or ketone, ash 1-3 p.c
    Gum. -- Soluble in cold water like gum arabic (arabin), but not identical with it, as it is not precipitated by lead acetate, ferric chloride, sodium silicate, or sodium borate.
    Resin. -- Soluble in ether and alcohol, forming golden-yellow tinctures, also in alkaline solutions with red color, from which it is precipitated unaltered by acids.  It has acid characteristics, hence sometimes called cambogic acid, and upon it the coloring matter and medicinal properties depend; with salts of heavy metals forms precipitates called cambogiates.
    PREPARATIONS. -- 1. Pilulae Hydrargyri Chloridi Mitis Compositae (Pilulae Catharticae Compositae, (1/4 g. (.016 Gm.).
    Unoff. Prep.: Pilula Cambogiae Composita, 16 p.c. +, dose, gr. 4-8 (.26-.5 Gm.).
    Poisoning: Similar to aloe, colocynth, elaterin, etc.
    PROPERTIES. -- Drastic, hydragogue cathartic; in small repeated doses diuretic.  Usually produces much griping, nausea and vomiting when taken in full doses, so that generally it is combined with other cathartics, as calomel, jalap, potassium bitartrate or carbonate, etc.; it greatly irritates the alimentary canal, especially the small intestine, when taken in excess, and gr. 60 (4 Gm.) have occasioned death; it augments intestinal glands' secretion, but not of bile, and mostly passes in the feces, but some is absorbed, causing yellow urine.
    USES. -- Liver trouble from malaria; renal dropsy, uremic conditions, congestion of the brain, tenifuge (combined usually with tenicides), vermifuge, dropsy; very uncertain in veterinary practice.  Mostly used as pigment in water-color painting.  The powder when rubbed up with water shows strongly the "Brownian movement" under the microscope--infinitesimal particles (gamboge, carmine, etc.) suspended in water or other liquid in very delicate equilibrium, and sensitive to slightest change of temperature, which causes movement--physical, not vital.
    Allied Plants:
    1. Several guttiferous plants of Southern India, not restricted, however, to the Cambodia province, as is the official, are almost identical with this latter and yield a similar juice: Garacinia Morel'la (staminate flowers sessile), Ceylon, S. India; G. Travanco'rica, Travancore; G. Picto'ria, Madras peninsula, etc.; G. Mangosta'na, Mango Fruit, India, astringent; G. Purpu'rea (in'dica), India; the seed of this are exposed to the sun and then boiled in water, when 10-20 p.c. of a fixed oil (kokum-butter) is obtained.


    Methylis Salicylas.  Methyl Salicylate, U.S.P.
    Gaultheria procumbens, Linne', or Betula lenta, Linne'.  An ester (compound ether) obtained by distilling leaves of the former, or bark of the latter, and produced synthetically.
    Habitat.  N. America, Newfoundland to Georgia, Minnesota; cold damp woods (shade  of evergreens); forests.
    Syn.  Wintergreen, Spring (Creeping, Spicy, Aromatic) Wintergreen, Checker  (Partridge) berry, Tea (Spice) berry, Mountain Tea; Black (Cherry, Mahogany, Sweet,  Spice) Birch, Mountain Mahogany; Methyl, Salicyl., Oleum Gaultheriae, U.S.P. 1900,  Oil of Wintergreen; Oleum Betulae, U.S.P. 1900, Oil of Sweet Birch, Oil of Teaberry; Fr.  Salicylate de Methyle; Ger. Kunstliches Wintergrunol.
    Gaul-the'ri-a.  L. Dedicated by Kalm to Dr. Gaulther, of Quebec.
    Pro-cum'bens.  L. Pro, forward, + cumbere, to lie, lying down -- i.e., the reclining habit  of the stem.
    Bet'u-la.  L. Fr. Celtic betu, the birch -- i.e., its original name.
    Len'ta.  L. Lentus, soft, pliant, flexible -- i.e., its stems and branches.
    PLANTS. -- Gaultheria procumbens, stems slender, creeping on or below the surface, branches ascending, leafy at summit, 5-15 Cm. (2-6') high; leaves obovate, alternate, evergreen, spicy, mucronate, serrate; flowers, June-Sept., few, white, nodding, mostly single in the axils; fruit (formed of calyx) bright red berries (capsules), 5-celled, spicy, aromatic; Betula lenta--Betulaceae, tree 12-24 M. (40-80 degrees) high, .6-1 M. (2-3 degrees) thick; bark dark brown, close, smooth, sweet aromatic; leaves 7.5-10 Cm. (3-4') long, 2.5-5 Cm. (1-2') broad, ovate, acuminate, serrate, petiolate; flowers, staminate (catkins) and pistillate; bark not separable into layers, cambium when wounded in the spring, exudes sweet, acid, edible juice; wood reddish, strong, compact.
    CONSTITUENTS. -- Methyl Salicylate (Volatile oil), resin, tannin 3-6 p.c., gaultherin, betulin.
 Methylis Salicylas.  Methyl Salicylate, C6H4(OH)CO2CH3 or CH3C7H5O3. -- While this constitutes 98 p.c. of the commercial oils of gaultheria and betula, it is obtained largely synthetically by distilling salicylic acid, or a salicylate, with methyl alcohol and sulphuric acid (abstracting water as eliminated), the methyl salicylate distilling over and floating on the surface -- HC7H5O3 + CH3OH + H2SO4 = CH3C7H5O3 + H2O + H2SO4.  It is a colorless, yellowish, reddish liquid, characteristic odor and taste of gaultheria, soluble in 70 p.c. alcohol (7); with not more than slight cloudiness, slightly in water, miscible with alcohol and glacial acetic acid; alcoholic solution neutral, slightly acid, sp. gr. 1.183 (synthetic), 1.177 (from gaultheria or betula); boils at 221 degrees C. (430 degrees F.); optically inactive (synthetic and betula), slightly levorotatory (gaultheria); contains 98 p.c. of methyl salicylate.  Tests: 1.  Shake a drop with 5 cc. of distilled water, + a drop of ferric chloride T.S.--deep violet color.  2. Agitated 1 cc. with potassium hydroxide T.S. 10 cc. -- clear, slightly cloudy, colorless or faintly yellowish, without separation of oily drops (abs. of other volatile oils, petroleum products).  Impurities: Heavy metals, volatile oils, petroleum products.  The label must indicate definitely its specific source.  Should be kept cool, in well-stoppered, amber-colored bottles.  Dose, mj-10 (.06-.6 cc.).
    PREPARATIONS. -- 1. Emulsum Olei Morrhuae, 2/5 p.c.  2. Fluidextractum Cascarae Sagradae Aromaticum, 1/50 p.c.  3. Syrupus Sarsaparillae Compositus, 1/50 p.c.  4. Cataplasma Kaolini, N.F., 1/5 p.c.  5. Dentifricium, N.F., 875/1000 p.c.  6. Inunctum Mentholis Compositum, N.F., 10 p.c.  7. Liquor Antisepticus, N.F., 12/100 p.c.  8. Liquor Antisepticus Alkalinus, N.F., 1/20 p.c.  9. Liquor Ferri Salicylatis, N.F., 1/5 p.c.  10. Liquor Pepsini Antisepticus, N.F., 1/20 p.c.  11. Nebula Aromatica, N.F., ½ p.c.  12. Nebula Mentholis Composita, N.F., ½ p.c.  13. Odontalgicum, N.F., 45 p.c.  14. Petroxolinum Methylis Sallicylatis, N.F., 20 cc. in 100 cc. product.  15.Syrupus Trifolii Compositus, N.F., 1/50 p.c.  16. Trochisci Ulmi, N.F. 1/88 p.c.
    Unoff. Preps.: Oil of Gaultheria (Br.), mj-10 (.06-.6 cc.).  Spirit, 5 p.c., 3j-2 (4-8 cc.).
    PROPERTIES AND USES. -- Similar to salicylic acid: Antiseptic analgesic, stimulant, carminative, flavoring; muscular rheumatism, lumbago, sciatica; locally applied upon lint over swollen joints, acute articular rheumatism, tic douloureux, etc.  Amount may be increased, if no impairment of digestion, until full effect produced.
    Poisoning: Large quantities produce drowsiness, cerebral congestion, delirium, gastric irritability, vomiting, purging, intestinal pain, rapid pulse, hot dry skin, difficult breathing; give diffusible stimulants--ether, alcohol, ammonia, etc.
    Gaultheria (Leaves), U.S.P. 1820-1880; Oleum Gaultheriae, U.S.P. 1820-1900;Oleum Betulae (Volatile), U.S.P. 1890-1900.


    Gelse'mium semper'virens, Gelsemium, Yellow Jasmine (Root), N.F.--The dried rhizome and roots with not more than 2 p.c. of foreign organic matter; United States, Va. to Fla.  Beautiful woody climber; leaves persistent, evergreen, lanceolate, entire, flowers large, yellow, fragrant, poisonous, corolla funnel-shaped; fruit brown, capsule.  Rhizome, cylindrical, in pieces 3-20 Cm. (1 1/5-8') long, 3-30 Mm. (1/8-1 1/5') thick, yellowish-brown, wrinkled, transverse fissures, few stem-scars above, numerous roots beneath; fracture tough, splintery; bark thin; wood radiate, excentric; odor slight; taste bitter.  Powder, yellowish--tracheae, few bast-fibers, lignified tracheids, starch grains, few calcium oxalate monoclinic prisms, groups of stone cells; solvent: diluted alcohol; contains gelsemine, gelseminine, gelsemic acid (beta-methyl-aesculetin) .3-.4 p.c., volatile oil .5 p.c., 2 resins 4 p.c., starch, gum, pectin.  Nervine, sedative, mydriatic, antispasmodic, antiperiodic; closely resembles hemlock in action, and somewhat digitalis, aconite, veratrum viride, antimony; rheumatism, neuralgia, intermittent and yellow fevers, headache, migraine, asthma, chorea, epilepsy, nervous cough, mania.  Poisoning:  Dim vision, projected eyeballs, dropping of upper eyelid and lower jaw, difficult enunciation, labored breathing, convulsions (strychnine-like), death--evacuants, tannin, cardiac stimiulants: ammonia, strychnine, atropine, digitalis; external heat and friction.  Dose, gr. 2-10 (.13-.6 Gm.); 1. Fluidextractum Gelsemii (80 p.c. alcohol), dose, mij-10 (.13-.6 cc.): Preps.: 1. Elixir Sodii Salicylatis Compositum, 1.6 p.c.; 2. Tinctura Gelsemii, 10 p.c. (65 p.c. alcohol).  Dose, mx-60 (.6- 4 cc.).


    Gentiana lutea, Linne'.  The dried rhizome and roots, yielding not less than 30 p.c. of water-soluble extractive.
    Habitat.  C. And S. Europe (France, Austria, Germany, Switzerland, Portugal, England);  mountainous districts.
    Syn.  Yellow Gentian Root, Pale Gentian, Butter Root, Bitterwort, Felwort, Radix  Gentianae Rubrae, Luteae or Majoris; Gr. Gentianae Radix; Fr. Gentiane, Racine de  Gentiane (de Gentiane Jaune); Ger. Radix Gentianae, Enzianworzel, Bitterwurzel, Rother  (Gelber) Enzian.
    Gen-ti-a'na.  L. See etymology, page 487, of Gentianaceae.
    Lu'te-a.  L. Luteus, golden-yellow -- i.e., the flowers.
    PLANT. -- Large perennial herb; stem thick, hollow above, .6-1.3 M. (2-4 degrees) high, yellowish-green, underground portion .6-1 M. (2-3 degrees) long, branched; leaves entire, 5-7-nerved, 15-30 Cm. (6-12') long, ovate, glabrous, yellowish-green; flowers June-Aug., numerous, cymes of 20 or more; corolla 5 Cm. (2') long, orange-yellow, spotted, 6 segments; fruit 1-celled, ovate capsule, 3 Cm. (1 1/5') long, many winged-seed.  RHIZOME (root), in subcylindrical, sometimes branching pieces, of variable length, 5-40 Mm. (1/5-1 3/5') thick, yellowish-brown, rhizome annulate, roots longitudinally wrinkled; fracture short and uneven when dry, tough and flexible when damp; internally yellowish-brown, bark .5-2 Mm. (1/50-1/12') thick, separated from a spongy wood by a dark brown cambium zone; odor strong, characteristic; taste slightly sweetish, strongly and persistently bitter.  POWDER, yellowish-brown -- parenchymatous cells with fragments of scalariform or reticulate tracheae, few or no starch grains and calcium oxalate crystals; no stone cells, bast- or wood-fibers.  Solvents: water; diluted alcohol.  Dose, gr 5-30 (.3-2 Gm.).
    ADULTERATIONS. -- RHIZOME: Through carelessness-rhizomes, roots of allied species, especially G. Asclepia'dea (stone cells and prosenthymatous tissue); aconite, belladonna, white hellebore, orris (none yellow internally), Rumex alpi'nus (odor and taste distinct--bitter, astringent without gentian aroma); POWDER: Ground pine-wood almond shells, olive stones, sack and rope fibers, etc.
    Commercial. -- Plant, remarkable for beauty and size, was used by the Greeks and Arabians, and grows in the Alps, Apennines, Pyrenees, Jura, Vosges, 900-1200 M. (3000-4000 degrees) elevation, along with veratrum album, the leaves of both closely resembling.  Rhizome and roots are collected usually when in flower, washed, dried, and exported from Germany, France (Marseillees) -- our chief supply.  Austria imposes a fine for collecting any less than 2 Cm. (4/5') thick at the crown--product of plants 3 years old, which insures propagation through having produced seed.
    CONSTITUENTS. -- Gentiopicrin, Gentiin, gentiogenin, C10H10O4, gentienin, C14H10O5, gentianose, C10H66O31 (uncrystallizable sugar) 14 p.c., resin, gum, pectin, fixed oil 6 p.c., yellow coloring matter, identical with quercitrin, ash 6 p.c.
    Gentiopicrin, C16H20O9. -- Bitter glucoside, upon which activity depends, obtained by diluting alcoholic extract with alcohol, extracting with equal weight of warm hydrous ether, evaporating to get crystals that contain 1 p.c. gentiin, which can be removed by recrystallizing from acetic ether + 2 p.c. of water; by hydrolysis yields glucose and gentiogenin (white crystals).
    Gentiin, C25H28O14. -- Crystallizes from 60 p.c. hot alcohol in yellow needles, insoluble in water, blackish-green with ferric chloride, heated with 4 p.c. of sulphuric acid splits into glucose, xylose and gentienin.
    PREPARATIONS. -- 1. Tinctura Gentianae Composita.  Compound Tincture of Gentian.  (Syn., Tr. Gentian Co.; Fr. Teinture de Gentiane composee; Ger. Zusammengesetzte Enziantinktur.)
    Manufacture: 10 p.c.  Similar to Tinctura Veratri Viridis, page  104 -- using gentian 10 Gm., bitter orange peel 4 Gm., cardamom seed 1 Gm., packing moderately; lst menstruum: glycerin 10 cc., alcohol 50, water 40, finishing with diluted alcohol q.s. 100 cc.  Dose, 3j-2 (4-8 cc.).
    2. Extractum Gentianae, N.F. -- yield 30 p.c. (water).  Dose, gr. 2-10 (.13-.6 Gm.).
    Preps.: 1. Pilulae Antiperiodicae, N.F., q.s.  2. Pilulae Ferri, Quininae, Aloes et Nucis Vomicae, N.F., q.s.
    3. Fluidextractum Gentianae, N.F. (diluted alcohol).  Dose, mv-50 (.3-2 cc.).
    Preps.: 1. Elixir Gentianae, N.F., 3.5 p.c.  Dose 3j-2 (4-8 cc.).
    Preps.: 1. Elixir Gentianae et Ferri, N.F., 90 p.c.  2. Elixir Gentianae et Ferri Phosphatis, N.F., 95 p.c.  Dose, each, 3j-2 (4-8 cc.).
    2. Elixir Gentianae Glycerinatum, N.F., 1 p.c.  Dose, 3j-2 (4-8 cc.).
    4. Infusum Gentianae Compositum, N.F., 3 p.c.  Dose, 3ij-4 (8-15 cc.).  5. Tinctura Rhei et Gentianae, N.F., 1 3/4 p.c.  6. Tinctura Amara, Bitter Stomach Drops, N.F., 6 p.c. + centaury 6, bitter orange peel 6, zedoary 2 (67 p.c. alcohol q.s.).  Dose, 3ss-1 (2-4 cc.).  7.  Tinctura Antiperiodica, N.F., 1/5 p.c.
    PROPERTIES. -- Tonic, bitter, increases appetite, digestion (action local); large doses oppress stomach, irritate bowels, nauseate, and cause vomiting.
    USES. -- Dyspepsia, atonic gout, amenorrhea, hysteria, scrofula, intermittents.  G. Elliot'tii (Catesbae'i), Elliott's Gentian.--The root, U.S.P. 1820--1870; United States, grassy swamps.  Perennial herb, 20-60 Cm. (8-24') high, rough; leaves 2.5-5 Cm. (1-2') long, lanceolate, serrate; flowers Oct., blue, 4 Cm. (1 3/5') long; corolla 10 segments, 5 inner fringed; root resembles the official; constituents and uses similar; in infusion, wine, tincture.  G. purpu'rea (purplish flowers), G. pannon'ica (dark purple flowers), and G. puncta'ta (yellow, purple-dotted flowers); all grow along with official, and collected for it.


    Gera'anium macula'tum, Geranium, Cranesbill, N.F. -- Geraniaceae.  The dried rhizome with not more than 2 p.c. of foreign organic matter; N. America, rich woods, thickets.  Perennial, hairy herb, .3-.6 M. (1-2 degrees) high; leaves palmately 5-7-lobed, each lobe incised at apex, cuneate, hairy, pale green with paler spots; flowers large, purplish, umbels; petals 5, entire; fruit long-beaked.  Rhizome, cylindraceous, 2.5-10 Cm. (1-4') long, 3-15 Mm. (1/8-3/5') thick, somewhat branched, bent, flattened, strongly tuberculated, root-scars, wrinkled, dark purple-brown, internally light purple-brown; fracture short, non-fibrous, bark thin, cambium distinct, irregular, wood-wedges, large central pith, few fibro-vascular bundles; odorless; taste strongly astringent.  Powder, purplish-brown -- cortical and pith parenchyma, starch grains, calcium oxalate rosettes, cork cells with brownish amorphous content, fragments bluish-black with ammonio-ferric alum T.S.; tracheae, tracheids; solvents: alcohol, water; contains tannin 10-28 p.c., gallic acid, resin, crystalline principle, geranium-red, a phlobaphene formed from the tannin, ash 8 p.c.  Astringent, tonic; diarrhea, chronic dysentery, hemorrhages, gleet, leucorrhea, aphthae, relaxed vagina, throat, uvula, rectum, indolent ulcers.  Dose, gr. 15-60 (1-4 Gm.); 1. Fluidextractum Geranii (75 p.c. alcohol).  Extract;Tincture; Decoction, 5 p.c. (water or milk); "Eclectic" geranin.
    G. Robertia'num. -- Europe; popular astringent for hemorrhage, diuretic for gravel.  Ero'dium (Geranium) moscha'tim, Stork's-bill; diaphoretic.  E. Cicuta'rium, Heron's-bill; diuretic for dropsy.


    Ge'um riva'le, Purple (Water) Avens. -- The rhizome, U.S.P. 1820-1870; N. America.  Perennial plant .3-.6 M. (1-2 degrees) high, stem purple; leaves 3-foliate or 3-lobed; flowers purplish-orange.  Rhizome 5-7.5 Cm. (2-3') long, 6 Mm. (1/4') thick, tuberculate, wrinkled, brownish-red; bark thin, wood-wedges white, pith large; aromatic, astringent, bitter; contains volatile oil, tannin, bitter principle.  Astringent, tonic; diarrhea, hemorrhage, leucorrhea, phthisis, scrofula, rheumatism, intermittents, dyspepsia, menstrual derangements; decoction, infusion, tincture.  Dose, gr. 15-30 (1-2 Gm.).


    Porteran'thus stipula'tus (Gille'nia stipula'cea), Indian Physic, and P. Trifolia'tus (G. Trifolia'ta), American Ipecac. -- The root, U.S.P. 1820-1870; United States; shrubs .6-1 M. (2-3 degrees) high, stems reddish-brown, leaves trifoliate; leaflets 5-10 Cm. (2-4') long, pubescent; flowers white, pink; root (rhizome) 12-25 Mm. (1/2-1') thick, with thin bark and many fissured rootlets, 3-6 Mm. (1/8-1/4') thick, bitter; contains gillenin, resin, tannin.  Emetic (substitute for ipecac), purgative, tonic; infusion, decoction, tincture; very popular with North American Indians.  Dose, emetic, gr. 15-30 (1-2 Gm.); tonic, gr. 2-5 (.13-.3 Gm.).


    Glau'cium Glaucium (lu'teum), Yellow Horned Poppy, and G. cornicula'tum. -- Both are similar to chelidonium; contain yellow juice and nearly identical alkaloids, hence used for about the same purposes.


    Glyc'ine (So'ja) his'pida, Soja Bean. -- Japan, cultivated S. Asia; contains casein 40 p.c., fixed oil 15-20 p.c., dextrin 10, starch 5, cellulose 5, water 10, amylolytic ferment.  Owing to the beans containing so little starch they are ground into flour, and made into bread for diabetic patients, in order to decrease sugar in the urine; plant -- turned under as a nitrogenous fertilizer to land.


    Glycyrrhiza glabra, Linne' + var. typica, Regel et Herder, glandulifera, Regal et Herder, or other varieties yielding a yellow sweet wood.  The dried rhizome and roots with not more than 2.5 p.c. of acid-insoluble ash.
    Habitat.  S. Europe, W. Asia, Syria, Persia, N. Africa; cult. In Russia, Spain, England,  France, Germany, United States, China; rich low-lands, river valleys.
    Syn.  Glycyrrh., Liquorice Root, Licorice, Sweet Wood, Italian Juice Root (Wood),  Spanish Juice Root, Radix Glycyrrhizae Hispanicae; Br. Glycyrrhizae Radix; Fr.  Reglisse, Bois de Reglisae--doux, Racine douce; Ger. Radix Liquiritiae, Sussholz,  Spanisches Suseaholz, Lakritzenholz.
    Glyc-yr-rhi'sa.  L. Fr. Gr.... -- ... , sweet, + ...  , root -- i.e., its saccarine taste  (Dioscorides).
    Gla'bra.  L. Glaber, smooth, hairless -- i.e., pods, leaves smooth on both sides.
    Glan-du-lif'e-ra. L. Glandula, a gland, + ferre, to bear -- i.e., pods covered with thick  glandular spines.
    Ty'pi-ca.  L. typicus, typical, representative--i.e., possessing the strongest  characteristics of its group.
    Lic'o-rice -- Liqu'uo-rice (lik'o-ris).  Fr. L. Liquiritia, corruption of glycyrrhiza.
    PLANTS. -- Perennial herbs; stem .6-1.5 M. (2-5 degrees) high, several from the (crown) thick rhizome; leaves imparipinnate; leaflets 4-7 pairs, ovate, entire, smooth, glutinous beneath, dark green; flowers yellowish-white or purplish, pulse-shaped, racemes; fruit legume, 2.5 Gm. (1') long, brown, ovate, flat, 1-celled, 1-6 (kidney-shape) seeded; G. glabra, var. glandulifera -- stem somewhat pubescent; leaves hairy, glandular beneath; legumes glandular, prickly.  RHIZOME (G. glabra, var. typica): Spanish, nearly cylindrical, upper portion somewhat knotty, usually in pieces 14-20 Cm. (6-8') long, 5-20 Mm. (1/5-4/5') thick, yellowish-brown to dark brown, longitudinally wrinkled; thinner rhizomes often having prominent alternate buds, thicker having distinct corky patches; fracture coarsely fibrous; internally yellow, radiate; bark 1-3 Mm. (1/25-1/8') thick; wood porous, in narrow wedges, rhizome with small pith -- none in roots; odor distinctive; taste sweetish, slightly acrid -- bark; (G. glabra, var. glandulifera): Russian, nearly cylindrical, somewhat tapering, sometimes split longitudinally, 15-30 Cm. (6-12') long, 1-5 Cm. (3/5-2') thick, pale yellow when deprived of outer corky layer; fracture coarsely fibrous; internally pale yellow; wood radially cleft; less sweet than preceding.  POWDER, brownish-yellow with reddish-brown cork cells (Spanish); pale yellow without reddish-brown cork cells (Russian) -- numerous wood-fibers, bast-fibers, and starch grains, .002-.02 Mm. (1/12500/1/1250') broad, tracheae, crystal-fibers with monoclinic calcium oxalate prisms.  Solvents: water, diluted alcohol.  Dose, gr. 15-60 (1-4 Gm.).
    ADULTERATIONS. -- The one variety of the root with the other, as they often are collected together; also the underground stem, which resembles the root, but has a thin central pith; roots of allied species (wood not yellow nor sweet), worm-eaten, decayed and discolored pieces, fibrous roots (little sweetness).
    Commercial. -- Plants, like lemon and orange, do not thrive in cold lattitudes, becoming woody and less sweet, and while formerly the wild grown, owing to hardy, persistent rapacious habit, supplied the demand, now it is cultivated extensively by planting cuttings in rows, 4 feet (1.3 M.) apart.  Roots are dug when sweetest, autumn of 4th year -- preferably of plants that have not borne fruit, a process that exhausts the sweetness of the sap, by removing the earth 2-3 feet (.6-1 M.) deep, the entire length of rows, thereby exposing subterranean portion and allowing easy pulling up of whole plants, from which roots are taken, cleaned, washed, trimmed, assorted, cut into suitable lengths, and marketed via Alicante, Tortosa, Hamburg, in bundles, bales, bags.  There are two varieties: 1, Spanish (Italian, Turkish, Alicante, Tortosa -- G. Glabra, var. typica), usually unpeeled and for a long time most esteemed, but as bitterness and acridity reside in the bark it now constitutes only one-tenth of that consumed; 2, Russian (G. glabra, var. glandulifera), usually peeled, larger, richer in glycyrhizin and extractives, and in far greater demand.  The Calabrian is preferred by many, while the Italian and Sicilian are consumed at home for making the extract.
    CONSTITUENTS. -- Glycyrrhizin, C44H63O18N, 6-8 p.c., Glycyramarin, C36H57O13N (bitter principle, mostly in the bark), sucrose, glucose, asparagin 2-4 p.c., fat .8 p.c., volatile oil .03 p.c., gum, tannin, starch, resin, yellow coloring matter, ash 5-7 p.c.
    Glycyrrhixin -- This is combined with ammonia, being called glycyrrhizate of ammonium or glycyrrhizic acid, C44H62O18N.NH4.  It is a tribasic acid (glucoside) obtained from cold infusion by coagulating albumin with heat, filtering, precipitating with sulphuric acid, washing precipitate with water, dissolving it in alcohol to which a little ether has been added (or in very weak ammonia water, 1 to 10), filtering, evaporating; it is very soluble in water, sparingly in alcohol, ether, when boiled with diluted sulphuric acid (by hydrolysis) splits into parasaccharic acid (glucose), C6H10O8, and bitter resinous glycyrrhetin, C32Y47O4N.
    PREPARATIONS. -- 1.  Extractum Glycyrrhizae.  Extract of Glycyrrhiza.  (Syn., Ext. Glycyrrh., Extract of Licorice, Extractum liquiritiae, Licorice; Fr. Suc (jus) de Reglisse, Sucre noir; Ger. Succus Liquritiae, Sussholzsaft, Lakritz, Lakritzensaft.)
    Manufacture: Evaporate decoction to proper consistence, pulverize or mold.  This is the commercial extract, in flattened, cylindrical masses or rolls, 15-18 Cm. (6-7') long, 15-30 Mm. (3/5-1 1/5') thick, glossy black, brittle, sharp, smooth conchoidal fracture; characteristic, sweet taste: yield 26-32 p.c., containing glycyrrhizin 10-24 p.c.; at least 60 p.c. soluble in cold water; powder brown; ash 8 p.c.  Dose, ad libitum.
    Preps.: 1.  Trochisci Ammonii Chloridi, 3 gr. (.2 Gm.).  2.  Pilulae Ferri Iodidi, N.F., 1/6 gr. (.01 Gm.).
    2.  Extractum Glycyrrhizae Purum.  Pure Extract of Glycyrrhiza.  (Syn., Ext. Glycyrrh. Pur., Pure Extract of Licorice Root; Br. Extractum Glycyrrhizae, Extractum Glycyrrhizae Depuratum; Fr. Extrait de Reglisse (pur); Ger. Succus Liquiritiae depuratus, Gereinigter Sussholzsaft.)
    Manufacture: Macerate, percolate, in metallic percolator, 100 Gm. with boiling water until exhausted; promptly evaporate to a pilular consistency; yield 16-25 p.c.  Dose, ad libitum.
    Prep.: 1. Fluidextractum Cascarae Sagradae Aromaticum, 4 p.c.
    3. Fluidextractum Glycyrrhizae.  Fluidextract of Glycyrrhiza.  (Syn., Fldext. Glycyrrh, Fluidextract of Licorice, Fluid Extract of Glycyrrhiza; Br. Extractum Glycyrrhizae Liquidum; Fr. Extrait fluide de Reglisse; Ger. Sussholzfluidextrakt.)
    Manufacture: Macerate 100 Gm. + 500 cc. boiling water 2 hours, pack in a tinned or enameled metallic percolator, exhaust with boiling water, promptly evaporate to 75 cc., cool, add alcohol 25 cc., mix, allow to stand 7 days in a stoppered container, decant clear liquid, filter remainder, wash residue with mixture alcohol 1, water 3, q.s. 100 cc.  Dose, mxv-60 (1-4 cc.).
    Preps.: 1.  Elixir Glycyrrhizae.  Elixir of Glycyrrhiza.  (Syn., Elix. Glycyrrh., Elixir Adjuvans, Elixir of Licorice, Flavoring Elixir; F. Elixir de Reglisse -- adjuvant; Ger. Gewurzhaftes Lakritzenelixir.)
    Manufacture: Mix fluidextract of glycyrrhize 12.5 cc. With aromatic elixir 87.5 cc., filter.  Dose. ad libitum; as a flavoring vehicle.
    2.  Mistura Glycyrrhizae Composita.  Compound Mixture of Glycyrrhiza.  (Syn., Mist. Glycyrrh. Co., Brown Mixture; Fr. Mixture de Reglisse; Ger. Lakritzenmixtur.)
    Manufacture: Dilute fluidextract of glycyrrhiza 12 cc. with glycerin 12, water 50, add     antimony and potassium tartrate .024 Gm., dissolved in hot water 1.2 cc., then camphorated tincture of opium 12, spirit of nitrous ether 3, and water q.s. 100 cc., mix. Dose, 3ss-4 (2-15 cc.).
    3.  Syrupus Sarsaparillae Compositus, 1.5 p.c.  4. Elixir Glycyrrhizae Aquosum, N.F., 15  p.c.: Prep.: 1. Elixir Cascarae Sagradae, N.F., 50 p.c.  5. Elixir Tarazaci Compositum,  N.F., 6 p.c.
    4.  Pulvis Glycyrrhizae Compositus.  Compound Powder of Glycyrrhiza.  (Syn., Pulv. Glycyrrh. Co., Compound Licorice Powder; Fr. Poudre pectorale de Reglisse composee; Ger. Pulvis Liquiritiae compositus (Pectoralis Kurellae), Brustpulver.)
    Manufacture: Mix oil of fennel .4 Gm. with sucrose 50 Gm., add glycyrrhiza 23.6, senna 18, washed sulphur 8; mix thoroughly, pass through No. 80 sieve.  It is greenish-yellow, fennel-like odor -- fragments of glycyrrhiza with yellow fibers, crystal-fibers, large tracheae, starch grains, .002-.02 Mm. (1/12500-1/1250') broad; fragments of senna with non-glandular hairs, epidermis, stomata with 2 neighboring cells, crystal-fibers.  Tests: 1. Moisten .1 Gm. with alcohol 2 cc, + water 10 cc., boil, cool, filter; filtrate -- pale yellowish-brown; + 1 drop of potassium hydroxide T.S.--changes at once to yellowish-red; should be free from hydrogen sulphide odor.  Dose, 3ss-2 (2-8 Gm.).
    5.  Massa Hydrargyri, 10 p.c.
    6.  Fluidglyceratum glycyrrhiae, N.F., 100 p.c.
    Preps.: 1. Syrupus Glycyrrhizae, N.F., 25 p.c., + syrup q.s. 100; or macerate root (20) in  water (100) + ammonia water (10) for 12 hours, filter, add syrup q.s. 100 parts; or mix  fluidextract (2) with syrup (8).  Dose, ad libitum; mostly for flavoring; 2. Elixir  Bromidorum Quinque, N.F., 8 p.c.; 3. Elixir Guaranae et Apii, N.F., 3 p.c.
    7. Fluidextractum Sarsaparillae Compositum, N.F. 12 p.c.  8. Fluidextractum Trifolii Compositum, N.F., 21.5 p.c.  9. Pilulae Ferri Iodidi, N.F., 2/3 gr. (.045 Gm.).  10. Pilueae Laxativae Compositae, N.F., 2/3 gr. (.045 Gm.).  11. Species Pectorales, N.F., 15 p.c.  12. Tinctura Aloes, N.F., 20 p.c.  13. Tinctura Aloes et Myrrhae, N.F., 10 p.c.  14. Tinctura Rhei Dulcis, N.F., 4 p.c.
    Unoff.  Preps.: Ammoniated Glycyrrhizin, gr. 5-15 (.3-1 Gm.).  Decoction, Infusion, each, 5 p.c.
    PROPERTIES. -- Demulcent, expectorant, laxative; locally--slight stimulant.  Increases, when chewed, the flow of saliva and mucus, which secretions are emollient to the throat.
    USES. -- Febrile catarrhal conditions, bronchitis, bowel and urinary affections; here should be prepared with flaxseed, rice, barley, or gum water.  In pharmacy used to mask taste of aloe, ammonium chloride, bitter sulphates, colocynth, guaiacum, hyoscyamus, mezereum, senega, senna, quinine, turpentine, etc.  Mechanically as an excipient and dryer in pills, troches, etc.
    Allied Plants:
    1. Glycyrrhiza echina-ta. -- Europe, Hungary, S. Russia; flowers in globular heads, pod ovoid with long spines.  G. Lepido'ta; United States (Mo., Minn.).
    2. A'brus precato'rius, Indian (Wild) Licorice, Jequirity, India, Brazil. -- Seed used as standard weight, and for criminal poisoning, although inert when taken whole; contain abrin, having the action of snake-venom, being cardiac depressant; root contains glycyrrhizin, but is a poor substitute for glygyrrhiza.
    3. Ono'nis spino'sa, Rest-harrow, Europe. -- Root .6 M. (2 degrees) long, 12 Mm. (1/2') thick; odor and taste similar to official glycyrrhiza.
    4. Ar'achis hypogae'a, Peanut, Groundnut. -- Tropical America, cult.  United States.  Small succulent plant, yielding abundant subterranean seed, which are edible, popular and contains fixed oil 45 p.c. suitable for replacing sesame or olive oil.


    Gnapha'lium obtusifo'lium (polyceph'alum), Common, Sweet, or Fragrant Life Everlasting. -- Annual erect herb, .3-1 M. (1-3 degrees) high, woolly, fragrant; leaves lanceolate, undulate, sessile, flowers in heads, clustered at summit of corymbose branches, obovate, whitish involucre, yellow, tubular, odor pleasant, bitter; contains volatile oil and bitter principle.  Used for diarrhea, hemorrhages, externally in fomentation and as a vulnerary to bruises, ulcers, etc.  Dose, 3ss-1 (2-4 Gm.).


    1. GOSSYPIUM PURIFICATUM.    Purified Cotton, U.S.P.
    2.  OLEUM GOSSYPII SEMINIS     Cottonseed oil, U.S.P.
    Gossypium herbaceum, Linne', or other species.   1.  The hairs of the seed of cultivated varieties, freed from adhering impurities and linters, and deprived of fatty matter.  2. The refined fixed oil from the seeds of cultivated varieties.
    Habitat.  C. Asia, India, China, Arabia, N. E. Africa, Egypt; cultivated in United States,  W. Indies, C. And S. America, N. Africa, Australia, Spain.
    Syn.1. Gossyp. Purif., Absorbent Cotton, Gossypium, Cotton, Cotton Wool; Fr. Coton;  Ger. Gossypium depuratum, Gereinigte Baumwolle.  2. Ol. Gossyp. Sem., Cotton Seed  oil; Fr. Huile (de Coton) de Semences de Cotonnier; Ger. Baumwollsamenol.
    Gos-syp-i-um.  L. fr. Ar. Goz, Gothn, a soft, milky substance -- i.e., the hairs of the  seeds.
    Her-ba'ce-um.  L. Herbaceus, grassy, herby -- i.e., the plant habit.
    PLANT. -- Small biennial or triennial shrub; stem branching, 1.5-3 M. (5-10 degrees) high, more or less woody; leaves hoary, palmately 3-5-lobed; flowers large, 5-7.5 Cm. (2-3') long and wide, yellow, purple spot near the claw; fruit capsule or boll 4-5 Cm. (1 3/5-2') long, 3-5-celled, opening by as many valves when ripe, revealing loose, white tuft of long, slender hair that surrounds each one of the numerous seeds.  HAIRS OF THE SEED, in white soft fine filaments, 12-37.5 Mm. (1/2-1 1/2') long; under microscope hollow, flattened, twisted bands, spirally striate, slightly thickened edges; odorless; almost tasteless; insoluble in ordinary solvents.  Tests: 1. Compress in the hand, throw upon cold water -- readily absorbs latter and sinks.  2. Incinerate 5 Gm. -- ash .2 p.c.  3. Thoroughly saturate 10 Gm. with water 100 cc., with glass rod press out 2 separate portions, 25 cc. each; first portion, + 3 drops of phenolphthalein T.S.--no pink color (abs. of alkali); second portion, + 1 drop of methyl orange T.S. -- no pink color (abs. of acid).  4. Exhaust 10 Gm. With ether q.s. 200 cc., evaporate to dryness-residue not over .6 p.c. (abs. of fatty matter).  5. Extract 10 Gm. with alcohol q.s. 50 cc.; observed downward through a column 20 Cm. I depth -- may show yellowish color, but no blue or green (abs. of dyes).  Impurities: Alkali, acid, fatty matter, dyes, water-soluble substances.  Solvent: Ammoniated cupric oxide T.S.  OIL OF THE SEEDS, a pale yellow, oily liquid, odorless, nearly odorless, bland taste, slightly soluble in alcohol; miscible with ether, chloroform, petroleum benzin, carbon disulphide, sp. gr. 0.9l8; on cooling below 12 degrees C. (54 degrees F.) particles of solid fat separate, and at -5 degrees C. (23 degrees F.) nearly or quite a solid.  Tests: 1.  Oil and carbon disulphide equal volumes + sulphuric acid (sp gr. 1.6-1.7) -- reddish-brown color rapidly produced.  2. Mix 2 cc. with 2 cc. of a mixture of equal vols. amyl alcohol and a 1 p.c. solution of precipitated sulphur in carbon disulphide, and immerse to one-third depth in boiling saturated aqueous solution of sodium chloride -- red color in 10-15 minutes.  Dose, 3ij-8 (8-30 cc.).
    SUBSTITUTIONS. -- I. HAIRS: Boehme'ria ni'vea, fiber may be used for cotton, lint, etc.  II.  OIL: 1, Brazil or Para Nut Oil; nuts 2.5-5 Cm. (1-2') long, 3-edged, brownish-gray kernel, white, almond taste; yield 60 p.c. oil; 2, Oleum Fagi, Beech Oil, from fruit of Fa'gus sylvat'ica, kernels yield 22 p.c. oil; yellow, sp. gr. 0.922, congeals at -17.5 degrees C. (0 degree F.).
    Commercial. -- Cotton was known to the Arabians, Egyptians, and Chinese in the 10th century, and was carried to Spain by the Moors in the 16th century.  The ancient Egyptians possibly were unacquainted with it, as their mummy fibers are all linen, and no seeds or paintings of plants are found in the tombs.  However, in Peru mummy clothing from earliest date contain, cotton, consequently here may be its original habitat.  Many species now give similar products, but our own is thought to be from G. Barbadense, Barbados Islans, W. Indies.  Chapman refers long-staple or Sea Island cotton, which we cultivate, to G. Ni'grum, and short-staple or Upland cotton to G. Al'bum.  The hairs are removed by hand or mill (cotton gin) from the seeds, and owing to the latter containing fixed oil, 15-20 p.c., a portion of it becomes absorbed by the attached fiber and must be eliminated before adapted for general use.  Purification is effected by boiling carded cotton in 5 p.c. solution of potassium or sodium hydroxide, washing with water to remove soap, expressing, adding 5 p.c. solution of chlorinated lime, allowing to stand half an hour, washing, expressing, adding acidulated (HCl 5 p.c.) water, washing, expressing -- a process that may be repeated if necessary, removing 7-10 p.c. of weight, chieflyfat.  The oil is obtained by cracking off testa, grinding and expressing kernels; at first it is thick, reddish-brown, turbid from albumen and mucilage, which mostly subside on standing, yielding orange-colored clarified oil; when this is treated with boiling water or superheated steam albuminoids are coagulated, giving lighter colored refined oil, which upon being bleached (agitated with alkaline solution and heated) yields winter-bleached oil; the loss in refining is 5-10 p.c., and as such is official.  It is exported extensively for olive oil adulteration, for which demand a line of tanked steamers ply regularly between New Orleans and Europe, each having a capacity of 500,000-1,000,000 gallons; 12,000-20,000 barrels (1894-3788 KI.).
    CONSTITUENTS. -- I. HAIRS: Cellulose (C6H10O5)x, inorganics 1.5 p.c., fixed oil 7-10 p.c.  II. OIL: Olein, palmitin, linolein, glyceride of linoleic acid, and non-saponifiable yellow coloring matter.
    PREPARATIONS. -- I. HAIRS: 1. Pyroxylinum.  Pyroxylin.  (Syn., Pyroxylin, Soluble Gun Cotton, Colloxylin, Collodion Cotton, Lana Collodii; Fr. Fulmicoton soluble; Ger. Kollodiumwolle.)
    Manufacture: Macerate purified cotton in a cooled mixture of 14 vols. of nitric acid and 22 vols. of sulphuric acid until the cotton is soluble in a mixture of 1 vol. of alcohol and 3 vols. of ether, remove adhering acid by washing first with cold, then boiling water, dry in small portions at 60 degrees C. (140 degrees F.).  It is a yellowish-white matted mass of filaments, resembling raw cotton in appearance, harsh to the touch, exceedingly inflammable, burning, when unconfined, very rapidly with luminous flame, less explosive than cellulose hexanitrate; kept in well-closed bottles exposed to light, decomposes with evolution of nitrous vapors, and carbonaceous residue; consists chiefly of cellulose tetranitrate, C12H16O6(NO3)4.  Tests.  1. Soluble slowly but completely in 25 parts of a mixture of 1 vol. Of alcohol and 3 vols. Of ether; soluble in acetone, glacial acetic acid, and precipitated from these solutions on the addition of water.  2. Saturate .5 Gm. With alcohol in a dish in cold water, ignite from top; when combustion complete, heat dish to redness -- ash .3 p.c.  3. Stir 1 Gm. + water 20 cc. For 10 minutes, filter -- filtrate shows no acid reaction; 10 cc. Evaporated to dryness on water-bath -- residue not more than .0015 Gm. (Abs. Of soluble substances).  Should be kept dark, dry, in cartons packed loosely.
    Prep.: 1. Collodion.  Collodion.  (Syn., Collod.; Fr. Collodion; Ger. Collodium, Kollodium.)
    Manufacture: Shake in a tared bottle collodion 95 Gm., castor oil 3, camphor 2, until latter dissolved.  Should be kept cool, remote from fire, in well-closed containers.
      Preps.: 1. Collodium Bituminis Sulphonati, N.F., 90 p.c.  2. Collodium Salicylicum Compositum, N.F., 90 p.c.  3. Collodium Stypticum, N.F., 90 p.c.; each should be kept cool, in tightly-stoppered bottles.
    2. Gossypium Stypticum, N.F. -- macerate 100 Gm. for 1 hour in solution of ferric chloride 80 cc., glycerin 16, water 225, press until it weighs 300 Gm., dry; keep in well-closed glass containers.  II. OIL: 1. Linimentum Camphorae, 80 p.c.  2. Ampullae Camphorae, N.F., q.s.  3. Unguentum Picis Compositum, N.F., 34 p.c.
    Unoff. Preps.: I. HAIRS: Medicated Cottons (borated, benzoinated, chlorinated, phenolated (carbolated), salicylated, iodoform, mercuric (bi)chloride, hemostatic, etc.); Iodine Collodion, 5 p.c.; Iodoform Collodion, 5 p.c., Croton Oil Collodion, 10 p.c.  II. SEED: Cottonseed Tea (mucilaginous drink for dysentery, diarrhea, etc.)
    PROPERTIES. -- I. HAIRS: Protective.  II. OIL: Demulcent, nutrient.
    USES. -- I. HAIRS: Dressing in burns, scalds, erysipilas, blisters, surgical wounds; prevents entrance of organic germs that cause suppuration and septic disease.  Cotton batting maintains local heat in pneumonia, rheumatism, and may be made into pessaries.  II. OIL: Like olive and almond oils in pharmacy, liniments, etc., in culinary use for lard; to adulterate olive oil, in preparing woollen cloth, morocco leather, lubricating machinery, etc.
    Derivative Product:
    L.  Gossypii (Radicis) Cortex, Cotton Root Bark, N.F. -- The recently gathered air-dried bark of the root of one or more cultivated varieties with not more than 5 p.c. of wood or other foreign organic matter.  Root-bark, in flexible bands, quilled pieces, up to 30 Cm. (12') in length, 1 Mm. (1/25') thick, orange-brown, smooth, usually finely wrinkled, fissured, roughened from exfoliation of corky layers, fuzzy; inner surface light brown, striate; fracture tough, fibrous, separable into fibrous layers; odor slight, taste slightly acrid.  Powder, brownish -- numerous bast-fibers, cortical parenchyma, starch grains, secretory reservoirs, medullary ray cells, calcium oxalate rosette crystals; solvents: diluted alcohol, boiling water; contains resin (acrid, colorless, soluble in water, becoming red on exposure and insoluble) 8 p.c., fixed oil, tannin, starch, ash 7 p.c.  Emmenagogue, oxytocic, uterine hemostatic, similar to ergot, but less reliable; dysmenorrhea, amenorrhea, uterine tumors and hemorrhages -- popular among negroes (who brought it from Africa) in Southern States for inducing abortion.  Dose, 3ss-1 (2-4 Gm.); 1. Fluidextractum Gossypii Corticis (alcohol), dose, 3ss-1 (2-4 cc.).  Decoction -- 3iv (120 Gm.) + water Oij (900 cc.), evaporated to Oj (450 cc.), 3ij (60 cc.), every half hour.  G. Barbaden'se, G. Arbo'reum, G, religio'sum (fibers yellow), etc., furnish products which may be used similarly to the official.


    Grindelia campo'rum,or G. Cuneifo'lia, G. Squarro'sa, Grindelia, Gum-plant, N.F. -- The dried leaves and flowering tops with not more than 10 p.c. of stems over 2 Mm. (1/12') thick, or 2 p.c. of other foreign organic matter; N. America, west of Rocky mountains.  Plants -- small perennial, woody herbs, .3-1 M. (1-3 degrees) high, bushy; stems and branches cylindrical, yellowish, pinkish, alternate leaf-scars and basal portions of leaves, sometimes flexuous and coated with resin, terminating in resinous flower-heads; leaves usually separate and broken, oblong, oblong-spatulate, 1-7 Cm. (2/5-3') long, sessile, or amplexicaul, serrate, yellowish-green, resinous, coriaceous, brittle; flower-heads 5-20 Mm. (1/5-4/5') broad, urceolate, resinous, involucre bracts numerous, imbricated with recurved tips; ray-florets yellowish-brown, ligulate and pistillate; disk-florets yellow, perfect, pappus of 2-3 linear arns; disk achenes ovoid, oblong, angled, irregular simmit; odor balsamic; taste aromatic, bitter, resinous.  Powder, yellowish-brown -- numerous fibrous fragments bearing tracheae with thickenings or pores, lignified wood-fibers, pith cells with protoplasm bearing spheroidal granules; fragments of leaf epidermis with polygonal areas, chloroplastids, glandular hairs, spherical pollen grains; solvent: alcohol; contains resin (activity), bitter principle 1-2 p.c., volatile oil, grindeline, fixed oil, tannin 1.5 p.c., ash 7-8 p.c.  Cardiac tonic (slows heart action), expectorant, antispasmodic, diuretic; asthma, bronchitis, whooping-cough, catarrh of bladder and uterus, poisoning by rhus toxicodendron -- in solution or poultice.  Dose, gr. 15-60 (1-4 Gm.); 1. Fluidextractum Grindeliae (75 p.c. alcohol), dose, mxv-60  (1-4 cc.).  Extract, gr. 5-15 (.3-1 Gm.).  Infusion.  Tincture.  G. Glutino'sum, stem often purplish tomentose, and G. Hirsu'tula, W. United States, being very similar are often collected and mixed with commercial drug.


    Guai'acum officina'le or G. Sanc'tum, Guaiac, Guaiac Resin, N.F. -- Zygophyllaceae.  The resin of the wood, yielding not more than 15 p.c. of residue insoluble in alcohol; W. Indies, S. America.  Small trees 6-9 M. (20-30 degrees) high, stem-bark ash-gray, striated, spotted; leaves paripinnte, yoked in pairs, evergreen; leaflets 2.5-4 Cm. (1-1 2/5') long; flowers large, blue; fruit 2-5-celled capsule; seeds black, red.  Wood (Lignum Vitae): sap yellowish, heart brownish, heavier than water, sp. Gr. 1.30, hard, dense, touch, resinous, with heat--emitting balsamic odor; taste slightly acrid; in shop as raspings.  Resin: in irregular fragments, large masses, tears, brown--greenish gray-brown on exposure; fracture with glassy luster, thin pieces translucent, reddish to yellowish-brown.  Powder, grayish, becoming green on exposure; odor balsamic; taste slightly acrid; soluble in alcohol, ether, chloroform, creosote, solutions of alkalies, chloral hydrate T.S., sparingly in carbon disulphide, benzene; alcoholic solution with excess of chlorine water or tincture ferric chloride--blue, changing quickly to green; solvents: alsohol, acetone, chloroform; contains quaiaretic acid, guaiaconic acid (alpha-resin) 50-70 p.c., guaiac beta-resin 10 p.c., gum 4-9 p.c., guaiacic acid, guaiac-yellow, by dry distillation get guaiacol.  Alterative, diaphoretic, expectorant, stimulant, antiseptic; rheumatism, gout, lumbago, syphilis, scrofula, amenorrhea, dysmenorrhea, diphtheria.  Dose, gr. 5-30 (.3-2 Gm.); 1. Tinctura Guaiaci, 20 p.c. (alcohol), dose mv-60 (.3-4 cc.); 2. Tinctura Guaiaci Ammoniata, 20 p.c. (sp. ammon. arom.), dose, mv-30 (.3-2 cc.): Prep.: 1. Gargarisma Guaiaci Compositum, 10 p.c. + tr. cinch. co. 10, honey 20, pot. chloras 4, +;   3. Tinctura Guaiaci Composita, Dewees' Tincture of Guaiac, 12.5 p.c., + pot. carb. .6, pimenta 3.2 (diluted alcohol), dose, mv-60 (.3-4 cc.).  Mixture (Br.), 2.5 p.c., 3iv-8 (15-30 cc.).  Lozenge (Br.), 3 gr. (.2 Gm.), Syrup.  G. Angustifo'lium; S. Texas, Mexico.  Wood hard, heavy, splitting irregularly, yellowish-brown; sometimes substituted for the preceding.


    Gua'rea (Sycocar'pus) Rus'byi, Cocillana, N.F. -- Meliaceae.  The dried bark with not more than 5 p.c. of wood or other foreign organic matter; Bolivia -- river-bottoms.  Tree resembles a large apple tree.  Bark, in flat, curved pieces, variable length and width, up to 2 Cm. (4/5') in thickness, externally fissured, gray-brown, ashy gray from lichens, orange-brown where cork removed, inner surface brownish, longitudinally striate; inner bark thicker than outer; fracture coarsely splintery-fibrous, soft; odor characteristic; taste slightly astringent, peculiar, slightly nauseous.  Powder, light brown -- lignified fibers, crystal-fibers, calcium oxalate prisms, medullary ray cells with brownish contents or starch grains, abundant stone cells, fragments of cork tissue; solvent: 75 p.c. alcohol; contains rusbyine, resins (2) alkaloid, fat, tannin, ash 10 p.c. (superior to ipecac), laxative, emetic, bronchitis, bronchial pneumonia, phthisis.  Dose, gr. 5-20 (.3-1.3 Gm.); 1. Fluidextractum Cocillanae.  Syrup, Elixir, each 10 p.c., dose, 3j-2 (4-8 cc.).

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