The Cayce Herbal 
 A Comprehensive Guide to the  
Botanical Medicine of Edgar Cayce
A Manual of Materia Medica and Pharmacology
by David M. R. Culbreth, Ph.G., M.D. (1927)

Ilex paraguensis

    I.  paraguensis (paraguaynensis), Mate Paraguay Tea. -- Brazil. Leaves contain caffeine .2-1.6 p. c., tannin 10-16 p. c., volatile oil, stearoptene, wax, glucoside, proteins 5 p. c., ash 4-8 p. c.


    Illicium verum, Star Anise. -- The fruit, U.S.P. 1880-1890; N. Annam, S. W. China (mountains). Small tree, 3-6 M. (10-20') high, branched; leaves evergreen, lanceolate, pointed, entire, pellucid-punetate, 5-15 Cm. (2-6) long; flowers greenish-yellow. Fruit (capsule-integuments 87 p. c., seed 22 p. c.), star-shaped, being composed of 8 stellately arranged boat-shaped carpels, 8 Mm. (1/3') long, woody, wrinkled, brown, dehiscent on upper suture; internally each carpel glossy, reddish-brown, containing 1 flattish, oval, glossy-brown seed; odor anise-like (anisa-tun); taste sweet, aromatic -- seed oily; contains (integuments) -- volatile oil (one of the sources of Oleum Anisi, U.S.P.) 5.3 p. c. (congeals at 1.0 C.; 340 F., and consists chiefly of anethol, resin 10.7 p. c., fixed oil 2.8 p. c., saponin, protocatechuic acid, shikimic acid, mucilage, ash 2 p. c.; (seed) -- volatile oil 1.8 p. c., resin 2.6 p. c., fixed oil 20 p. c.; solvents: alcohol, hot water partially. Adulteration: Poisonous fruit of the allied species, Illicium religiosum (anitatum). Carminative, anodyne, stimulant, diuretic; flatulent colic, indigestion, infantile catarrh, bronchitis, rheumatism, earache, flavoring. Dose, gr. 5-30 (.3-2 Gm.); infusion, 5 p. c., 3j-2 (30-M cc.); volatile oil Tqj-2 (M-.13 cc.).
    I.  religio'sun (anim'tum). -- Cultivated around Buddhist temples in China and Japan, being called Shikimi. Fruit very similar to the preceding, having 8 carpels, but is more woody and shriveled, with thin, upward-curved beak; odor faint, clove-like; taste unpleasant; contains .44 p. c. of a non-solidifying volatile oil, sp. gr. 0.990, shikimic acid, sikimipierin (crystalline, bitter), and sikimin (poisonous). The oil consists of a terpene, safrol, C,10H10O2, eugenol, C10H12O2, and liquid anethol. The fruit is used natively for killing rats, fish, etc., the latter serving as food in spite of the poison. Upon persons it causes vomiting, epileptiform convulsions, and dilated pupils; L floridalnum and L parviforum; Fla., Ga., La.; the former has fruit with 13 carpels, the latter with only 8; barks are substituted sometimes for cascarilla.


    Inula Helenium, Inula Elecampane, N.F. -- The dried rhizome and roots with not more than 5 p. c. of stem-bases nor 2 p. c. of other foreign organic matter; C. and S. Europe, C. Asia. Perennial herb 1-2 M. (3-6*) high; stem thick, solid, striate, villous; leaves large, .3-.5 M. (10-18') long, 10-20 Cm. (4-8) broad, ovate, serrate, pubes-cent beneath, long-petioled, fleshy midrib; flowers large, 6 Cm. (2 2/5') broad, single, golden-yellow. Rhizome, dug in autumn of second year, usually split into longitudinal, oblique pieces having one or more roots; up to 8 Cm. (3') long, 4 Cm. (1 3/5') thick, grayish-brown, longitudinally wrinkled with occasional buds or stem-scars, surmounted at crown by portion of over-ground stem; inner (cut) surface concave, edges incurved with the overlapping bark, yellowish-brown, striate, fibrous near cambium zone; fracture short, horny; internally light brown, with many oleoresin canals; roots cylindrical, tapering, curved, curled, up to 13 Cm. (51') long, 1.5 Cm. (1') thick; odor aromatic; taste acrid, bitter, pungent. Powder, light brown-fragments of parenchyma having inulin and small separate masses of inulin; tracheae with pores, thickenings, occasional lignified wood-fibers and brownish fragments of was of oleoresin canals; solvents: alcohol, water partially; contains volatile oil, acrid resin, bitter principle, inulin, helenin, wax, ash 10 p. c.  Stimulant, diaphoretic, diuretic, expectorant, emmenagogue, tonic; lung diseases, bronchitis, vesical catarrh, amenorrhea, dyspepsia, skin affections, dropsy, whooping-cough, diphtheria. Dose, 3 ss-1 (2-4 Gm.);
    1. Pilulae Antiperiodicae, gr. 1 (.016 Gm.);
    2. Tinctura Antiperiodicae, 1 p. c. Decoction, 5 p. c., 3 j-2 (30-60 cc.); Fluidextract, 3ss-1 (2-4 cc.); Infusion, 5 p. c., 3j-2 (30-W cc.). 1. squarrosa, S. Europe. Leaves tomentose, rugose, ray-florets 3. cleft, tubular; emmenagogue, diuretic; powder burned to repel insects. Pulicarea (Inula) dysenterica, Fleawort, and Carlina acaulis, Carline Thistle, Radix Carlinae; Europe -- both have constituents and properties similar to elecampane; diaphoretic, diuretic, large doses purgative; typhoid condition, impotence, amenorrhea, paralysis of the tongue. Dose, gr. 10-20 (.6-13 Gm.).

Ipomoea orizabensis

    Ipomoea orizabensis, Ledenois.  The dried root, yielding not less than 15 p.c. total resins nor more than 3 p.c. acid-insoluble ash.
    Habitat.  Mexico -- eastern slopes of Mexican Andes, rainy atmosphere.
    Syn.  Ipom., Orizaba Jalap Root, Mexican Scammony Root, Fusiform, Light, or Woody  Jalap; Br. Ipomoea Radix.
    Ip-o-momos'a.  L. Fr. Gr...., ..., a worm, bindweed, + ..., like, resembling -- i.e., from the  stems' twining habit, resembling the contortions of a worm.
    O-ri-sa-ben'sis.  L. of or belonging to Oriza'ba, a Mexican city, around which it  grows and is collected.
    PLANT. -- A climbing vine resembling closely our common "Morning glory," I. purpu'rea; stem cylindrical, villous; leaves large, petiolate, cordate, acuminate, villous on veins; corolla campanulate, reddish-purple; fruit capsule, 2-locular, 1-seeded.  ROOT, large, .3-.6 M. (1-2 degrees) long, fusiform, branching, yellowish, internally whitish; usually in nearly flat transverse slices, 2-12 Cm. (4/5-5') broad, 1-5.5 Cm. (2/5-2 1/5') thick, brownish, deeply wrinkled, fracture tough, fibrous, cut surface light brown, showing concentric rings from which coarse fibers protrude; odor distinct, aromatic; taste slightly sweet, acrid.  POWDER, light grayish-brown--starch grains, .003-.035 Mm. (1/8325-1/710') broad, numerous calcium oxalate crystals, mostly in rosette aggregates, occasionally rhombohedra; fragments of yellowish-brown resin cells, tracheae, wood-fibers, Solvent: alcohol.  Dose, gr 10-30 (.6-2 Gm.).
    Commercial. -- Ipomoea root has been made official to replace the more acceptable Levant Scammony Root for some years unobtainable.  The two roots differ strikingly in marketable form, Ipomoea being cut when fresh into disks, rapidly dried in the sun, and shipped from Mexico City; internally unlike scammony in not being mottled, in showing regular concentric wood-bundles, in having no stone cells, and calcium oxalate crystals in rosette aggregates rather than monoclinic prisms.
    CONSTITUENTS. -- Resin (jalapin, orizabin) 15-18.5 p.c. (75-90 p.c. ether-soluble), starch, gum, tannin, ash 9.89 p.c.
    PREPARATIONS. -- 1. Resina Ipomoeae.  Resin of Ipomea.  (Syn., Res. Ipom.; Br. Scammoniae Resina, Scammony Resin.)
    Manufacture: Macerate, percolate 100 Gm. with alcohol until percolate when dropped into water produces only slight turbidity, reclaim alcohol until percolate reduced to a thin syrup, and pour this slowly, stirring constantly, into hot water 100 cc., let resin subside, decant supernatant liquid, wash resin twice by decantation, each time with hot water 100 cc., dry on water-bath.  It is in translucent, brownish masses, fragments; fracture resinous, glossy; odor characteristic; soluble in alcohol, chloroform, ether (80-90 p.c.), petroleum benzin loses not more than 1 p.c. (abs. of water).  2. Dissolves in ammonia T.S. (5) or potassium hydroxide T.S. (5) with turbidity -- not gelatinous on standing; these solutions, + little hydrochloric acid -- only slight turbidity (abs.of rosin, guaiac, other resins).  3. Triturated with distilled water -- latter not colored, as it dissolves none of the resin (abs. of soluble impurities), nor does it acquire bitter taste (abs. of aloin).  Impurities: Rosin, guaiac, aloin, water-soluble substances, other resins.  Dose, gr. 1-5 (.06-.3 Gm.).
    Preps.: 1. Extractum Colocynthidis Compositum, 14 p.c.  2. Tinctura Jalapae Composita, N.F., 3 p.c.
    PROPERTIES. -- Hydragogue, cholagogue cathartic: Root seldom employed internally; resin similar to that of scammony, but a greater irritant and nauseant which may be overcome by combination with other cathartics, and aromatics.
    USES. -- Dropsies, cerebral affections, torpid intestines with slimy mucus.
    Poisoning: Same as for aloe, colocynth, jalap, etc.
    Ipomoe'a pandura'ta (Convolvulus pandura'tus), Wild Potato or Jalap, Man Root, Man of the Earth. -- The root, U.S.P. 1820-1850; United States.  Plant recognized by its fiddle-shaped leaves, stem purplish, climbing 3.5-4.5 M. (12-15 degrees) high; flowers campanulate, white, purplish; root conical, .6-1 M. (2-3 degrees) long, 5-7.5 Cm. (2-3') thick, in slices, wrinkled, brownish-yellow, milky inside, bark thin with a zone of resin-cells, odor slight, taste sweetish, bitter, acrid; contains resin 1-2 p.c. (glucoside).  Diuretic, cathartic in strangury, calculi.  Dose, gr. 15-60 (1-4 Gm.).
    I. Sim'ulans, Tampico Jalap. -- Root irregularly globular or elongated, deeply wrinkled, no transverse ridges -- as in the official; yields resin (tampicin) 10-15 p.c., nearly all being soluble in ether, and believed identical with resin of scammony.

Ipomea purga

    Exogonium Jalapa, (Nuttall et Coxe) Baillon.  The dried tuberous root, yielding not less than 7 p.c. of the total resins.
    Habitat.  E. Mexico, in damp, rich, shady woods; cultivated in India.
    Syn.  True Jalap, Vera Crux Jalap, Radix Jalapae; Fr. Jalap -- tubereux -- officinal; Ger.  Tubera Jalapae, Jalapenwursel, Jalapenknollen, Jalape.
    Ex-o-go'ni-um..  L. fr. Gr...., outside, + ..., offspring -- i.e., parts of generation  (stamens, pistil) exserted -- extended above corolla.
    Jal'a-pa.  L. named after Jalapa or Xalapa, a city in Mexico, whence imported.  Jal'ap.  Formerly jal'op, English abbreviation from Jalapa.
    PLANT. -- Perennial twining herb; stems numerous, slender, twisted, furrowed, smooth, purplish, 3.6-6 M. (12-20 degrees) long, twining around neighboring objects; leaves exstipulate, 12-12.5 Cm. (4-5') long, cordate, entire, smooth, pointed, under side paler, prominently veined, on long petioles; flowers (Sept.-Nov., purple, salver-shaped, tube 5 Cm. (2') long, limb 5-7.5 Cm. (2-3') wide, in 3-flowered cymes, stamens exserted (exogonium).  ROOT, fusiform, irregularly ovoid, pyriform, 4-15 Cm. (1 3/5-6') long, 1-10 Cm. (2/5-4') thick, often incised or cut into pieces; dark brown, longitudinally wrinkled or furrowed, numerous lenticels; hard, compact; not fibrous, internally grayish-brown, with distinct brown cambium line; odor slight, distinctive, smoky; taste somewhat sweet, acrid, POWDER, light brown -- numerous starch grains, .003-.035 Mm. (1/8325-1/725') broad, concentric or excentric lamellae, calcium oxalate rosette aggregates, tracheae, simple pores, secretory cells with yellowish-brown resinous contents.  Solvents: diluted alcohol extracts virtues completely; water or alcohol alone only partially, each taking out a portion of purgative property, the alcoholic solution being more griping than the aqueous.  Dose, gr. 5-20 (.3-1.3 Gm.).
    ADULTERATIONS. -- False Jalap roots (Ipomaea simulans, I. Orizabensis), and roots of allied species; immature jalap roots, collected at improper times and containing very little resin; jalap roots deprived of resin by soaking in alcohol, becoming sticky to the touch, darker internally and thereby easily recognized; roots of other species of Exogonium and Ipomaea genera; mealy jalap, resembling the true root, but with mealy fracture and very few resin cells.
    Commercial. -- Plant resembles our Morning-glory, demands rich forest-loam and a climate suitable to Cinchona; grows on the eastern slope of the Mexican Andes, 1,500-2,400 M. (5,000-8,000 degrees) elevation, flourishes well in the Neilgherry, India, and is cultivated in Jamaica.  It is trained upon trellises and various supports, and not disturbed until 3 years old and only thereafter every third year.  Roots are dug in all seasons (hence varying appearance and strength), but chiefly in the spring, when young shoots appear, and in the autumn (best), after aerial stems have decayed, then washed, placed into nets and dried by holding over fire (there being no sunshine during the rainy season), which imparts a slight smoky odor and hydrates much of the quarters, or transversely that tends to make it less desirable; after drying it is put into bags (100-200 pounds; 45-90 Kg.) and shipped from Vera Cruz.
    CONSTITUENTS. -- Resin 7-15-22 p.c., starch, gum 15 p.c., sugar 2 p.c., bassorin, coloring matter, ash 5-6.5 p.c.
    Resin. -- Consists of: 1. Jalapin (probably identical with scammonin), 4-10 p.c., soft, waxy, soluble in ether, alkalies, reprecipitated by acids, and medicinally inert.  2. Jalapurgin, rhodeoretin, convolvulin, C62H100O32, 90-96 p.c., a white, odorless glucoside, hard, insoluble in ether, soluble in alkalies, more of an irritant than jalapin and the chief active constituent; converted by alkalies into jalapurgic (convolvul(in)ic acid, which is soluble in water), C28H52O14, by warming with diluted acids or emulsin into glucose, volatile methyl-ethyl-acetic acid, C5H10O2, and convolvulic acid, and this latter by continued action into glucose and crystalline convolvulinolic acid, C16H30O3; the name jalapin has unfortunately been assigned to both resins.
    PREPARATIONS. -- 1. Pulvis Jalapae Compositus.  Compound Powder of Jalap.  (Syn., Pulv. Jalap. Co., Pulvis Purgans -- Catharticus or Jalapae tartaratus; Fr. Poudre de Jalap composee; Ger. Jalapenpulver mit Weinstein.)
    Manufacture: 35 p.c.  Triturate together jalap 35 Gm., potassium bitartrate 65; mix thoroughly, pass through No. 60 sieve.  It is light brown -- numerous sharp, angular, colorless, rectangular fragments, straight-edged, slowly soluble in water or chloral hydrate T.S., strongly polarizing light with strong display of colors (fragments of potassium bitartrate crystals); other elements of identification -- tissues of jalap.  Dose, gr. 15-60 (1-4 Gm.).
    2. Resina Jalapae.  Resin of Jalap.  (Syn., Res. Jalap.; Br. Jalapae Resina; Fr. Resine de Jalap; Ger. Jalapenharz.)
    Manufacture: Macerate, percolate 100 Gm. with alcohol until the percolate when dropped into water only produces slight turbidity (250 cc.), reclaim alcohol until percolate reduced to 25 Gm., and add this, constantly stirring, to water 300 cc., let precipitate subside, decant supernatant liquid, wash precipitate twice by decantation, each time with hot water 100 cc., drain, dry on water-bath.  It is in yellowish-brown masses, fragments, breaking with resinous, glassy fracture, translucent at edges, or yellowish-brown powder, slight, peculiar odor, somewhat acrid taste, permanent, soluble in alcohol, insoluble in carbon disulphide, benzene, fixed or volatile oils; alcoholic solution faittly acid.  Tests: 1. Shake occasionally for an hour in a stoppered flask 1 Gm. With 20 cc. of chloroform, wash flask and filter with 3 successive 5 cc. portions of chloroform, evaporate combined filtrates, dry residue -- should weigh .3 Gm.  2. Dissolve in ammonia water (5) -- solution not gelatinous on standing; acidify with hydrochloric acid -- only slight turbidity (abs. of rosin, guaiac, other resins).  Impurities: Rosin, guaiac, aloin, acid resins, other resins, water, soluble substances.  Dose, gr. 1-5 (.06-.3 Gm.).
    Preps.: 1. Pilulae Hydrargyri Chloridi Mitis Compositae, 1/3 gr. (.02 Gm.).  2. Pilulae  Catharticae Vegetabiles, N.F., 1/3 gr. (.02 Gm.).  3.  Fluidextractum Jalapae, N.F., 100 p.c. root (7 p.c. resin -- alcohol).  Dose, mij-10 (.3- .6 cc.).
    4. Tinctura Jalapae, N.F., 20 p.c. root (1.4 p.c. resin -- 67 p.c. alcohol).  Dose, 3ss-1 (2-4  cc.).
    5.Tinctura Jalapae Composita, N.F., 12.5 p.c. (root) + resin of ipomoea 3 p.c. (67 p.c.  alcohol).  Dose, 3ss-1 (2-4 cc.).
    Unoff. Preps.: Abstract (alcohol), gr. 2-5 (.13-.3 Gm.).  Extract (alcohol, gr. 2-10 (.13-.6  Gm.).
    PROPERTIES. -- Hydragogue cathartic, diuretic.  Has no effect until the duodenum is reached, where with the bile it forms a purgative compound that stimulates vascularity, peristalsis, and profuse secretion from intestinal glands, with no action on biliary flow; usually acts in 4 hours.  It is less irritating than gamboge, podophyllum, or scammony, but occasionally gripes, nauseates and vomits.  Often given to children for worms, as it has little taste and a safe action.  Excessive doses produce dangerous hypercatharsis.  Jalapurgin (convolvulin) in large doses is likewise an active irritant or poison.
    USES. -- Dropsy, constipation, in febrile and inflammatory affections, head troubles; was introduced into Europe early in the 17th century and is even now quite popular, being combined usually with calomel, cream of tartar, etc.

Iris versicolor

    I'ris versic'olor, Blue Flag, N.F. -- Iridaceae.  The dried rhizome with not more than 5 p.c. of roots and leaf bases or other foreign organic matter; N. America; swampy places.  Perennial herb, .6-1 M. (2-3 degrees) high; stem angled on one side, branched; leaves narrow, equitant, sword-shaped; flowers lily-like, beautiful purplish-blue, with yellowish and whitish markings at base of sepals.  Rhizome, often branched, 5-20 Cm. (2-8') long, 3 Cm. (1 1/5') thick at nodes, usually cut pieces, grayish-brown, annulate, markings of leaf bases above, root-scars and remnants below; fracture short, yellowish, exhibiting central stele, whitish fibro-vascular bundles, distinct endodermis and cortex; odor slight, not distinctive; taste acrid, nauseous.  Powder, brownish -- resin cells filled with amorphous substance, starch grains, calcium oxalate prisms, tracheae with markings, pores, few fibers; contains extract (resin) 25 p.c., volatile oil .025 p.c., isophthalic acid, sugar, phytosterol, myricyl alcohol, heptatosane, ipuranol, cerotic acid, ash 7 p.c.  Cholagogue, emetic, diuretic, alterative; costiveness, malarial jaundice, bilious remittent fever, dropsy; very nauseating and prostrating; hepatic stimulant equal to podophyllum and less irritating, more pungent than euonymus.  Dose, gr. 5-20 (.3-1.3 Gm.); 1. Fluidextractum Iridis Versicoloris (alcohol), dose, mv-20 (.3-1.3 cc.): Prep.: 1. Elixir Corydalis Compositum, 9 p.c.; 2. Fluidextractum Stillingiae Compositum, 12.5 p.c.: Prep.: 1. Syrupus Stillingiae Compositus, 25 p.c.  Extract, gr. 1-4 (.06 -.26 Gm.); Irisin, iridin ("Eclectic" oleoresin or resinoid), gr. 1-4 (.06-.26 Gm.).

Iris versicolor

    Iris florenti'na or I. German'ica, or I. Pal'lida, Orris (Florentine), Orris Root, N.F. -- The rhizome with not more than 1 p.c. of foreign organic matter.  N. Italy (near Florence), Germany, France.  Perennial plant, leaves radical, sword-shape, shorter than stem, which rises in their midst (.3-.6 M.; 1-2 degrees) high, bearing 2 large white or bluish flowers; fruit capsule, 3-celled, many-seeded.  Rhizome, various formed and sized pieces, usually jointed, branched, 5-10 Cm. (2-4') long, 1.5-3 Cm. (3/5-1 1/5') wide, knotty enlargements; leaf-scars above, numerous root-scars below, yellowish-white; fracture hard, rough, mealy, narrow cortex, distinct endodermis, large stele, many vascular bundles; odor fragrant, resembling violet; taste aromatic, bitterish.  Powder, light yellow--parenchyma cells filled with characteristic starch grains, tracheae with markings, calcium oxalate prisms; solvent: alcohol; contains volatile oil (orris butter), iridin, starch, resin, tannin, ash 5 p.c.  Stimulant, diuretic, emetic, cathartic; fresh root irritant; diarrhea, bronchitis, dropsy, tooth powder, masticatory for perfuming breath and teething infants; for this latter the more slender pieces are peeled smoothly and whitened with chalk or magnesium oxide; 1. Species Pectorales, 5 p.c.  Adulterations: Rhizomes of I. pseudac'orus and I. foetidis'sima, both being somewhat darker, more astringent and acrid.

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