The Cayce Herbal 
 A Comprehensive Guide to the  
Botanical Medicine of Edgar Cayce
A Manual of Materia Medica and Pharmacology
by David M. R. Culbreth, Ph.G., M.D. (1927)


    Lactu'ca viro'sa, Lactucarium, Wild Lettuce. -- The dried milk-juice, U.S.P. 1820-1910; C. and S. Europe.  Biennial herb .6-2 M. (2-6 degrees) high, glabrous, green, often purple spotted; leaves runcinate, radical and cauline, spinous apex and margin, auriculate, glaucous-green, flowers yellowish, milk-juice (lactucarium) usually in quarter sections, angular pieces, brownish, fracture tough, waxy; internally light brown, porous; odor distinctive, opium-like; taste bitter.  Powder, brownish--irregular fragments without cellular structure.  It is obtained by cutting off the head of each stalk and scraping the exuding juice into small vessels, repeating the process 6-7 times daily for several weeks, each cut being made a little lower down the stalk; by night, having become a viscid mass, it is divided into suitable pieces and dried by gentle artificial heat for 5 days, losing 75 p.c. in weight; solvents: water (51 p.c.), diluted alcohol (36-44 p.c.), spirit of chloroform (55-60 p.c.), being mostly lactucerin (lactucon) 50-60 p.c.,  lactucin, lactucic acid, lactucopicrin, caoutachoue, resin, volatile oil, ash 10 p.c.  With water--turbid mixture; + iodine T.S. -- not colored blue (abs. of starch); + ferric chloride T.S. -- only faint green (abs. of tannin).  There are three varieties: 1, English; 2, German; 3, French (Aubergier's).  The juice of L. Sati'va, obtained like lactucarium, yields Lactucarium Gallicum, and when expressed from the stalks, clarified by coagulation, expressed and inspissated -- Thridace.  Anodyne, sedative, hynotic, diuretic, expectorant, very unreliable; milder than opium, and unlike it, does not derange the digestive organs; where opium is objectionable -- to procure sleep, allay cough, dropsy, palpitation of heart, nervousness.  Dose, gr. 1-8 -- 15 (.06-.5 -- 1 Gm.): Tincture, 50 p.c., dose, 3ss-1 (2-4 cc.); Syrup, 5 p.c., dose, 3j-4 (4-15 cc.; Fluidextract, dose, mj-30 (.06-2 cc.); Lozenge. L. Canaden'sis (elonga'ta), Wild Lettuce, U.S.P. 1820-1840.  The herb; N. America, rich damp soil, fields, thickets; herb 1.3-3M. (4-10 degrees) high, hollow, purple leafy, glaucous; leaves 15-30 Cm. (6-12') long, pinnatifid; flowers yellow to purple, heads 20-flowered, panicles.  Juice from plants in flower make good lactucarium, that collected in early season being without bitterness.  L. Sati'va, Garden Lettuce, yields a juice that is medicinal and more abundant in wild than cultivated plants; highly valued as salad and as such is a feeble hypnotic.  L. Sagitta'ta (altis'sima), large Caucasian plant 2.5-3 M. (8-10 degrees) high, chiefly cultivated in France.


    Lau'rus no'bilis, Laurel, Sweet Bay. -- The leaves and fruit; Mediterranean Basin.  Leaves 5-10 Cm. (2-4') long, pellucid-punctate, smooth, aromatic, astringent; fruit (bayberries) oval drupes 12 Mm. (1/2') long; contain volatile oil, fixed oil (Oleum Lauri) 30 p.c.; stimulant, astringent, stomachic.


    Oleum Lavandulae.  Oil of Lavender, U.S.P.
    Lavandula spica, Linne'. A volatile oil distilled from the fresh flowering tops, yielding not less than 30 p.c. esteres, calculated as linalyl acetate.
    Habitat.  S. Europe (France, Italy, Spain), N. W. Africa -- sunny hills and mountains;  cultivated.
    Syn.  True (Garden, Spike, Common) Lavender, Flores Lavandulae; Fr. Lavande Vraie, -- officinale; Ger. Lavendelbluten; Ol. Lavand, Oleum Lavandulae Florum, U.S.P. 1900; Fr.  Essence de Lavande; Ger. Lavendelol.
    La-van'du-la.  L. fr. laso, lavare, to wash -- i.e., medieval name, in allusion to the use  made of its distilled water for bathing.
    Spi'ca.  L. Spica, a point, spike -- i.e., flowers arranged in a spike: terminal cluster.
    PLANT. -- Shrub .3-1 M. (1-3 degrees) high; stem crooked, branched, bark brownish-gray, much cleft when old; leaves linear, sessile, entire, revolute margins, with whitish down, crowded at bases of the quadrangular branches; flowers June-July, lilac-color, terminal spikes, 2-lipped, hairy, glandular; entire plant delightfully fragrant.
    CONSTITUENTS. -- Volatile oil 1-3 p.c., resin, tannin.
    Oleum Lavandulae.  Oil of Lavender. -- A colorless, yellow liquid, characteristic odor and taste of lavender flowers, soluble in 3 vols. of 70 p.c. alcohol, sp. gr. 0.881, levorotatory; contains a terpene, C10H16, 2 alcohols -- geraniol, C10H18O, and (chiefly) linalool, C10H18O, also, its compound ester -- linalyl acetate, C10H17C2H3O2, 30-36 p.c., upon which the value depends, and a little cineol -- a large quantity of this latter proving the presence of oil of spike (wild broad-leaved variety).  When cold deposits stearoptene, and if distilled from leaves and stalks the odor is more rank.  Tests: 1. Shake in a narrow glass cylinder with equal volume of distilled water--volume not diminished (abs. of alcohol).  The French oil is from flowers, sometimes including leaves, of wild plants collected July-Sept., the late and high altitude products being best -- chief commercial article; the English oil (oil of garden lavender) is solely from flowers of cultivated plants, the yield being small and price high.  Should be kept cool, ark, in well-stoppered amber-colored bottles.  Dose, mj-5 (.06-.3 cc.).
    ADULTERATIONS. -- Oil of turpentine -- less soluble in alcohol; oil of sweet basil (Oc'imum Basil'icum), Asia, Africa -- plant cultivated in gardens for seasoning food and for its white or reddish flowers; oil balsamic, aromatic, possessing a cooling taste.
    PREPARATIONS. -- 1. Spiritus Lavandulae.  Spirit of Lavender.  (Syn., Sp. Lavand.; Fr. Alcoolat (Esprit, Eau) de Lavande; Ger. Lavendel-spiritus.)
 Manufacture: 5 p.c.  Dissolve oil 5 cc. in alcohol q.s. 100 cc.  Dose, 3ss-1 (2-4 cc.).
    2.  Tinctura Lavandulae Composita.  Compound Tincture of Lavender.  (Syn., Tr. Lavand. Co., Compound Spirit of Lavender, Lavender Drops; Fr. Teinture de Lavande composee; Ger. Zusammengestzte Lavendeltinktur.)
    Manufacture: 4/5 p.c.  Similar to Tinctura Cardamomi Composita, page 137 -- using oil of lavender .8 cc., oil of rosemary .2, cinnamon 2 Gm., clove .5, myristica 1, red saunders 1, macerating powders in alcohol 75 cc., in which the oils have been dissolved, and water 25 cc., finishing with 75 p.c. alcohol.  Dose, 3ss-1 (2-4 cc.).
    Prep.: 1. Liquor Potassii Arsenitis, 3 p.c. (arsenic trioxide 1 p.c., potassium bicarbonate 2 p.c.).
    3.  Linimentum Saponis Mollis, 2 p.c.  4. Spiritus Ammoniae Aromaticus, 1/10 p.c.  5. Unguentum Plumbi Oleatis, 1 p.c.  6. Acetum Aromaticum, N.F., 1/20 p.c.  7. Mistura Oleo-Balsamica, N.F., 3/5 p.c.  8. Oleum Hyoscyami Compositum, N.F., 1/5 p.c.  9. Petroxolinum             Liquidum, N.F., ½ p.c.  10. Petroxolinum Spissum, N.F., 3 p.c.  11. Spiritus Odoratus, N.F., 2/5 p.c.
    Unoff. Preps.: Water, 1/5 p.c.  Infusion and Fomentation (flowers).
    PROPERTIES. -- Stimulant, carminative, nervine, errhine.
    USES. -- Gastralgia, nausea, flatulence, to correct nauseating medicines, nervous headache; mostly in perfumery.
    Flowers, U.S.P. 1840-1880.  Oil of Lavender Flowers, U.S.P. 1880-1900, distilled from the fresh flowers.  L. Stae'chas. Arabian (French) Lavender, has dark purple flowers aromatic camphoraceous odor, and is used with other varieties for obtaining the oil.


    Limo'nium carolinia'num (Stat'ice Limo'nium var. Carolinia'na), Marsh Rosemary. -- Plumbaginaceae.  The root, U.S.P. 1830-1870; N. America.  Plant a maritime perennial, acaulescent; leaves 2.5-4 Cm. (1-1 3/5') long, obovate, cuneiform, entire, mucronate, scape .3-.6 M. (1-2 degrees) high, terete, corymbose panicles; flowers lavender color; root .3-.6 M. (1-2 degrees) long, 2.5 Cm. (1') thick, annulate, wrinkled, purplish-brown, astringent, bitter; contains tannin 14-18 p.c., volatile oil, resin.  Astringent like catechu or kino; aphthous and ulcerative affections of the mouth, fauces, hemorrhages, dysentery; in decoction, infusion, tincture.  Dose, gr. 5-30 (.3-2 Gm.).


    Ben'zoin (Lin'dera) Benzoin, Spice or Benjamin Bush. -- N. America, damp woods.  Shrub 2-4.5 M.( 6-15) degrees) high, smooth; bark mostly used, berries and leaves to some extent; tonic, aromatic stimulant, diaphoretic; berries for allspice.  Dose, gr. 15-60 (1-4 Gm.).


    Linum usitatissimum Linne'.  The dried ripe seed with not more than 2 p.c. other seeds or foreign organic matter, yielding not less than 30 p.c. non-volatile, ether-soluble extractive -- 98 p.c. being saponifiable.
    Habitat.  C. Asia, Egypt, S. Europe, spontaneous in most temperate countries; cultivated  in Russia, Egypt, India, United States, S. Europe, England, Holland.
    Syn.  Flaxseed Flax, Lint-bells, Winter lien; Br. Lini Semina, Lini Semina Contusa  (Crushed); Fr. Lin, Semence (Graine) de Lin; Ger. Semen Lini, Leinsamen, Flachssamen.
    Li'num.  L. See etymology, page 330, of Linaceae.
    U-si-ta-tis'si-mum.  AS. fleaz, flechten, to braid, plait, twist -- i.e., its fibers, + seed.
    PLANT. -- An annual; stem .6 M. (2 degrees) high, stiff, erect, solitary, round, smooth, green; leaves small, lanceolate, acute, entire, sessile, pale green, 2-4 Cm. (4/5-1 3/5') long; flowers June-July; terminal, bluish; fruit August, globular capsule, size of pea, with persistent calyx at base, crowned with sharp spine, 10-seeded in distinct cells.  SEED, ovate, oblong-lanceolate, flattened, obliquely pointed at one end, 4-6 Mm. (1/6-1/4') long, brown, smooth, shiny, raphe a distince yellow ridge along one edge, hilum and micropyle in depression below pointed end;  internally light yellow, brownish; odor slight; taste mucilaginous, oily.  POWDER, yellowish-brown -- large oil globules, irregular fragments of endosperm and seed-coat, the latter with pigment cells filled with brownish insoluble contents, stone cells with porous walls, aleurone grains.  MEAL (ground, lini farina, crushed linseed), yellow with numerous brown coarse fragments -- seed-coat and kernel.  Test: 1. Boil 1 Gm. fat-free powder or meal with water 50 cc., cool -- filtrate + iodine T.S. not more than faint blue (abs. of starch or starch-bearing seeds).  Solvent: boiling water.  Dose, 3j-2 (4-8 Gm.).
    ADULTERATIONS. -- SEED: Foreign seeds and earthy matter 1-25 p.c. -- mustard, rape and other cruciferous seeds, sand, small stones; POWDER: Damaged flour, cornmeal, other starchy substances, recotnized by microscope or iodine test; expressed cake and tht to which mineral oil has been added.
    Commercial. -- The flax is of ancient origin, being prized for its fabric and medicinal properties; most of our seed now come from Russia and Germany, but the United States furnishes considerable.  When exposed to heat, light, damp atmosphere, or otherwise carelessly preserved, especially the ground, it is subject to insect attack, and should not be used after 1 year old.
    CONSTITUENTS. -- Fixed oil 35-40 p.c. (in nucleus), Mucilage, C12H20O10, 15 p.c. (In integuments--viscid, odorless, nearly tasteless, precipitated by alcohol, lead subacetate, but not by tannin), proteins 25 p.c., tannin, amygdalin (resin, wax, sugar, no starch (except in young seed), ash 4-6 p.c.--phosphates sulphates, chlorides of potassium, calcium, magnesium.
    Oleum Lini.  Linseed Oil, U.S.P. -- (Syn., Ol. Lini, Oil of Flaxseed, Raw Linseed Oil; Fr. Huile de Lin; Ger. Leinol, Leinsamenol.)  This fixed oil, usually obtained by drying the seed with heat, crushing, and expressing, is a yellowish, oily liquid, peculiar odor, bland taste; gradually thickens and darkens on exposure, acquiring a pronounced odor and taste; slightly soluble in alcohol, miscible with ether, chloroform, petroleum benzin, carbon disulphide, oil of turpentine; slightly acid; sp. gr. 0.930, congeals at -20 degrees C. (-4 degrees F.); consists of liquid glycerides of oleic acid, C18H30O2(5), linolenic acid, C18H30O2(15), and isolinoleic acid, C18H32O2(65) 85-90 p.c., also a mixture of palmitin, myristin, and stearin 10-15 p.c.; also claimed to consist chiefly of linoleic acid, 22-25 p.c. of linolenic acid, and 5 p.c. of solid fatty acids; 1 p.c. of non-saponifiable matter.  Linolein, the glyceride of linoleic acid, is considered the drying constituent, which on exposure is converted into oxylinoleic acid hydrate, and finally into linoxyn, C32H54O11 (insoluble in ether, and soon forms in the boiled oil).  Yield by cold process 16-20 p.c., by heat 25-28 p.c., the latter being darker, with stronger odor and more acid taste.  Tests: 1. Linseed oil spread in thin layer on glass plate forms a hard, transparent film (abs. of non-drying oils).  2. Add 3 Gm. Potassium hydroxide to oil 10 cc. + alcohol 10 cc. + distilled water 10 cc., heat on water-bath until clear; the addition of distilled water 100 cc. -- clear solution, free from oily drops (abs. of mineral or rosin oils).  3. Oil 2 cc. + glacial acetic acid 2, agitate, cool, add sulphuric acid 1 drop -- greenish color (abs. of rosin or rosin oils, which produce a violet color).  Impurities: Free acid, non-drying oils, mineral or rosin oils, rosin.  Should be kept in well-stoppered containers, and that which has been "boiled" must not be used or dispensed.  Dose, 3ss-2 (15-60 cc.).
    PREPARATIONS. -- SEED: 1. Species Emollientes, Emollient Cataplasm, N.F., 20 p.c.  OIL: 1. Sapo Mollis.  Soft Soap.  (Syn., Sapo Moll., Sapo Viridis, Green Soap; Fr. Savon (mou) vert; Ger. Sapo kalinus, Kaliseife, Grune seife.)
    Manufacture: Boil, stirring frequently, dekanormal solution of potassium hydroxide 29 cc. and sodium hydroxide 110 with linseed oil 400 and water q.s. 925, add glycerin 50 cc., boil until clear, add hot water q.s. 1000 Gm., let stand, stir until water absorbed.  It is a soft, unctuous, yellowish-white mass, slight characteristic odor, alkaline taste; aqueous solution alkaline; solution in hot distilled water (1 in 20) nearly clear.
    Preps.: 1. Linimentum Saponis Mollis.  Liniment of Soft Soap.  (Syn., Lin. Sapon. Moll., Tincture of Green Soap, Spiritus Saponis Kalinus Hebra; Fr. Teinture de Savon vert; Ger. Hebra's Seifenspiritus.)
    Manufacture: 65 p.c.  Mix oil of lavender 2 cc. with alcohol 30, add soft soap 65 Gm., stir or agitate until dissolved, set aside 24 hours, filter, add alcohol q.s. 100 cc.; used externally.
    2.  Linimentum Calcis, 50 p.c.  3. Liquor Cresolis Compositus, 35 p.c.  4. Ceratum Resinae Compositum, Deshler's Salve, N.F., 13.5 p.c.  5. Pasta Zinci Mollis, N.F., 25 p.c.  6. Petroxolinum Sulphuratum, N.F., 37 p.c.
    Unoff. Preps.: SEED.  Infusion, 5 p.c.  Compound Infusion, 5 p.c., + glycyrrhiza root 2 p.c.  These were once official and are effective from the dissolved mucilage of the epithelium (testa), which is altered starch.  Dose, ad libitum.  Decoction, 5 p.c.  Poultice.
    PROPERTIES. -- Demulcent, emollient, diluent, diuretic.
    USES. -- Infusion or tea for inflammation of mucous membranes of respiratory, digestive, and urinary organs, renal and vesical irritation, catarrh, dysentery, calculi, strangury.  Decoction, owing to the oil it contains, is less acceptable to the mouth, but all the better for enema.  Poultice of ground meal to enlarged glands, swellings, boils, pneumonia, etc., made by adding boiling water to meal for proper consistency and bringing to a boil.  Should coat skin with glycerin, olive or other oil before applying, and place as near to affected spot as possible; may cover with oiled silk to retain heat and moisture, and may add olive oil, lard, laudanum or any anodyne, stimulating, or astringent solution to poultice.  The oil is laxative (3j; 30 cc.), excellent in piles (3j-2; 20-60 cc. night and morning); sometimes it is added to purgative enemata, also to cover erysipelatous and irritated skin surfaces, but with the disadvantages of soon drying (thus rendering skin stiff) and becoming sour and irritating.  The linimentum calcis is applied to recent burns to allay irritation.
    Allied Products:
    1. Flaxseed Cake, Oil-cake. -- Flaxseed when ground yields cake-meal, and this, after being deprived of oil, becomes oil-cake; it still contains all of the nitrogen, 4-5 p.c., and, moreover, a little oil, thus serving well as a cattle food; yields ash 5-8 p.c.
    2. Boiled Linseed Oil. -- Obtained by heating oleum lini to 130 degrees C. (266 degrees F.), while passing a current of air through it, when it boils, losing 6-8 p.c. by weight; or may heat and add litharge, red lead, manganese dioxide, lead acetate or manganous borate, thereby increasing the oil's weight and drying properties.  It is darker in color, thicker, sp. gr. 0.939-0.950, and dries faster, hence useful in painting, varnishing, etc., but must never be used in liniments as a substitute for the official ("raw") oil, since irreparable injury (from forming crusts) might be occasioned to burns, etc., in removing dressings.
    3. Flax Liber-fibers. -- These furnish linen, which, when scraped, gives lint, while the primitive short fiber is useful as tow.


    Liquidambar orientalis, Miller, Styraciflua, Linne'.   A balsam obtained from the trunk.
    Habitat.  1. Asia Minor -- Southwestern portion near coast, forming entire forests; 2.  United States -- Atlantic coast southward.
    Syn.  Liquid Storax; 1. Levant Storax; 2. American Storax, Copalm Balsam; Oriental  Sweet Gum, Storax Tree; Gum Tree, Sweet Gum, Alligator Tree, Lordwood; Br. Styrax  Praeparatus, Prepared Storax, Balsamum Styracia; Fr. Styrax liquide (purific, depuratus);  Ger. Styrax depuratus, Gereinigter Storax.
    Liq-uid-am'bar.  L. liquidus, liquid, fluid, + Ar. ambar, amber -- i.e., the color or  fragrant, terebinthinate juice or resin (balsam) resembles liquid amber.
    O-ri-en-ta'lis.  L. oriental, pertaining to the Orient, or East -- i.e., its habitat.
    Sty-ra-cif'lu-a.  L. styrax, storax, + fluo, fluere, to flow -- i.e., storax sufficiently gluid at  times to flow or exudate.
    Sty-rax.  L. for storax, Gr., ..., altr. of Ar. assthi'rak, sweet-smelling exudation -- i.e., a  tree producing it.
    PLANTS. -- Trees 6-15 M. (20-50 degrees) high, resembling maples; bark purplish-gray; leaves palmately 5-7-lobed, each division obscurely 3-lobed, 5-7.5 Cm. (2-3') long, 10-12.5 Cm. (4-5') wide, margin serrate, bright green, smooth; flowers monoecious, in yellowish solitary heads; fruit, globular capsule, 2.5 Cm. (1') broad, woody.  BALSAM (storax), a semi-liquid, grayish, grayish-brown, sticky, opaque mass, depositing on standing a heavy dark brown layer (Levant); or a semi-solid, sometimes a solid mass, softened by gently warming (American); thin layers transparent; odor and taste characteristic; heavier than water and insoluble in it; soluble (usually incompletely) in warm alcohol (1), also in acetone, carbon disulphide, ether (some insoluble residue usually remaining).  Tests: 1.  2 Gm. dried 2 hours at 100 degrees C. (212 degrees F.) -- loses 20 p.c. moisture.  2. Dissolve 10 Gm. in hot alcohol 40 cc. -- undissolved residue 5 p.c.; evaporate filtrate -- yellow to brown residue 70 p.c. (purified storax).  Solvents: alcohol; ether.  Dose, gr. 10-30 (.6-2 Gm.).
    ADULTERATIONS. -- Turpentine, sand, ashes, bark, mineral matter 13-18 p.c., water 10-40 p.c.
    Commercial. -- The balsam is not a physiological, but a pathological, secretion of the sapwood, existing only in injured trees as a result of wound stimulation--Nature's method of securing antisepsis and heaing.  To obtain 1, Levant storax in quantity -- the outer bark on one side of the tree is bruised, resulting shortly thereafter in filling the cambium with rows of balsam glands and the inner bark with their exudation.  The dead outer bark is taken off and rejected, while the inner is removed and boiled in sea-water -- the balsam being skimmed from the surface with final expression of the boiled bark.  It was once believed to be produced in the inner bark, which was collected and thrown into pits, to allow partial exudation, and ultimately subjected to pressure in strong horse-hair bags.  Liquid storax is then put into barrels, goat skins, etc., and forwarded to Constantinople, Smyrna, Syria, Alexandria, Bombay, and Trieste.  To obtain 2, American storax -- incisions are made through the bark, or, in the absence of these, during spring and summer, it exudates through natural fissures, from which it may readily be scraped.  The greatest demand comes from India and China, the English-speaking people using little of it.  The residual bark when dried (Cortex Thymiamatis) is employed for fumigation.
    CONSTITUENTS. -- A variable mixture chiefly of volatile oil, resins, cinnamic acid esters, and water -- Styrol, Styracin, Phenylproply Cinnamate, Storesin, Cinnamic Acid, 5-15 p.c., benzoic acid, ethyl cinnamate, C9H7(C2H5)O2, ethyl vanillin, water 10-40 p.c., other impurities, ash 1 p.c.
    Styrol, Styrene, Styrolene (Cinnamene, Phynyl-ethylene), C8H8. -- Hydrocarbon (volatile oil) obtained by distilling with water; it is a colorless fragrant oily liquid, sp. gr. 0.906, boils at 145 degrees C. (293 degrees F.), and when heated to 200 degrees C. (392 degrees F.) Is converted into solid metacinnamene.
    Styracin, Cinnamyl Cinnamate, C9H7(C9H9)O2. -- This is obtained in faint yellow crystals by alcohol, ether, or hot benzene from the resin after removal of cinnamic acid; with concentrated potassium hydroxide solution yields styrone (cinnamic alcohol), C9H10O, yellowish oily refractive aromatic liquid.
    Phenylpropyl Cinnamate, C9H7(C9H17)O2. -- This is a thick inodorous liquid.
    Storesin, C36H58O3. -- This, the most abundant constituent, is amorphous, readily soluble in benzin, melts near 145 degrees C. (293 degrees F.), or near 165 degrees C. (329 degrees F.); the latter variety gives with potassium hydroxide a compound crystallizing in needles.
    Cinnamic Acid, C9H8O2. -- Chiefly in free state, obtained by treating with solution of sodium carbonate, precipitating with hydrochloric acid.
    PREPARATIONS. -- 1. Tinctura Benzoini Composita, 8 p.c.
    Unoff. Prep.:  Ointment (salve), 50 pc., with lard or olive oil.
    PROPERTIES. -- Stimulant, expectorant, diuretic, antiseptic, disinfectant.  Acts locallly and remotely like benzoin, copaiba, balsams of Peru and tolu.  Styracin is antiseptic, and should be dissolved in 6-12 parts of oil or water to render it non-irritating as a dressing.
    USES. -- Chronic bronchitis and catarrhea, phthisis, asthma.  Externally in ointment as a detergent for indolent ulcers, frost-bites, as a parasiticide for scabies, phthiriasis (pediculi), etc.
    Allied Product:
    1. Styrax Calamita. -- Resinous exudation from Styrax officina'lis, in agglutinated tears resembling benzoin, wrapped in leaves; a factitious variety consists of the ground, exhausted bark or sawdust mixed with liquid storax, formed into reddish-brown cylindrical cakes, brittle, friable, soft and unctuous to the touch; contains many crystals of styracin, and has storax odor.


    Lirioden'dron Tulipif'era, Tulip-tree. -- The bark, U.S.P. 1820-1870; United States, China; tree 18-45 M. (60-150 degrees) high; flowers yellowish; fruit cone, 7.5 Cm. (3') long.  Bark in quills or curved pieces 2 Mm. (1/12') thick, purplish-brown, thin ridges, inside whitish, smooth, astringent; contains volatile oil, resins, liriodendrin, tulipiferine, tannin; injured by boiling.  Used for chronic rheumatism, dyspepsia, intermittent fever; in infusion or fluidextract.  Dose, 3ss-1 (2-4 Gm.).

Lobelia inflata

    Lobelia inflata, Linne'.  The dried leaves and tops with not more than 10 p.c. stems,nor 2 p.c. other foreign organic matter, yielding not more than 5 p.c. acid-insoluble ash.
    Habitat.  N. America (Canada, United States), in fields and open places.
    Syn.  Lobel., Indian Tobacco, Wild Tobacco, Green, Brown, Bladder-podded Lobelia,  Emetic Herb (Weed), Asthma (Puke) Weed, Gag Root, Vomit Wort, Low Belia,  Eyebright; Fr. Lobelie enflee; Ger. Herba Lobeliae, Lobelienkraut.
    Lo-be'li-a.  L. after Matthias de Lobel, Flemish botanist, physician, and author of several  botanical works, 1538-1616, native of Lille, became physician and botanist to James I.,  died in London.
    In-fla'ta.  L. inflatus, inflated, swollen -- i.e., seed are borne in egg-shaped inflated pod.
    PLANT. -- Annual herb, .3-.6 M. (1-2 degrees) high, erect, paniculately branched; stem cylindrical, coarsely and irregularly furrowed, yellowish green, occasionally purplish, pubescent with numerous spreading hairs; root fibrous.  LEAVES, alternate, ovate, oblong, 2-9 Cm. (4/5 - 3 3/5') long, sessile or narrowing into a short petiole, obtusely toothed, irregularly serrate-denticulate, each tooth with a yellowish-brown, gland-like apex; pale green with scattered, bristly hairs; flowers blue, long, loose racemes with short pedicles, calyx tube ovoid with 5 subulate teeth, corolla tubular, 3-4 Mm. (1/8-1/6') long, 5-parted, the upper 2-lobed portion cleft nearly to the base; stamens with anthers united above into a curved tube enclosing the bifid stigma; capsules inflated, ovoid, ellipsoidal, 5-8 Mm. (1/5-1/3') long, light brown, inferior, enclosing numerous coarsely reticulate seed; odor slight, irritating; taste strongly acrid.  POWDER, dark green, odor irritating -- fragments of seed-coat composed of polygonal cells with thick yellowish walls; occasional elongated-conical, non-glandular hairs; fragments of stem with tracheae having thickenings, pores, narrow wood-fibers with thin, lignified porous walls; fragments of leaf epidermis with elliptical stomata, pollen grains nearly spherical.  Loses on drying 75 p.c.  Solvents; diluted alcohol; boiling water.  Dose, expectorant, gr. 1-5 (.06-.3 Gm.); emetic, gr. 10-20 (.6-1.3 Gm.).
    ADULTERATIONS. -- Rare -- except its own stems and roots.
    Commercial. -- Lobelia was popular with the North American Indians, but Dr. Cutler, of Massachusetts, introduced it into our medical practice.  It should be collected Aug.-Sept., carefully dried, and sold loosely or in various-sized compressed packages; powder keeps well.
    CONSTITUENTS. -- Lobeline, Lobelacrin, Lobelic acid, Inflatin, a second alkaloid (?), resin, wax, volatile oil (lobelianin), fixed oil (seed) 30 p.c., gum, ash 8 p.c.
    Lobeline. -- Obtained by evaporating to syrup the acetic-alcoholic tincture (preferably of seed), triturating this with magnesium oxide in excess, agitating filtrate with ether, evaporating, getting impure alkaloid.  It is a yellow, aromatic liquid, acrid taste, convertible into amorphous powder and non-crystalline salts (hydrobromide, sulphate, etc.) Soluble in water.  Dose (sulphate), gr. 1/6-1 (.01-.06 Gm.).
    Lobelacrin. -- Obtained by concentrating tincture in the presence of charcoal, washing with water, exhausting with boiling alcohol; it is the acrid principle -- possibly lobelate of lobeline, brown, soluble in ether or chloroform, splitting with dilute acids or alkalies into sugar and lobelic acid.
    Lobelic Acid. -- Obtained by precipitating decoction of leaves with copper sulphate, and decomposing with hydrogen sulphide; it is colored olive-brown by ferric salts.
    Inflatin. -- Neutral principle (wax), tasteless crystals, no medicinal value.
    PREPARATIONS. -- 1. Tinctura Lobeliae.  Tincture of Lobelia.  (Syn., Tr. Lobel.; P. I. Lobeliae tinctura; Fr. Teinture de Lobelie; Ger. Lobelientinktur.)
    Manufacture: 10 p.c.  Similar to Tinctura Veratri Viridis, page 104; menstruum: diluted alcohol.  Dose, mv-30 -- 60 (.3-2--4 cc.).
 2.  Fluidextractum Lobeliae, N.F. (1st menstruum: -- acetic acid 5 cc., alcohol 50, water 45; 2d -- diluted alcohol), Dose, mj-5 -- 20 (.06-.3 -- 1.3 cc.).
    Unoff Preps.: Acetum, 10 p.c., mv-60 (.3-4 cc.).  Extract, gr. 1/2-2 (.03-.13 Gm.).  Infusion, 5 p.c., 3ss-1 (15-30 cc.).  Tinctura Lobeliae Aetherea (Br.), 20 p.c. (spirit of ether), mv-15 (.3-1 cc.).  The "Eclectic" lobelin, made in the usual way, is an impure resinoid, gr. 1/2-1 (.03-.06 Gm.).
    PROPERTIES. -- Expectorant, emetic, nervine, purgative, narcotic, diuretic, diaphoretic; similar to ipecac, but causes more distressing nausea and intense prostration; it paralyzes the motor nerves,, vasomotor center, and peripheral vagi.  Leaves chewed a short time cause giddiness, headache, tremors, nausea, vomiting; full doses give speedy and severe vomiting, general relaxation, cold skin with sweating; resembles tobacco, is dangerous, having caused many deaths.
    USES. -- Spasmodic asthma, catarrh, croup, bronchial spasms, whooping-cough, in enema for intussusception, strangulated hernia, constipation -- when feces hard and dry; externally for poison-ivy (oak) eczema.  Should not be given as an emetic, and is too depressing for children.
    Poisoning: Have burning pain in fauces, esophagus, motor weakness, great depression, feeble pulse, low temperature, anxious, livid countenance, contracted pupils, vertigo, tremors, cold sweat, pale skin, sometimes violent purging, collapse, stupor, coma, death from respiratory failure.  Place in recumbent position, empty stomach if vomiting has not been free, give tannin, cardiac and respiratory stimulants, strychnine, picrotoxin, thebaine, alcohol, digitalis, atropine or belladonna, digitalis, morphine, artificial heat, ergot, castor oil.
    Incompatibles: Strychnine, picrotoxin; caustic alkalies decompose lobeline, making preparations inert.
 Synergists: Emetics, motor depressants.
    1. Lobelia syphilit'ica, Great Lobelia. -- Stem .6-1 M. (2-3 degrees) high; flowers large, 2.5 Cm. (1') long, beautiful blue; diaphoretic.  Used by the aborigines for syphilis.
    2. L. Cardina'lis, Cardinal-flower. -- Stem .6-1.3 M. (2-4 degrees) high; flowers large, showy, intense cardinal or scarlet-red.  Used by Indians as anthelmintic; similar to L. Syphilitica, but milder.


    Lophoph'ora (Anhalo'nium) William'sii (Lewinii), Mescal(e) Buttons; Mexico. -- This small succulent cactus yields the mescal buttons (upper layer of turnip-shaped stem, consisting of ovoid tubercles, dried) which are used by the Rio Grande Indians to produce intoxication -- similar to cannabis, during religious ceremonies; contain anhalonine (similar to pellotine), mescaline, anhalonidine, lopophorine.  Heart and respiratory stimulant, tonic, adjuvant to digitalis, narcotic; slightly slows pulse, produces mental and physical weariness, sleep without untoward symptoms; excessive quantities produce spasms resembling strychnine poisoning; pneumothorax, tuberculosis, angina pectoris, asthmatic dyspnea, hysteria.  Dose, (pellotine), gr. 1/2-2 (.03-.13 Gm.); Fluidextract, mv-10 (.3-.6 cc.).


    Luf'fa Luffa (aegypti'aca), Egypt, and L. Opercula'ta, Brazil, Vegetable Sponge, Wash-rag Sponge, Gourd Towel.  Cu'cumis myriocar'pus; S. Africa.--These produce analogous fruits, which have similar action to colcynth, while the derma of Luffa serves as sponge.


    Lyc'ium vulga're. -- United States, Europe; L. Af'rum, N. Africa, and L. Umbro'sum, S. America; leaves of all in infusion good for erysipelas and skin diseases.


    Lycopodium clavatum,  Linne'.  The spores.
    Habitat.  Europe, Asia, N. America, in dry woods
    Syn.  Lycopod., Club Moss, Clubfoot Moss, Running Moss, Snake (Staghorn) Moss,  Ground (Running) Pine, Wolf's Claw, Fox Tail; Vegetable Sulphur (Brimstone), Semen  Lycopodii; Fr. Lycopode, Soufre vegetal, Pied de Loup; Ger. Barlappsporen, Hexenmehl,  Streupulver, Blitzpulvre
    Ly-co-po'di-um.  L. See etymology, above, of  Lycopodiaceae.
    Cla-va'tum.  L. clavatus, club-like -- i.e., alluding to club-like appearance of the fertile  spikes.
    PLANT. -- Low creeping perennial; stem .6-3 M. (2-10 degrees) long, slender, tough, flexible, woody; branches ascending, leafy, the fertile terminated by a slender peduncle 10-15 Cm. (4-6') long, with 1-2 linear, cylindrical spikes -- thecae, cones, capsules, 2.5-5 Cm. (1-2') long; leaves linear, awl-shaped, 6 Mm. (1/4') long, dense, light green, tipped, as are also the numerous bracts, on the flowering spikes with a fine bristle; in axils of bracts have the kidney-shaped sporangia containing the spores.  SPORES, a light yellow, very mobile powder, odorless tasteless; spores shaped like 3-sided pyramid with convex base, .025-.04 Mm. (1/1000-1/625') broad; outer surface reticulate -- reticulations polygonal and formed by straight-sided delicate ridges, which form a delicate fringe at edges of spore; viewed with the rounded surface of spore on the under side, a distinct triangular marking is seen, formed by edges of flat surfaces of the spore.  Tests: 1. Not wetted by water -- floats upon it; when boiled with water -- sinks, when thrown into a flame -- burns with a quick flash.  2. Shows very few, if any, pollen grains, .04-.07 Mm. 1/625-1/360') broad, and consisting of a central convex, generative cell separating two spherical cells or wings containing air (abs. of pine pollen).  3. Boiled with water and cooled, + iodine T.S. -- no bluish color (abs. of starch), or reddish color (abs. of dextrin).
    ADULTERATIONS. -- Pine pollen (coarser, less mobile, mixes more easily with water), starch, flour (sometimes 25 p.c., sinks in carbon disulphide), dextrin (soluble in water, when concentrated--precipitated by alcohol), sulphur (dissolves in carbon disulphide, remaining upon evaporation), rosin (treat with alcohol, evaporate), turmeric (reddish-brown with alkalies), talc, gypsum, ferruginous earth, sand (increasing ash beyond 3-5 p.c., and quickly subsiding when shaken with carbon disulphide, chloroform, or water).
    Commercial. -- Collected, July-August, in Scandinavia, Baltic lands, Northeastern Poland, Russia, etc., chiefly from L. clavatum, rarely L. complana'tum (spikes (cones) or sporangia, and spores of each very similar), by villagers in wooded areas, who sell their product to local agents, who, after drying it 1-2 weeks, avoiding artificial heat, shake the spores out through ordinary flour sieves, when it contains 5-10 p.c. of impurities (leaves, scaly fragments, sand, wheat and rye flour, etc.)  Spikes when ripe yield pure spores 23 p.c., when green 10-15 p.c.
    CONSTITUENTS. -- Fixed oil 47-49 p.c., cane-sugar (sucrose) 2 p.c., volatile base (methylamine), ash 3-5 p.c. (sand + 1 p.c. P2O5). The substance of the cell-wall is called pollenin; when treated with potassium hydroxide gives yellow color, becoming blue upon the addition of sulphuric acid and iodine.  The oil, similar to expressed oil of almonds, contains palmitic, stearic, myristic, and oleic acids -- the latter 80 p.c.being slightly abnormal.
    PROPERTIES. -- Once considered diuretic, antispasmodic for rheumatism, epilepsy, pulmonary and renal disorders, dysentery.
    USES. -- Externally to protect tender and raw surfaces, erysipelas, eczema, herpes, ulcers, chafing in infants; in pharmacy as a basis for insufflations, also to prevent adhering of pills, suppositories, etc.  Popular "homeopathic medicine" (1 to 100 lactose triturated till oil liberated); internally gives excited circulation, urinary irritation, often cures dyspepsia, flatulence, constipation, aneurism, diphtheria, mucous membrane affections of lungs and bronchi.


    Ly'copus virgin'icus, Bugle Weed. -- The herb, U.S.P. 1830-1870; N. America.  Plant has smooth, obtusely quadrangular stem, 15-60 Cm. (6-24') high; leaves 5 Cm. (2') long, elliptic, glandular; flowers purple, 4-lobed, stamens 2. mint odor and bitter taste, root perennial, creeping; contains volatile oil, resin, bitter principle, tannin.  Astringent, tonic, sedative, narcotic; hemorrhage, diarrhea, dysentery; infusion, decoction.  Dose, gr. 5-30 (.3-2 Gm.).

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