The Cayce Herbal 
 A Comprehensive Guide to the  
Botanical Medicine of Edgar Cayce
A Manual of Materia Medica and Pharmacology
by David M. R. Culbreth, Ph.G., M.D. (1927)


    Magno'lia virginia'na (glau'ca), M. Acumina'ta and M. Tripet'ala. -- Magnoliaceae.  The bark, U.S.P. 1820-1880; United States; trees 6-28 M. (20-90 degrees) high; flowers white, fragrant; fruit cones; bark in thin quills or curved pieces, orange-brown, glossy, warty, fissured, astringent, bitter; contains volatile oil, resin, magnolin, tannin.  Used for malaria, rheumatism, gout, intermittents, catarrhs; in decoction, infusion, tincture.  Dose, 3ss-1 (2-4 Gm.).

Mallotus philippinensis

    Mallo'tus philippinen'sis, Kamala, Rottlera. -- The glands and hairs from the capsules, U.S.P. 1860-1890; Philippine Islands, India, China.  Small tree, 6 M. (20 degrees) high; bark pale, branches with ferruginous tomentum; leaves 7.5-15 Cm. (3-6') long, petiolate, ovate, entire, coriaceous, glabrous, under side rusty; flowers dioecious, tomentous; fruit tricoccous, globular capsule, size of small cherry, externally 3-furrowed, covered with red powder.  Glands and hairs (kamala) glandular, mobile, brick-red powder, inodorous, nearly tasteless; under microscope as stellately arranged colorless hairs mixed with depressed globular glands, containing numerous red club-shaped vesicles; burns like lycopodium, and ash should not be more than 4-8 p.c.  Capsules when collected are rolled about in baskets, and rubbed with hands to remove glands and hairs, which in turn, passing through the meshes, are caught upon cloths; contain resins (2 -- rottlerin, isorottlerin) 80 p.c., wax, coloring matter, albuminous matter 7 p.c., cellulose 7 p.c., ash 4 p.c.  Tenifuge (anthelmintic, purgative); tape-worm, sometimes for the round- and seat-rowms; also externally in scabies, skin affections, herpetic ringworm.  Next to male-fern for tenia, being better than kousso or turpentine.  Adulterations: Wurrus, resins, etc., used not only as vermifuge, but in skin affections and as dyes; also many fruits -- Soria, Satze (Tatze), Embelia, and the bark of Albiz'zia (Acacia) anthelmin'tica (Messena, Mussena, Busenna -- Abyssinian names for acacia bark) is employed as tenifuges in India and Abyssinia; also powdered leaves, fruit-stalks, colored starch, earth, sand, in all sometimes 60 p.c. -- increasing ash 65-75 p.c.  Dose, 3j-2 (4-8 Gm.); fluidextract, 3j-2 (4-8 cc.); tincture, 30 p.c. (alcoholic), 3j-4 (4-15 cc.); electuary; syrup; mucilage.


    Ma'lus (Pyrus) Malus, Apple; Succus Pomorum, Fresh Apple Juice, N.F. -- The freshly expressed juice of sound, ripe, sour apples, the fruit of cultivated varieties.  Plant resembles quince; fruit edible, laxative; bark tonic, febrifuge.  Dose, gr 15-60 (1-4 Gm.); 1. Extractum Ferri Pomatum, 100 p.c. dose, gr. 10-30 (.6-2 Gm.): Prep.: 1. Tinctura Ferri Pomata, 10 p.c., dose, 3j-2 (4-8 cc.).


    Mal'va sylves'tris and M. Rotundifo'lia, Malvae Folia, (High and Low) Mallow Leaves, N.F. -- The dried leaves with not more than 10 p.c. of other parts of the plants, nor 5 p.c. of foreign organic matter; Europe, Asia, cultivated in United States.  Biennials -- former erect, 1 M. (3 degrees) high, latter procumbent, spreading; flowers reddish-purple bluish; with ammonia -- green, with acids -- red.  Leaves (M. Sylvestris), orbicular, reniform, cordate, 10-11 Cm.
 (4-4 2/5') long, 15-20 Cm. (6-8') broad, 3-7-lobed, petioles up to 10 Cm. (4')  in length, palmate, crenate-dentate, pubescent; (M. Rotundifolia), orbicular, up to 8 Cm. (3 1/5') broad, cordate, 5-7-lobed, palmate, teeth blunt, less pubescent, petioles up to 20 Cm. (8') in length; inodorous, taste bland, mucilaginous -- on chewing.  Powder, light green -- non-glandular hairs, stomata, pith and spongy parenchyma, stem fibers, tracheae, mucilage cells, calcium oxalate rosette crystals; solvent: water; contains mucilage, pectin, tannin, ash 16 p.c.  Demulcent, emollient; dysentery, catarrh, kidney troubles.  Dose, 3ss-1 (2-4 Gm.); 1. Species Emollientes, 20 p.c. Abu'tilon and Hibis'cus species possess similar medicinal properties and may be used satisfactorily one for the other.


    Mandrag'ora officina'lis (Atropa mandragora), together with var. autumna'lis, having blue flowers, and var. verna'lis, white flowers; S. Europe -- all are acaulescent plants, having constituents similar to those of belladonna.


    Marru'bium vulga're, (White, Common) Horehound. -- The dried leaves and flowering toops, U.S.P. 1820-1900; Europe, C. Asia, N. America, cultivated in waste places, gardens, etc.  Perennial herb .3-.6 M. (1-2 degrees) high, with short rootstock; stems numerous, annual, branched below, quadrangular, tomentose, woolly; leaves 1.5-5 Cm. (3/5-2') long, opposite, petiolate, roundish-ovate, obtuse, coarsely crenate, strongly rugose-veined, white-hairy; flowers whitish, in dense, axillary whorls, calyx 10-toothed, divisions slightly unequal, erect-spreading, pungent; corolla small, bilabiate, 4 included stamens; fruit of 4 ovoid, obtuse, nearly smooth nutlets, 1.5 Mm. (1/16') long; odor distinct, agreeable; taste aromatic, bitter; solvents: diluted alcohol, boiling water; contains volatile oil, marrubiin (bitter amaroid), C21H25O4, .02-4 p.c., resin, tannin, gum, albumin, salts.  Stimulant, tonic, bitter stomachic, expectorant, resolvent, anthelmintic (large doses -- diuretic, diaphoretic, laxative); dyspepsia, bronchitis, chronic hepatitis, jaundice, amenorrhea, phthisis, cachexia, catarrh, chronic rheumatism, intermittents.  Dose, 3ss-1(2-4 Gm.); extract, gr. 5-10 (.3-.6 Gm.); fluidextract, 3ss-1 (2-4 cc.); infusion (sweetened and flavored to liking), 5 p.c. 3j-2 (30-60 cc.); juice (Succus Marrubii), 3j-2 (4-8 cc.), in honey or milk; owing to bitterness, the lozenge (cough drop) is the most popular form for administration.


    Marsde'nia (Gonol'obus) Conduran'go, Condurango, N.F. -- The dried bark with not more than 2 p.c. of wood or other foreign organic matter; Ecuador.  Climbing vine, 3-9 M. (10-30 degrees) high.  Bark (stem) in quills, curved pieces, 4-13.5 Cm. (1 3/5-5 2/5') long, 1-6 Mm. (1/25-1/4') thick, grayish-brown, nearly smooth, numerous lenticels, or scaly and rough, occasionally with whitish lichens; inner surface grayish-white, striate; fracture short-fibrous, granular; odor slightly aromatic (fresh); taste bitter, aromatic.  Powder, yellowish-brown -- stone cells, parenchyma with calcium oxalate crystals, rosettes, prisms and starch grains; bast-fibers non-lignified, latex tubes with a granular substance, grayish-yellow cork; solvent: diluted alcohol; contains condurangin (bitter glucoside), alkaloid (strychnine-like action), conduransterin, resin, starch, sugar, tannin 12.6 p.c., crystalline acid, wax, ash 12 p.c.  Alterative, stomachic, tonic; cancer, syphilis, rheumatism; may occasion nausea, vomiting, convulsions, paralysis.  Dose, 3ss-1 (2-4 Gm.); 1. Fluidextractum Condurango (diluted alcohol), dose 3ss-1 (2-4 cc.).  Infusion, Wine.

    Matrica'ria Chamomil'la, Matricaria, German Chamomile, N.F. -- The dried flower-head with not more than 5 p.c. of stems or other foreign organic matter, yielding not more than 4 p.c. of acid-insoluble ash; Europe, W. Asia, cultivated in United States.  Annual herb .3-.6 M. (1-2 degrees) high, branched, smooth, solid, striate, greenish; leaves 5 Cm. (2') long, bi-, tri-pinnate, green, smooth; leaflets linear, small.  Flower-heads, May-Aug., few white ray-florets and numerous yellow disk-florets on conical hollow receptacles, 3-10 Mm. (1/8-2/5') broad; disk-florets tubular, perfect, without pappus; ray-florets 10-20, pistillate, corolla white, 3-toothed, 4-veined, usually reflexed, involucre 20-30 pubescent scales; peduncles greenish, furrowed, twisted; achenes 3-5-ribbed; pappus none; odor pleasant, aromatic; taste aromatic, bitter -- should be preserved in tightly-closed containers.  Powder, yellowish-brown -- many spinose pollen grains with 3 pores, fragments of ray-florets, glandular hairs, achene tissue with markings, parenchyma with calcium oxalate rosette aggregates, anthers, stigmas, vascular bundle with tracheae, involucral scales bearing porous fibers, tracheae and elliptical stomata; solvents: boiling water, alcohol; contains volatile oil .25 p.c., anthemic acid, anthemidin, tannin, ash 13 p.c.  Stimulant (volatile oil), tonic (anthemic acid), carminative, diaphoretic, nervine, emmenagogue; aid to digestion in convalescence, general debility, intermittents, delirium tremens, flatulent-colic -- externally: local pains, colic, toothache, earache, abscesses, sprains, rheumatism.  Dose, gr.15-60 1-4 Gm.); 1. Species Emollientes, 20 p.c.  Infusion, 5 p.c.; when cold -- tonic, when warm -- emetic, dose, ad libitum.  Oleum Chamomillae Infusum (flowers 10, olive oil 100, digested 2 hours) -- locally.  Syrup (flowers 3, water for infusion 10, sucrose 18).  Poultice.


    Oleum Cajuputi.  Oil of Cajuput, U.S.P.
    Melaleuca Leucadendron, Linne' var. Cajeputi, var. minor, +.  The volatile oil distilled from the fresh leaves and twigs, and rectified by steam (distillation.)
    Habitat.  E. India Islands, Celebes, Bouro, Amboyna, Moluccas, Philippines, Cochin  China, Australia.
    Syn.  Kayu-putu, White Tree (Wood), Pepperbark; Ol. Cajup., Cajuput Oil, Oil of  Cajeput, Oleum Cajeputi; Fr. Huile (Essence) de Cajeput; Ger. Cajeput ol.
    Mel-a-leu'ca.  L. fr. Gr...., black + ..., white, -- i.e., bark of the trunk is blackish, that of  the branches is whitish.
    Leu-ca-den'dron.  L. fr. Gr...., white, + ..., a tree -- i.e., general appearance of the tree.
    Caj-e-pu'ti (better Caj-u-pu'ti).  L. fr. Malay, kayu, tree, + putih, white -- i.e.,  appearance of the branches.
    Mi'hor.  L. Minor, minus, less, smaller -- i.e., plant smaller than other species, also smaller flower-heads and leaves.
    PLANTS. -- Small trees, 9-12 M. (30-40 degrees) high; bark gray, brittle, splitting into thin layers; leaves 5-10 Cm. (2-4') long, blade twisted, lanceolate; flowers 5-7.5 Cm. (2-3') long, greenish to whitish, silky, pubescent, spikes; fruit woody, hard, sessile, dehiscing into 3 valves.
    CONSTITUENTS. -- Volatile oil, mucilage, pectin.
    Oleum Cajuputi.  Oil of Cajuput. -- This oil, obtained by water or steam distillation, is a colorless, yellowish (greenish -- usually due to copper) liquid, peculiar, agreeable, distinctly camphoraceous (cineol) odor, aromatic, slightly bitter taste, soluble in 1 vol. of 80 p.c. alcohol, sp. gr. 0.918, levorotatory; contains 50-67 p.c. of cineol (cajuputol, eucalyptol), C10H18O, also the alcohol terpineol, C10H17OH, several terpenes -- l-pinene, etc., valeric and benzoic aldehydes, which upon oxidation impart acid reaction.  It is imported mostly from Celebes (macassar), Bouro (islands), some from Singapore, Java, Manila, in emptied beer and wine bottles, 25-packed in a crate, or in copper cans (rare).  Should be kept cool, dark, in well-stoppered, amber-colored bottles.  Dose, mij-10 (.13-.6 cc.), emulsion, pill, on sugar; externally in liniments.
    ADULTERATIONS. -- Copper from shipping cans (rare), many cheaper oils, as camphor, rosemary, turpentine (French turpentine, owing to its l-pinene, being difficult to detect), also these sometimes colored with resin of milfoil, all rendering action with iodine more violent.
    PREPARATION. -- (Unoff.): Spiritus Cajuputi (Br.), 10 p.c., dose, mv-20 (.3-1.3 cc.).
    PROPERTIES. -- Same as oil of clove; carminative, stimulant, diaphoretic, vermifuge, parasiticide, rubefacient, counter-irritant.
    USES. -- Rheumatism, myalgia, spasmodic affections of the stomach and bowels, catarrh of bladder, low fevers, gout, colic, cholera morbus, dysmenorrhea, laryngitis, bronchitis, toothache, chilblains.


    Me'lia Azed'arach, Margosa Bark, Pride of India. -- The bark of the root, U.S.P. 1820-1880; China, India, cultivated, S. United States.  Beautiful tree 9-12 M. (30-40 degrees) high, leaves imparipinnate; flowers lilac color; fruit drupe, yellow, size of cherries, poisonous pulp; never leafless.  Bark curved or quilled, 5-7.5 Cm. (2-3') long, 5 Mm. (1/5') thick; outer surface reddish with irregular blackish ridges; inner surface whitish or brownish, striate, sweet, bitter, nauseous; contains resin, tannin, sugar.  Used for lumbricoid worms, emetic.  Dose, gr. 15-60 (1-4 Gm.), in decoction, tincture (diluted alcohol).


    Melilo'tus officina'lis, Melilotus, (Yellow) Melilot, Yellow Sweet Clover, N.F. -- The dried leaf and flowering top with not more than 3 p.c. of stems over 3 Mm. (1/8') thick or other foreign organic matter; Europe, United States.  Plant 1-1.5 M. (3-5 degrees) high; stems mostly less than 30 Cm. (12') high, slender, leafy below, terminating in yellow racemes, pubescent; leaves trifoliate, leaflets 1-3 Cm. (2/5-1 1/5') long, oval, serrate; corolla papilionaceous; legumes 2.5-3.5 Mm. (1/10-1/7') long, obovate, 1-seeded;odor aromatic, tonka-like; taste sweetish, slightly pungent, bitter.  Powder, light green -- non-glandular hairs, epidermal cells of leaf tissue, stomata, chlorenchyma, fibro-vascular tissue, crystal-fibers with calcium oxalate prisms, tracheae, pollen grains, occasional glandular hairs; solvent: diluted alcohol; contains coumarin, melilotic acid, coumaric acid, melilotol (fragrant volatile oil), ash 10 p.c.  Locally -- to allay pain in abdomen, joints, diarrhea, dysmenorrhea, rheumatism; 1. Species Emollientes, 20 p.c.  Decoction, Infusion, Ointment, Plasters.

    Melis'sa officina'lis, Melissa, Balm.--The leaves and tops, U.S.P. 1840-1890; sia Minor, S. Europe.  Perennial herb with fragrance of lemons, growing in waste places; stems several, quadrangular, .3-1 M. (1-3 degrees) high, branched at base, pubescent; flowers yellowish-white, purplish, calyx 5-toothed, tubular, bell-shaped; corolla cilabiate, 4 stamens.  Leaves, 5 Cm. (2') long, petiolate, ovate, obtuse, crenate, hairy, glandular, branches square; fragrant, aromatic, astringent, bitter; contains volatile oil .25 p.c., bitter principle, tannin, gum; solvents: diluted alcohol, boiling water.  Carminative, diaphoretic, stimulant, antispasmodic; used as a refreshing drink; when cold for febrile affections, when hot acts slightly on the skin.  Dose, gr. 15-60 (1-4 Gm.); water (Aqua Melissae), leaves (1) distilled with water (10); compound spirit (Spiritus Melisse Compositus), balm 14 + lemon peel 12, nutmeg 6, cinnamon 3, clove 3, alcohol 150, water 250, distil 200 parts; fluidextract, mxv-60 (1-4 cc.); infusion, 3j-2 (30-60 cc.); oil, mj-2 (.06-.13 cc.).


    Menisper'mum canaden'se, Yellow Parilla, Canadian Moonseed. -- The rhizome and roots U.S.P. 1880-1890; N. America (Canada to S. Carolina).  Perennial climber, 2.5-3.5 M. (8-12 degrees) long; stem round, striate; leaves 10-12.5 Cm. (4-5') broad, peltate, 3-5-lobed, pale beneath petioles long; flowers small, yellowish; fruit 8 Mm. (1/3') thick, black, resembling grapes.  Rhizome 1 M. (3 degrees) long, 6 Mm. 1/4') thick, yellowish-brown, knotty, wrinkled lengthwise, roots many, fracture tough, woody, inside yellowish, bark thick, wood-rays broad, porous and longest on lower side, pith distinct; nearly inodorous; taste bitter; contains berberine (yellow), menispine, starch, gum, resin, tannin.  Tonic, alterative, diuretic; similar to calumba (owing to its bitterness); scrofulous affections, as a substitute for sarsaparilla.  Dose, gr. 15-60 (1-4 Gm.); fluidextract (alcohol 65 p.c.), 3ss-1 (2-4 cc.).

Mentha crispa

    Metha cris'pa, Crisped-leaved, Cross or Curled Mint. -- This is the cultivated form of M. Spicata (viridis), known also as M. aquat'ica var. crispa, leaves pubescent, cordate pointed, crisped; M. Sati'va, M. Arven'sis, and M. Rotundifo'lia, are under cultivation and sometimes produce similar crisped leaves.

Mentha piperita

    Mentha piperita, Linne'.  The dried leaves and tops with not mor than 2 p.c. of stems over 3 Mm. (1/8') thick, or other foreign organic matter.
    Habitat.  Asia, Europe, N. America; wild in low ground, wet places; cultivated in Japan,  Germany, England, Michgan, New York, etc.
    Syn.  Menth. Pip.; Brandy (Lamb) Mint, Lammint, Herba Menthae Piperitae; Fr. Menthe  poivree; Ger. Folia Menthae piperitae, Pfefferminzblatter.
    Pi-pe-ri'ta.  L. Piper, pepper -- peppery-mint -- i.e., from its aromatic burning taste.
    Pep'permint -- pepper + mint -- i.e., mint with pepper properties.
    PLANT. -- Perennial herb, possibly from M. Hirsu'ta, Water Mint, by cultivation; rootstock creeping, producing long suckers by which it multiplies; stem square, purplish, .6-1.3 M. (2-4 degrees) high.  Leaves, ovate-oblong, 1-9 Cm. (2/5-3 3/5') long, petiole 4-15 Mm. (1/6-3/5') long, pubescent, acute, sharply serrate, light green, purplish-brown, upper surface nearly glabrous, lower surface glandular-hairy, especially on veins; more or less crumpled and frequently detached from stems, which are quadrangular, 1-3 Mm. (1/25-1/8') thick, glabrous except for a few scattered deflexed hairs; flower-whorls in oblong (oval) spikes which are usually compact, or somewhat interrupted at base, 1-1.5 Cm. (2/5-3/5') broad rounded at summit, and in fruit 3-7 Cm. (1 1/5-2-4/5') long; bracts oblong-lanceolate, very acuminate, 4-7 Mm. (1/6-1/3') long, calyx tubular, equally 5-toothed, pubescent, glandular-punctate, often dark purplish; corolla tubular-campanulate, 4-cleft, 3 Mm. (1/8') long, often light purple; stamens 4, short; nutlets ellipsoidal, .5 Mm. (1/50') thick, blackish-brown; odor aromatic, characteristic; taste aromatic, pungent, followed by cooling sensation in the mouth.  Powder, greenish -- leaf epidermis with wavy vertical walls, stomata, non-glandular hairs with papillose walls, glandular hairs with volatile oil and crystals, chlorenchyma, tracheae, parenchyma, pollen grains.  Should be collected in dry weather, Aug.-Sept., when in bloom; strongest and most pungent of all mints.  Solvents: alcohol; water partially.  Dose, gr. 15-60 (1-4 Cm.).
    ADULTERATIONS. -- Leaves chiefly of varieties of this species: (a) var. officina'lis--leaves narrower, spikes longer; (b) var. vulga'ris -- leaves broader, base more rounded, spikes more blunt and close; spearmint leaves, which may readily be distinguished from peppermint which has leaves with petioles, inflorescence thicker and more crowded, flowers larger with shorter calyx-teeth, and its own distinctive odor and taste.
    Commercial. -- English is regarded best, Japanese is consumed chiefly for obtaining menthol (50-80 p.c.), while United States produces most.
    CONSTITUENTS. -- Volatile oil 1 p.c. (menthol), resin, tannin, gum, chlorophyll.
    Oleum Menthae Piperitae.  Oil of Peppermint, U.S.P. -- (Syn., Ol. Menth. Pip., Peppermint Oil; Fr. Essence de Menthe poivree; Ger. Pfefferminzol.).  This volatile oil, distilled from the fresh, overground parts of the flowering plant and rectified by steam distillation, is a colorless liquid, strong penetrating odor of peppermint, pungent taste, followed by a senation of cold upon drawing air into the mouth; soluble in 4 vols. of 70 p.c. alcohol, showing not moe than slight opalescence and no separation of oil globules (abs. of dementholized or impure peppermint oil), sp. gr. 0.912, levorotatory; contains 16 constituents: at least 5 p.c. of esters, calculated as menthyl acetate, C10H19C2O2 and 50 p.c. of total mentol, free and as esters; also acetic and isovaleric acids, acetaldehyde, isovaleric aldehyde, amyl alcohol, pinene, phellandrene, limonene, C10H16,  menthone, C10H18O, menthyl isovalerate, menthyl ester, cadinene, C15H24, a lactone, dimethyl sulphide; the hydrocarbons holding menthol dissolved are mainly the several terpenes (English -- pinene, phellandrene, sesquiterpene; Japanese -- sesquiterpene alone) with carvene odor, the higher boiling ones, (C15H24,having less pleasant odor; menthol and its esters (first 2 constituents) are most important, the others occurring in small quantities, being objectionable for flavoring and removed by rectification with steam.  Tests: 1. Distil oil 25 cc., collect the first 1 cc. and carefully superimpose it on 5 cc. of mercuric chloride T.S. -- no white film at zone of contact in 1 minute (abs. of dimethyl sulphide, found in non-rectified peppermint oils).  Should be kept cool, dark, in well-stoppered, amber-colored bottles.  Dose, mj-5 (.06-.3 cc.).
    ADULTERATIONS. -- Oil of erigeron, castor oil, oil of turpentine, oil of copaiba, oil of camphor, oil of sassafras, alcohol; the first, second, and third prevent its solubility in equal volume of 80 pc. alcohol; the fourth gives buttery mass with sulphuric acid; oils of turpentine, camphor, and sassafras each render its action with iodine more violent, the two latter being red with nitric acid; dementholized oil (lower sp. gr.).
    Menthol.  Menthol, C10H19OH, U.S.P. -- Pipmenthol, Peppermint Camphor; Fr. Alcool Mentholique, Menthol Gauche, Camphre de Menthe; Ger. Mentholum, Pfefferminzkampfer, Mentha-kampfer.)  This is a secondary alcohol (stearoptene), obtained from oil of peppermint or other mint oils (Japanese and Chinese oil of peppermint -- M. Arven'sis var. Piperas'cens, M. canaden'sis var. glabra'ta).  It is obtained by subjecting the volatile oil simply to refrigeration at -22.2 degrees C. (-8 degrees F.), by means of ice and salt; when solidified the temperature is allowed to rise gradually, the liquid portion poured off from time to time, and the crystals deprived of oil by expression; may purify by recrystallization.  It is in colorless, acicular crystals, strong peppermint-like odor and taste, with a sensation of warmth followed by cold upon drawing air into the mouth; soluble in alcohol, chloroform, ether, petroleum benzin, liquid petrolatum, fixed or volatile oils, glacial acetic acid, slightly in water; alcoholic solution neutral, levorotatory; melts at 43 degrees C. (110 degrees F.); triturated with an equal weight of either camphor, phenol, thymol, or chloral hydrate -- mixture becomes liquid; distilled with P2O5 yields menthene, C10H18, is a colorless liquid of pleasant odor.  Tests: 1. Heat 2 Gm. in open dish -- gradually volatilizes with residue .05 Gm. (abs. of wax, paraffin, inorganic substances).  2. Few crystals dissolved in glacial acetic acid 1 cc., + sulphuric acid 3 drops and nitric acid 1 drop -- not green (abs. of thymol).  Impurities: Wax, paraffin, thymol, magnesium sulphate, inorganic substances.  Should be kept cool, in well-closed containers.  Dose, gr. 1-2 (.06-.13 Gm.).
    PREPARATIONS. -- LEAVES AND TOPS: 1. Spiritus Menthae Piperitae, Spirit of Peppermint.  (Syn., Sp. Menth. Pip., Essence of Peppermint; Fr. Alcoolat (Essence) de Menthe poivree; Ger. (Englische) Pfefferminz (-essenz)-spiritus.)
    Manufacture: Macerate for 1 hour peppermint leaves 1 Gm. in 50 cc. of water, strongly express; mix oil of peppermint 10 cc. in alcohol 80 cc., add macerated leaves, and alcohol q.s. 100 cc., macerate mixture for 6 hours, frequently shaking, filter.  Should be kept in amber-colored bottles.  Dose, mx-30 (.6-2 cc.).
    Preps.:  1. Elixir Catharticum Compositum, N.F., 1.4 p.c.  2. Liquor Phosphori, N.F., ½ p.c.  3. Mistura Rhei Alkalina, N.F., 4/5 p.c.  5. Mistura Rhei Composita, N.F., 3.5 p.c.  6. Syrupus Ficus Compositus, N.F., 3/10 p.c.
    OIL: 1. Aqua Menthae Piperitae.  Peppermint Water.  (Syn., Aq. Menth. Pip.; Fr. Eau de Menthe poivree; Ger. Pfefferminzwasser.)
 Manufacture: 1/5 p.c.  Similar to Aquae Menthae Viridis, page 523.  Dose, 3ss-1 (15-30 cc.).
    2. Spiritus Menthae Piperitae, 10 p.c.  3. Acetum Aromaticum, N.F., 1/20 p.c.  4. Cataplasma Kaolini,N.F., 1/20 p.c.  5. Elixir Euphorbiae Compositum, N.F., 1/10 p.c.  6. Gargarisma Guaiaci Compositum, N.F., 1/5 p.c.  7. Lavatio Ori, N.F., ½ p.c.  8. Linimentum Opii Compositum, N.F., 2.5 p.c.  9. Mistura Carminativa, N.F., 1/20 p.c.  10. Mistura Chloroformi et Morphinae Composita, N.F., 1/5 p.c.  11.  Oleum Hyoscyami Compositum, N.F. 1/5 p.c.  12. Pilulae Catharticae Vegetabiles, N.F., 1/8 m.  13. Pilulae Rhei Compositae, N.F., 1/18 m.  14.  Tabellae Sodii Bicarbonatis, N.F., 1/20 m.  MENTHOL: 1. Menthol Camphoratum, N.F., 47.5 p.c., + camphor 47.5, alcohol 5.  2.  Inunctum Mentholis, N.F., 5 p.c., + hydrous wool fat 95.  3. Inunctum Mentholis Compositum, N.F., 5 p.c., + methyl salicylate 10, hydrous wool fat 85.  4. Nebula Mentholis, N.F., 2 p.c., + light liquid petrolatum q.s. 100.  5.  Nebula Mentholis Composita, N.F., 1 p.c., + camphor 1, methyl salicylate 1/2, eucalyptol 1/5 oil of cinnamon 1/5, light liquid petrolatum q.s. 100.  6. Petroxolinum Mentholis, N..F., 10 p.c.  7. Dentifricium, N.F., 1/6 p.c.  8. Dentilinimentum Aconiti Compositum, N.F., 36 p.c.  9. Dentilinimentum Aconiti et Iodi Compositum, N.F., 2 -1/5 p.c.  10.  Linimentum Sinapis Compositum, N.F., 2 p.c.  11. Liquor Antisepticus, N.F., 1/10 p.c.  12. Liquor Pepsini Antisepticus, N.F., 1/20 p.c.  13. Nebula Aromatica, N.F., 1/5 p.c.  14. Pulvis Antisepticus, N.F., 1/10 p.c.
    Unoff. Preps.:  LEAVES AND TOPS: Fluidextract, 3j-2 (4-8 cc.).  Infusion, 5 p.c., 3j-2 (30-60 cc.)  Syrup, 3j-4 (4-15 cc.).  Troches (each contains oil 1/7 m; .009 cc.).  MENTHOL: Plaster (Br.), 15 p.c., + yellow wax 10, rosin 75.
    PROPERTIES. -- Carminative, stimulant, nervine, antispasmodic.
    USES. -- Spasmodic stomach and bowel pains, flatulency, nausea, cholera morbus, diarrhea, dysentery, colic, dysmenorrhea, nervous headache, hiccough, heart palpitation, vomiting, as a flavoring agent; externally the oil and menthol for rheumatism, neuralgia, toothache, antibacterial.

Mentha spicata

    Mentha spicata, Linne', Mentha viridis, Linne'.  The dried leaves and tops with not more than than 2 p.c. of stems over 3 Mm. (1/8') thick, or other foreign organic matter.
    Habitat.  England, wild in Europe, N. America; cultivated in the United States.
    Syn.  Menth. Vir., Mint, Mackerel, Lady's Brown, Lamb or Common Garden Mint,  Lammint, Sage of Bethlehem, Herba Menthae Romanae (Acutae); Fr. Menthe (romaine)  verte, Baume vert; Ger. Grune Minze, Romische Minse.
    Spi-ca'ta.  L. spiked -- i.e., the flowers.
    Vir'i-dis.  L. green -- i.e., the stem.
    Spear'mint -- spur + mint, from its spiry, spear-like inflorescence.
    PLANT. -- Perennial herb; rootstocks with elongated suckers, by which it multiplies extensively; stems .6-1.3 M. (2-4 degrees) high, acutely quadrangular, branches opposite, smooth, often tinged with purple; flowers Aug.-Sept., spikes, calyx tubular, 5-toothed, corolla 4-lobed, light purple.  LEAVES, ovate-lanceolate, 1-9 Cm. (2/5-3 3/5') long, unequally serrate, nearly sessile, or petiole only 4 Mm (1/6') long, bright green, somewhat glandular-hairy on under surface; more or less crumpled and mixed with large proportion of the light brown, purplish stems, occasionally with their characteristic opposite branches; stems distinctly quadrangular, 1-3 Mm. (1/25-1/8') thick, nearly glabrous; flowers in opposite clusters, or more or less interrupted or crowded, lanceolate, nearly acute spikes; bracts linear-lanceolate, subulate, 7-10 Mm. (1/4-2/5') long, subtending the flower clusters; calyx tubular, 5-toothed, glandular-punctate, somewhat pubescent near the teeth; corolla nearly white, light brown; stamens exserted; odor slightly pungent, characteristic; taste aromatic, characteristic, not followed by cooling sensation in the mouth.  POWDER, green-closely resembles that of peppermint but without crystals from the globular heads of the glandular hairs.  Should be collected in dry weather, Aug.-Sept., just as flowers appear, if for oil, just after flowers have expanded, and is heavier, weaker and less pungent than peppermint, being probably the cultivated form of M. Longifo'lia (sylves'tris), Horse-mint; loses on drying 75-85 p.c.  Solvents: alcohol; water partially.  Dose, gr. 30-60 (2-4 Gm.).
    ADULTERATIONS. -- Mostly through carelessness -- leaves of other Mentha species, chiefly M. piperita, sometimes 30-50 p.c. in that coming from the South (Va., N. Ca., S. Ca.); its own odor and taste (lack of coldness), unequally serrate sessile leaves, slender interrupted spikes and long calyx teeth should suffice for ready recognition.
    CONSTITUENTS. -- Volatile oil .5 p.c., resin, tannin, gum.
    Oleum Menthae Viridis.  Oil of Spearmint, U.S.P. -- (Syn., Ol. Menth. Vir., Spearmint Oil; Fr. Essence de Menthe verte; Ger. Krauseminzol, Romisch Minzol.)  This volatile oil, distilled from the flowering plant (fresh or partly dried) is a colorless, yellow, greenish-yellow liquid, characteristic odor and taste of spearmint; soluble in 80 p.c. alcohol (1) with clear solution that becomes cloudy on further dilution with alcohol, sp. gr. 0.925, levorotatory; contains at least 43 p.c. of carvone, C10H14O, limonene, C20H16, 43 p.c., possibly pinene, C10H16, and an unidentified alcohol, C10H17OH.  It is preserved for a long time by adding 3-4 p.c. of alcohol.  Should be kept cool, dark, in well-stoppered amber-colored bottles.  Dose, mj-5 (.06-.3 cc.).
    PREPARATIONS. -- LEAVES AND TOPS: 1. Spiritus Menthae Viridis, Spirit of Spearmint.  (Syn., Sp. Menth. Vir., Essence of Spearmint, Tinctura Olei Menthae Viridis; Ger. Grune Minzessenz.)
    Manufacture: Macerate for 1 hour spearmint leaves 1 Gm. in water 50 cc., strongly express; mix oil of spearmint 10 cc. in alcohol 80, add macerated leaves, and alcohol q.s. 100 cc., macerate mixture for 6 hours, frequently shaking, filter.  Should be kept in amber-colored bottles.  Dose, mx-30 (.6-2 cc.).
    Prep.: 1. Elixir Manacae Compositum, N.F., 1.5 p.c.
    OIL: 1. Aqua Menthae Viridis.  Spearmint Water.  (Syn., Aq. Menth. Vir.; Fr. Eau de Menthe verte; Ger. Romisch Minzwasser.)
    Manufacture: 1/5 p.c.  Similar to Aquae Aromaticae: shake often during 15 minutes, oil .2 cc. with distilled water 100, in a capacious bottle, set aside 12 hours or more, filter, adding distilled water q.s. 100 cc., or triturate oil .2 cc. with purified talc 1.5 Gm. and recently boiled distilled water q.s. 100 cc., filter until clear.  Dose, 3ss-1 (15-30 cc.).
    Prep.: 1. Liquor Sodae et Menthae, N.F., 98 p.c.
    2. Spiritus Menthae Viridis, 10 p.c.  3. Elixir Catariae et Faeniculi, N.F., 1/10 p.c.
    Unoff. Preps.: LEAVES AND TOPS: Infusion, 5 p.c., 3j-2 (30-60 cc.).  Fluidextract, 3j-2 (4-8 cc.).  LEAVES AND TOPS, OR OIL: Syrup, 3j-4 (4-15 cc.).
    PROPERTIES. -- Carminative, stimulant, nervine; flavoring.
    USES. -- Same as peppermint, but as it is much milder it is to be preferred in disorders of infancy, culinary purposes, confectionery, perfumery--flavoring chewing gum, world celebrated mint julep, mint sauce, peas and other green vegetables.


    Menyan'thes trifolia'ta, Buckbean, Bogbean, Water Shamrock. -- The root (rhizome), U.S.P. 1820-1830; dried leaves; United States.  Perennial herb, 2.5-3.7 M. (8-12 degrees) high; rhizome 1-2.5 Cm. (2/5-l') thick, slightly longer, branching, black; leaves on petioles, 10-15 Cm. (4-6') long, ternate, leaflets sessile, 5-8 Cm. (2-3') long, obtuse, obovate, entire or crenate, smooth, pale green, inodorous, bitter; contains menyanthin (glucoside, yields menyanthol), mucilage, albumin, sucrose, fat, ash 10 p.c.  Tonic, febrifuge, emmenagogue, antiscorbutic, vermifuge; large doses emetic, purgative; rheumatism, scrofula, scurvy, dropsy, intermittents, jaundice, dyspepsia, worms.  Dose, gr. 15-30 (1-2 Gm.).


    Mitchel'la re'pens, Mitchella, Squaw Vine, Partridge-berry, N.F. -- The dried plant with not more than 5 p.c. of foreign organic matter; N. America.  Creeping evergreen of the woods, reaching .3-.6 M. (1-2 degrees) in length.  Occurs in loosely matted masses of -- branches, rhizomes, fine roots, stems and leaves; rhizomes brownish, filiform, roots fibrous; stems quadrangular; light green, striated; leaves opposite, dark green, smooth, coriaceous, ovate, entire, up to 2 Cm. (4/5') long, short petiole, lower surface shiny; flowers purplish, fragrant; fruit scarlet-red berry; odor faint; taste slightly bitter.  Powder, grayish-green -- numerous calcium oxalate raphides, epidermal cells, stomata, chlorenchyma cells, some with amorphous content, tracheae, parenchyma, starch grains; solvent: diluted alcohol; contains saponin-like substance, resin, wax, gum, sugar.  Tonic, astringent, diuretic; resembles chimaphila and viburnum, all at times being prescribed together.  Dose, 3ss-1 (2-4 Gm.); 1. Fluidextractum Mitchellae (diluted alcohol): Preps.: 1. Elixir Aletridis Compositum, 6.55 p.c.; 2. Elixir Heloniadis Compositum, 12.5 p.c


    Momor'dica Balsam'ina, Balsam Apple, E. India.--Climbing plant, also cultivated in gardens throughout the United States for its yellow cucumber-like fruit.  This is soaked in whisky and used domestically as a vulnerary.


    Monar'da puncta'ta, Horse-mint. -- The leaves and tops, U.S.P.  1820-1870; United States.  Perennial, .6-1 M. (2-3 degrees) high, stem branched, downy, leaves 5-7.5 Cm. (2-3') long, lanceolate, serrate, punctate, flowers yellow, spotted red with pinkish bracts, downy, calyx 5-toothed aromatic, pungent, bitter; contains volatile oil.  Carminative, stimlant, emmenagogue, nervine, diaphoretic, diuretic, flatulent colic, nausea, rheumatism, neuralgia, diarrhea; in infusion.  Dose, gr. 15-60 (1-4 Gm.).  Oleum Meonardae (volatile oil), U.S.P. 1820-1870, is yellowish or reddish, sp. gr. 0.930; contains terpene C10H16, 50 p.c., thymol (monardin), C10H14O, 25-61 p.c., also alcohol, C10H18O, and its acetic butyric, and formic esters.

Morus rubra

    Mo'rus ru'bra, Red Mulberry. -- N. America.  Fruit in dense spikes with coalesced perianths, 2.5 Cm. (1') long, dark purple, fleshy; contains sugar 10 p.c., pectin, citrates, malates; refrigerant, flavoring.


    Mucu'na pru'riens, Cowhage, Cowitch. -- Hairs of the pods, U.S.P. 1840-1870; E. and W. Indies.  Climbing plant, flowers resemble those of the pea, purple; leaflets hairy; pods coriaceous, shape of italic letter f, 10 Cm. (4') long, covered with brown hairs, 2.5 Mm. (1/10') long, stiff, filled with brown granular matter, readily penetrating the skin, causing violent itching.  Detached from pods (which then are eaten as also when green in India) by dipping into honey, scraping into paste; contains resin, tannin.  Anthelmintic for round worms; irritant in paralysis; action on worms thought to be mechanical.  Dose, gr. 1-3 (.06-2 Gm.), followed by calomel, jalap; ointment also used.
    PREPARATION. -- (Unoff.): Spiritus Cajuputi (Br.), 10 p.c., dose, mv-20 (.3-1.3 cc.).
    PROPERTIES. -- Same as oil of clove; carminative, stimulant, diaphoretic, vermifuge, parasiticide, rubefacient, counter-irritant.
    USES. -- Rheumatism, myalgia, spasmodic affections of the stomach and bowels, catarrh of bladder, low fevers, gout, colic, cholera morbus, dysmenorrhea, laryngitis, bronchitis, toothache, chilblains.


    Myri'ca cerif'era, or M. Carolinen'sis, Myrica, Bayberry Bark, Wax Myrtle Bark, N.F. -- Myricaceae.  The dried bark of the root with not more than 5 p.c. of adhering wood or other foreign organic matter; S. United States; dry woods, fields.  Dense evergreen shrub, 1.5-3 M. (4.5-9 degrees) high, grayish; leaves oblong, entire, fragrant dark green; flowers, staminate -- yellow catkins, pistillate -- greenish aments; fruit, bluish-white drupes, waxy.  Bark (root) in transversely curved pieces, strips, quills, varying length, up to 20 Mm. (4/5') broad, 1-2.5 Mm. (1/25-1/10') thick, rarely 5 Mm. (1/5' -- aerial stem), grayish, brownish, scaly, occasional warts lenticels, inner surface brownish, striated; fracture short, weak, uneven; odor characteristic; taste astringent, bitter, acrid.  Powder, reddish-brown -- numerous starch grains, calcium oxalate crystals, lignified fibers, stone cells, gummy lignin, few tracheae; contains resins myricinic acid, tannin, red coloring, fat, gum, starch.  Alterative, cholagogue, diuretic, sialagogue, astringent, tonic; diarrhea, scrofula, jaundice.  Dose, gr. 5-30 (.3-2 Gm.); 1. Pulvis Myricae Compositus, Composition Powder, 60 p.c. + ginger 30, capsicum 5, clove 5 -- stimulant, carminative.  Dose, gr. 10-20 (.6-1.3 Gm.).  Extract, gr. 5 (.3 Gm.).


    Myristica fragransHoultuym.  The dried ripe seed deprived of seed-coat -- the kernel, with or without thin coating of lime, yielding not less than 25 p.c. non-volatile, ether-soluble extractive, nor more than .5 p.c. acid-insoluble ash.
    Habitat.  Molucca Islands; cultivated in tropics, India, Philippine Islands, Amboyna,  Boura, New Guinea, E. Indies, W. Indies, S. America, Ceylon, Sumatra, Java, etc.
    Syn.  Myrist., Nutmeg.  Round Nutmeg; Fr. Muscade des Moluques, Noix Muscade, Nux Muschata, Nuces  Nucistae; Ger. Semen Myriaticae, Muskatnusa, Myriaticassamen.
    My-ris'ti-ca.  L. See etymology, page 190, of Myristicaceae.
    Fra'grans.  L. fragran(t)s, sweet-scented -- i.e., from its fragrant odor.
    Nut'met.  OE, nut + musk, corrupted into meg -- i.e., from its odor.
    PLANT -- Evergreen tree 7.5-15 M. (25-60 degrees) high, much branched, bark brownish-gray, smooth, young branches green; leaves leathery, smooth, entire, 10-15 Cm. (4-6') long, acute at both ends, prominently veined, dark green; flowers dioecious, small, yelow, fruit pendulous, smooth, yellow, 7.5 Cm. (3') long, 5 Cm. (2') wide, resenbling a peach, but grooved by a longitudinal furrow, pericarp, 12 Mm. (1/2') thick, tough, fleshy, with astringent juice, yellowish-white, dehiscing from above along the furrow into 2 equal valves that become dry and coriacous when ripe, and from between which readily falls out the erect, blunt, single seed closely enveloped, reticulately furrowed and almost completely covered by an irregularly cut fleshy arillus (mace); when deprived of this latter the seed-testa is dark brown, hard, thick, smooth, shining, woody; inner seed-coat thin, membranous, pale brown.  KERNEL (myristica, nutmeg), ovoid, ellipsoidal, 20-30 Mm. (4/5-1 1/5') long, 15-20 Mm. (3/5-4/5') thick, light brown, retuculately furrowed from the tightly oppressed arillus, brown end with large circular, upraised scar from which arises a groove extending to a depression at opposite end (chalaza), easily cut, surface having waxy luster, mottled from light brown perisperm penetraing into the yellowish-brown endosperm; longitudinal section through endosperm above large scar shows cavity with shrunken remains of embryo and usually with a growth of mold; odor characteristically aromatic; taste pungently aromatic.  POWDER, reddish-brown -- fragments of perisperm with reservoirs containing volatile oil, parenchyma cells filled with aleurone and starch grains, .003-.02 Mm. (1/8325-l/1250') broad -- blue with iodine T.S., whereas starch in mace--yellowish-red; occasional tracheae; mounts in chloral hydrate T.S. -- shows numerous globules of fixed oil, which may separate in rod-like crystals; mounts in fixed oil--show separated aggregates of crystals which strongly polarize light; powder from "limed" nutmegs under microscope, upon adding water containing 25 p.c. of sulphuric acid--show separation of calcium sulphate crystals (needles, short rods) which do not polarize light.  Some accept the hard testa and kernel as the seed, like peach seed, but the U.S.P. recognizes solely the kernel or nucleus, that central part left after the fleshy portion, arillus, and hard testa have been removed.  Those that are broken, of light weight, feeble odor and taste, musty, wormy and black-veined should be rejected.  Solvents: alcohol; ether.  Dose, gr. 5-20 (.3-1.3 Gm.).
    ADULTERATIONS. -- KERNELS: Rare -- those punctured, boiled, and plugged, recognized by lightness, insect ravages, and pegs (on breaking open); also false nutmegs, in spite of easy detection; Papua (large), Macassar (small) -- M. Fatua and M. Argentea -- both longer, more narrow and pointed, the former with little aroma after drying, the latter more brittle and aromatic, and furrowed with 4 broad stripes.  POWDER (GROUND): Common -- partially or wholly exhausted refuse, from percolation or ditillation.
    Commercial. -- Plant prefers light soil, shade, and moist climate, produces fruit when 8-9 years old, matures at 25, and yields annually for 60-70 years.  Fruit was unknown to the ancients, Avicenna being the first to notice it, and is collected when split on one or both sides, the first to notice it, and is collected when split on one or both sides, Sept.-Dec., (also April-June) by means of a hook on a long pole, or by hand, placed into baskets, pericarp and arillus removed, and the seed, spread on frames to dry by sun or fire at 60 degrees C. (140 degrees F.), being turned over every few days for 2 months.  When kernels rattle in the shells, the latter are cracked off with mallets, and the former assorted, the best being rubbed over with powdered lime and packed in white-washed casks or chests for market.  The Chinese are supplied with uncracked seed, while inferior grades are utilized for expressing the fixed oil.  There are several varieties: 1, Unlimed (Brown, Penang, Singapore), as above described, sometimes oily to the touch, and mixed with clove; 2. Limed (Dutch, Batavian), prepared in the Banda Islands by steeping the dried seed for a short time in a mixture of salt water and lime (a protection against insect attacks, and possibly to kill the embryo thereby restricting the culture to their own provinces), then exposing to the sun several days and packing for market; 3, Artificial, prepared by compressing a mixture of earthy and powdery matter, being less aromatic than the genuine, also soft and crumbly when in boiling water 3 minutes; contains volatile oil 2 p.c., fat 15 p.c., ash 11-18 p.c.
    CONSTITUENTS. -- Volatile oil 2-8-15 p.c., fixed oil 25-30 p.c., starch, proteins, mucilage, ash 2-5 p.c.
    Oleum Myristicae.  Oil of Myristica, U.S.P. -- (Syn., Ol. Myrist., Myristica Oil, Oil of Nutmeg, Oleum Nucistae Aethereum; Fr. Essence de Muscade; Ger. Oleum Macidis, Aetherisches Muskatnussol.)  This volatile oil, distilled from the dried kernels of the ripe seed with water or steam, is a colorless, pale yellow liquid, characterisic odor and taste of nutmeg; soluble in alcohol (1), in 90 p.c. alcohol (3), sp. gr. 0.859-0.924, dextrorotatory; contains d-pinene and d-camphene 80 p.c., dipentene 8 p.c., eugenol, safrol, myristicol, C10H160.  The nutmeg camphor (once thought to be myristin), which sometimes settles on standing, is myistic acid.  Tests: 1. Evaporate 3 Gm. on water-bath -- residue .06 Gm.  2. Recently distilled oil in alcohol (1)--neutral or only slightly acid.  Should be kept cool, dark, in well-stoppered, amber-colored bottles.  Dose, mij-3 (.13-.2 cc.).
    Fixed Oil.  (Oleum Hyristicae Expressum, Oleum Nucistae.) -- Obtained by bruising nutmegs, exposing them in a bag to steam, and expression between heated plates; the oil runs out a liquid, but congeals upon cooling; often called nutmeg butter, and improperly oil of mace; it is an orange-brown solid, sp. gr. 0.995, melting at 45 degrees C. (113 degrees F.), soluble in hot ether (2), hot alcohol (4); consists mainly of myristin, with some myristic acid, palmitin, olein, resin, volatile oil 6 p.c.  Dose, gr. 2-5 (.13-.3 Gm.).
    PREPARATIONS. -- I. SEED: 1. Tinctura Lavandulae Composita, 1 p.c.  2. Tinctura Rhei Aromatica, 2 p.c.  3. Pulvis Aromaticus, N.F., 15 p.c.  4. Pulvis Cretae Aromaticus, N.F., 6 p.c.  5. Syrupus Sennae Aromaticus, N.F., 1/5 p.c.  II OIL: 1. Spiritus Ammoniae Aromaticus, 2/20 p.c.  2. Elixir Pepsini et Rennini Compositum, N.F., 1/100 p.c.  3. Mistura Oleo-Balsamica, N.F., 2/5 p.c. Spiritus Myristicae (Br.), 20 p.c.  Dose, mv-20 (.3-1.3 cc.).
    PROPERTIES. -- Stimulant, stomachic, narcotic, flavoring, condiment, increases gastric juice, digestion, appetite; large doses, like camphor, act on the cerebrum, causing stupor, delirium.
    USES. -- Flatulence, gastric debility, diarrhea, dysentery, vomiting, colic, dyspepsia, flavoring, condiments.
    Allied Products:
    1. Macis, Mace. -- The arillode of the seed of Myristica fragrans, U.S.P. 1850-1900.  When fruit first gathered the fleshy pericarp is removed, the thin coating (arillode) enveloping the seed peeled off with a knife, then sprinkled with salt water, as a preservative, and dried by sun or fire; or it may be allowed to remain on the seed until thoroughly dry, when it freely cracks and peels off.  It is a brilliant, scarlet (fresh), or brownish-orange (dry), brittle, in narrow bands, 2.5 Cm. (1') long, branched, lobed above fatty when scratched or pressed, fracture short, showing many oil-cells; odor fragrant; taste warm, aromatic; contains volatile oil (oleum macidis) 4-9-17-35 p.c., resin 25 p.c., sugar 1 p.c., amylodextrin 1.8 p.c., fixed oil, mucilage, proteins (no starch), ash 1-3 p.c.; solvent: alcohol.  Tinctura Macidis, 20 p.c. (alcohol).  Adulterations: Common (entire and powdered) -- nutmeg, starch, ginger, and mace of M. Malabar'ica and M. Fatua; this latter readily being detected by darker reddish color, more fatty, resinous, lustrous surface, weaker taste and odor, yielding 10 times more ether-extract, and microscopic specimen turning dark brown with potassium hydroxide solution, becoming yellow with sulphuric acid.  Stimulant, tonic, flavoring.  Dose, gr. 5-20 (.3-1.3 Gm.).
    2. False, Long, Wild, Male Nutmegs -- M. Fat'ua and M. Argen'tea. -- These are 4-5 Cm. (1 3/5-2') long, paler and less aromatic than official, the mace inodorous and less deeply lobed.


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