The Cayce Herbal 
 A Comprehensive Guide to the  
Botanical Medicine of Edgar Cayce
A Manual of Materia Medica and Pharmacology
by David M. R. Culbreth, Ph.G., M.D. (1927)


    Pala'quium Gut'ta, and P. Oblongifo'lium, Gutta-percha. -- Sapotaceae.  The purified, coagulated, milky exudation, U.S.P. 1860-1880; Malayan Peninsula and Islands, Singapore, Borneo.  Tree, 18-21 M. (60-70 degrees) high, .6-1 M. (2-3 degrees) thick; bark reddish-gray; leaves 10-12..5 Cm. (4-5') long, tomentose, silky beneath; flowers yellowish.  Gutta-percha is obtained by incisions, or by felling trees, removing bark, and catching juice in plantain-leaf stalks, palm leaves, or cocoanut shells; it soon coagulates and occurs in yellowish, grayish masses, hard, heavier than water, flexible, plastic at 50 degrees C. (122 degrees F.), decomposes on melting; inodorous; tasteless; soluble in ether, chloroform, oil of turpentine, carbon disulphide; contains gutta, C20H32, 80 p.c., fine white powder; fluavil, C10H32O, yellow resin; albane, C20H32O2, white resin.  Used in surgery for splints, catheters, bougies, specula, pessaries, syringes, etc.  Liquor Guttae Perchae, U.S.P. 1860-1880, 15 p.c., + lead carbonate 17, chloroform q.s. 100; employed as an adhesive and protective agent for wounds, abrasions, skin affections, sore nipples, erysipelas, smallpox, etc.

Panax quinquefolium

    Pa'nax quinquefo'lium (Aralia quinquefo'lia), Panax, Ginseng. -- The root, U.S.P. 1840-1870; N. America.  Small shrub, .3 M. (1 degree) high, smooth, leaflets 5's, serrate; flowers yellowish, fruit scarlet; root 5-12.5 Cm. (2-5') long, fusiform, annulate, branched, brownish-yellow, wood yellowish, sweetish, aromatic; contains panaquilon, resin, volatile oil, starch, gum.  Stimulant, demulcent, stomachic; infusion, decoction, tincture.  The Chinese Ginseng (Aralia Gin'seng) is very similar to this, slightly larger.  Used natively as nervine, aphrodisiac.  Dose, 3ss-2 (2-8 Gm.).

Papaver rhoeas

    Papaver Rhoe'as, Rhoeados Petala, Red Poppy Petals Br. -- Europe; flowers large, beautiful red, petals mainly used for their coloring matter, which is yielded to water; its milky juice is sedative, demulcent, mild anodyne, probably due to rhoeadine, also contains two coloring principles -- rhoeadic and papaveric acids.  Syrupus Rhoeados (Br.), 26 p.c.  Dose 3ss-1 (2-4 cc.).


    Passiflo'ra incarna'ta, Passion Flower (Vine), N.F. -- Passifloraceae.  The dried flowering and fruiting top with not more than 5 p.c. of stems over 8 Mm. (1/3') thick or other foreign matter; S. United States (Va., N.C.).  Slender climbing plant; stems glabrous, pubescent, variable length, 6-8 Mm. (1/4-1/3') thick, striate, woody, hollow, bark thin, greenish, purplish; wood porous, fracture uneven, fibrous; leaves broken, thick, glabrous or pubescent, orbicular, cordate, 3-5-lobed, serrate; many tendrils; flowers yellow, corona purplish, monadelphous in a tube; fruit, many-seeded berry; seed flat, yellowish; odor and taste slight.  Powder, light green -- non-glandular hairs, pith and wood parenchyma, tracheae, chlorenchyma and epidermal cells, stomata, calcium oxalate rosettes; solvent: diluted alcohol; contains alkaloid, ash 3-12 p.c.  Narcotic, anodyne, nerve sedative; insomnia, restlessness, neuralgia, convulsions, epilepsy, tetanus; burns hemorrhoid, diarrhea.  Dose, gr. 5-10 (.3-.6 Gm.); 1. Tinctura Passiflorae, 20 p.c. (diluted alcohol), dose, mx-30 (.6-2 cc.); Inspissated juice of leaves, 3j-4 (4-15 cc.).


    Paullin'ia Cupa'na, Guarana, N.F. -- Sapindaceae.  A dried paste consisting chiefly of the crushed seed, yielding not less than 4 p.c. of caffeine; N. and W. Brazil, Guiana, Venezuela.  Woody climbing shrub; leaves imparipinnate; flowers yellowish; fruit size of grape, small horse-chestnut, 6-ribbed, splitting into 3 divisions, exposing 3 rounded brownish seed, size of filberts.  Paste (guarana), usually cylindrical sticks 3-5 Cm. (1 1/5-2') thick, elliptical cakes, dark reddish-brown, hard, heavy; fracture uneven, often fissured in the center; internally pale reddish-brown, coarsely granular; odor slight; taste slightly astringent, bitter.  Powder, light pinkish-brown -- parenchyma, altered and unaltered starch grains, sclerenchymatous cells with thick yellowish-non-lignified walls.  Test: 1. Place .001 Gm. on slide, + 1 drop of gold chloride T.S., let stand -- crystals of caffeine and gold chloride separate in orthorhombic plates and needles; solvent: 75 p.c. alcohol; contains caffeine (guaranine) 3-5 p.c., tannin 26 p.c., resin, volatile oil, fixed oil, catechin, saponin, starch, gum, ash 2-5 p.c.   Nervine, stimulant, tonic, astringent -- similar to coffee, tea, mate'; produces gayety, restlessness, quick perception, wakefulness; slows pulse, impairs appetite, occasions vesical irritation; nervous sick headache (migraine), such as occurs with menstruation and debauch, attended with bloodshot eyes and throbbing head; diarrhea of phthisis, convalescence, general tonic.  Native Indians used powder mixed with cassava or chocolate as food, and the grated (filled -- 1-2 teaspoonfuls) suspended in cold sweetened water (1 cup) as their habitual exhilarating yellow beverage, similar to our coffee and tea, which in excess may cause palsy; however, readily controlled by effort.  Dose, gr. 15-60 (1-4 Gm.); 1. Fluidextractum Guaranae (75 p.c. alcohol) -- contains 3.6-4.4 p.c. of caffeine, dose mxv-60 (1-4 cc.): Preps.: 1. Elixir Guaranae, 20 p.c., + aromatic elixir 20, comp. elixir of taraxacum q.s. 100;  2. Elixir Guaranae et Apii, 15 p.c., + fldext. celery fruit 15, fldglycer. glycyrrhiz., 3, glycerin 6, elix. aromatic q.s. 100, dose, each, 3j-3 (4-12 cc.).  Extract, gr. 2-5 (.13-.3 Gm.): Infusion, 5 p.c., 3j-2 (30-60 cc.), Syrup, 3ij-4 (8-15 cc.);  Tincture (extract 1, alcohol 30), 3j-4 (4-15 cc.).  Sapin'dus margina'tus, S. Sapona'ria, Wild China Tree; S. United States.  Fruit, resembling that of azedarach, used as antiperiodic; fruits of many species of this genus substituted for soap -- soap berries -- in the tropics.


    Petroseli-num sati-vum, Petroselinum, Parsley Fruit, U.S.P. 1910. -- The dried ripe fruit with not more than 5 p.c. of foreign seeds and other matter; S. Europe, Asia Minor, United States, cultivated in gardens universally.  Annual herb, .6-1.2 M. (2-4 degrees) high, stem furrowed, jointed; root biennial, conical 15 Cm. (6') long, 12 Mm (1/2') thick, annulate, yellowish.  Fruit, cremocarp, ovoid-crescent-shaped, 2-3 Mm. (1/12- 1/8') long, grayish-brown, brownish on aging, mericarps 2, separate, each with 5 filiform prominent ribs, commissural suface with 2 vittae, dorsal 1-2 vittae, endosperm large, oily; odor and taste characteristic, aromatic, especially when bruised; solvents: alcohol, water partially; contains volatile oil 5-6 p.c., apiol (white crystals), resin, fixed oil, 12 p.c., cariol, apiin, apiolin (greenish liquid), tannin, mucilage, ash 7 p.c.  Diuretic, stimulant, emmenagogue, carminative, antiperiodic, insecticide, germicide; nephritic, cystitis, dropsy, amenorrhea, dysmenorrhea (beginning 3-4 days before the molimen); fresh juice in intermittents; root used similarly.  Dose, gr 10-30 (.6-2 Gm.).  Apiol, gr. 3-8 (.2-.5 Gm.); Oleoresin, mv 15 (.3-1 cc.).


    Physostigminae Salicylas.  Physostigmine Salicylate, C15H21O2N3. - C7H6O3, U.S.P.
    Physostigma venenosum, Balfour.  The salicylate of an alkaloid obtained from the dried ripe seed.
    Habitat.  W. Africa (near mouths of Niger and Old Calabar Rivers, in the Gulf of  Guinea); introduced into India and Brazil.
    Syn.  Calabar Bean, Ordeal Bean, Chop Nut, Split Nut; Physostigmatis Semina; Fr. Feve  de Calabar; Ger. Faba Calabarica, Kalabarbohne; Physostig. Salicyl., Eserine Salicylate;  Fr. Salicylate d'Eserine Salicylate; Fr. Salicylate d'Eserine; Ger. Physostigminum  salicylieum, Physostigminsalicylat.
    Phy-so-stig'ma.  L. fr. Gr...., a bladder, + ..., stigma -- i.e., stigmatic appendage is  hollow and inflated.
    Ven-e-no'sum.  L. venenosus, full of poison, poisonous -- i.e., plant's property.
    Cal'a-bar Bean -- i.e., bean from the Calabar district on W. African coast.
    PLANT. -- Woody, perennial climber; stem 12-15 M. (40-50 degrees) long, 5 Cm. (2') thick, smooth; root spreading; leaves large pinnately trifoliate, leaflets 7.5-15 Cm. (3-6') long, ovate pointed; flowers purplish, racemes; fruit June-Sept., legume 10-17.5 Cm. (4-7') long, compressed, pale brown, 2-valved, dehiscent, inside woolly, 2-3-seeded.  Seed, oblong, ellipsoidal, somewhat compressed reniform, 15-30 Mm. (3/5-1 1/5') long, 10-15 Mm. (2/5-3/5') broad, 12 Mm. (1/2') thick, reddish, chocolate-brown, smooth, brownish-black groove, 2 Mm. (1/12') wide, extending almost the entire length of convex edge, margins of seedcoat on both sides of the groove somewhat elevated, brownish-red and thickened; 2 concavo-convex cotyledons; taste at first starchy, afterward acrid.  Powder, grayish-white -- numerous starch grains, fragments of seed-coat with thick cells resembling stone cells, occasional fragments with tracheae.  Embryo 72 p.c., integuments 28 p.c., the former when moistened with potassium hydroxide T.S. -- pale yellow; solvent: alcohol.  Dose, gr 1-4 (.06-.26 Gm.).
    ADULTERATIONS. -- P. cylindrosper'ma, seed 4 Cm. (1 3/5') long, nearly cylindrical, groove and hilum shorter, not extending quite to the end; En'tada scan'dens, seed round, flat, 5 Cm. (2') broad (poisonous), also Elae'is guineen'sis, Oil Palm Seed, and seeds of Mucuna species, none of which resemble Calabar bean.
    Commercial. -- Plant first noticed medicinally in 1846, and, except ligneous stem, resembles our Strong and Lima Beans (Phase'olus multiflo'rus and P. luna'tus), preferring banks of streams into which the fruit often falls only to be dispersed and conveyed to settlers more or less remote.
    CONSTITUENTS. -- Physostigmine (eserine) .1 p.c., eseridine, physovenine (strong myotic), eseroline, eseramine, C16H25O3N (crystalline physiologically inactive), calabarine (liquid, not yet obtained pure, antagonistic to physostigmine, tetanic, may cause diarrhea and convulsions, soluble in alcohol, water, insoluble in ether), phytosterin -- separable into sitosterin 80 p.c., stigmosterin 20 p.c., which crystallizes with 1 molecule of H2O, inactive, starch 48 p.c., proteins (albumin) 23 p.c., gum, fat, ash 3-4 p.c.
    Physostigmine, C15H21O2N3. -- Chiefly in embryo; claimed to be a reduction product of geneserine, C15H32O3N3, and is obtained by mixing powdered bean with 1 p.c. of tartaric acid, exhausting with alcohol, evaporating, treating residue with water, agitating filtrate with ether to remove color adding sodium bicarbonate, shaking with ether, evaporating, getting colorless, amorphous physostigmine; hygroscopic, liquefies at 45 degrees C. (113 degrees F.), tasteless, soluble in alcohol, ether, chloroform, benzene, carbon disulphide, slightly in water; forms salts (benzoate, citrate, hydrobromide, hydrochloride, nitrate, etc.).  With alkalies or chlorinated lime yields red rubreserine; with sulphuric acid gives yellow, then olive-green.  Dose, gr. 1/120-1/60 (.0005-.001 Gm.).
    Physostigminae Salicylas.  Physostigmine Salicylate, C15H21O2N3. C7H6O3, U.S.P. -- Obtained by neutralizing alcoholic or ethereal solution of physostigmine with salicylic acid, allowing to crystallize; it is in colorless, faintly yellow, shining crystals, odorless, acquiring red tint on cold, saturated aqueous solution neutral or faintly acid, usually pink on standing.  Tests: 1. Aqueous solution with ferric chloride T.S.--deep violet color; solution of .1 Gm. + 2 cc. of sulphuric acid -- not darker than yellow within 5 minutes (abs. of readily carbonizable substances).  2. Evaporate .005 Gm. to dryness with a few drops of ammonia T.S. -- blue residue, which dissolved in alcohol, + acetic acid in excess--red, fluorescent solution; cold saturated solution 5 cc., + few drops of sodium hydroxide T.S. -- pink color rapidly develops; incinerate .1 Gm. -- ash negligible.  Impurities: Sulphate, readily carbonizable substances.  Should be kept dark, in small, well-closed containers.  Dose, gr. 1/120-1/60 (.0005-.001 Gm.).
    Eseridine, C15H22O3N3. -- By some thought to be calabarine, is a derivative of physostigmine, from which it differs by containing H2O, and into which it can be converted by dilute acids; obtained from its mother-liquor by precipitating with lead subacetate and ammonia, evaporating filtrate, treating residue with alcohol, precipitating with phosphotungstic acid, decomposing with baryta; occurs in 4-sided crystals, soluble in alcohol, chloroform, ether, acts similar to physostigmine.  Dose, gr. 1/20-1/10 (.003-.006 Gm.).
    PREPARATIONS (Unoff.).  SEED: Extract, gr. 1/10-1/2 (.006-.03 Gm.), Tincture, 10 p.c. (alcohol), mv-20 (.3-1.3 cc.).  Lamellae Physostigminae (Br. -- sulphate), 1/1000 gr. (.00006 Gm.).
    PROPERTIES. -- Sedative, myotic, motor depressant, paralyzant, emetic, purgative, diaphoretic, sialagogue, poisonous.  Stimulates salivary, gastric, and intestinal secretions, peristalsis, acting directly upon the unstriped muscle-fibers, quickens breathing, then retards it, heart becomes slow and irregular, but more powerful, finally feeble and ceasing altogether, depresses, ultimately paralyzes spinal cord reflex, and motor centers.
    USES. -- Tetanus, chorea, epilepsy, progressive paralysis, tonic convulsions, gastralgia, strychnine and atropine poisoning, constipation (combined with belladonna and nux vomica).  Externally -- in neuralgia, muscular rheumatism, malignant tumors.  Physostigmine salicylate (1/2 p.c. in water, few drops into eye) for breaking up ocular adhesions (iris, cornea, lens), lessen intra-ocular tension, iritis, corneal ulcers, prolapsed iris, paralysis of the iris accommodation following diphtheria, glaucoma.  In Africa as ordeal bean of Calabar for punishing criminals and for witchcraft, the accused having to eat them until they vomit or die: if former, innocent; latter, guilty (?).  A paste of 20 seed will kill.
    Poisoning: Have nausea, giddiness, abdominal pain, indistinct vision, diminished heart action, muscular tremors and weakness, then complete relaxation, retarded respiration, motor paralysis, sphincters contract, cold extremities, skin covered with cholera-like sweat.  Conscious until death, which is caused by carbon dioxide narcosis, and paralysis of the respiratory centers and heart-muscle.  Evacuate stomach (emetics pump); give atropine (physiological antidote) hypodermically, gr. 1/20 (.002 Gm.); tannin, chloral hydrate (spine), strychnine, diffusible stimulants, coffee, ammonia, digitalis, alcohol, artificial heat and respiration, electricity.  Empty bladder often (catheter, as the drug is eliminated by kidneys (bile and saliva), and urine becomes poisonous.
    Incompatibles: Vegetable astringents, tannin, caustic alkalies, atropine, chloral hydrate, motor and tetanizing excitants.
    Synergists: Motor depressants, conium, gelsemium, amyl nitrite, etc.


    Phytolac'ca america'na, Phytolacca, Poke Root, N.F. -- Phytolaccaceae.  The dried root with not more than 5 p.c. of stem-bases nor 2 p.c. of other foreign organic matter; N. America, waste places.  Perennial herb, 1.3-2.5 M. (4-8degrees) high, stem annual, 2.5-5 Cm. (1-2') thick, purplish, hollow; leaves 12.5 Cm. (5') long, ovate, smooth, rich-green, entire; flowers greenish-white, racemes; fruit purplish berry, 8 Mm. (1/3') thick, transverse or longitudinal slices, yellowish-brown, longitudinally wrinkled, annulate; internally fibro-vascular tissue and parenchyma, the latter much retracted; odor slight, taste sweetish, acrid.  Powder, brownish-yellow, sternutatory -- starch grains, calcium oxalate raphides, fragments of parenchyma, tracheae, cork tissue; solvents: diluted alcohol, boiling water; contains glucoside -- active, poisonous, saponin-like -- starch, sugar, calcium oxalate (phytolace-ine, -in, -ic acid).  Alterative, laxative, emetic, resolvent, anodyne, paralyzant; rheumatism, skin diseases, syphilis, ulcers, scabies, eczema, tonsillitis, diphtheria.  Poisoning: Symptoms and treatment similar to aconite.  Dose, alterative, gr. 1-5 (.06-.3 Gm.), emetic, gr. 10-30 (.6-2 Gm.); 1. Fluidextractum Phytolaccae (diluted alcohol), dose, mv-30 (.3-2 cc.); 2. Fluidextractum Trifolii Compositum, 10 p.c.  Decoction, 5 p.c., 3iv-8 (15-30 cc.); Tincture, 10 p.c., mx-60 (.6-4 cc.).  P. octan'dra, C. and S. America, and P. acin'sa, N. India, are used similarly.  All of these  furnish young shoots which in spring may be eaten for asparagus, spinach, etc., imparting no odor to urine, but when old none should be taken except in medicinal doses.


    Picram'nia pentand'ra (?), Cascara Amarga, Honduras Bark, N.F. -- The dried bark of an undetermined species with not more than 2 p.c. of foreign organic matter; C. America.  Large handsome tree.  Bark, quills 50 Cm. (20') long, 3 Cm. (1 1/5') broad, bark 8 Mm. 1/3' thick, sometimes broken curved pieces, yellowish-brown, grayish lichens, fissured, reddish-brown when cork removed; inner surface brownish, striated, transverse markings, groups of stone cells, odor faint; taste extremely bitter, persistent.  Powder, light brown--groups of bast-fibers, crystal- fibers, calcium oxalate prisms, stone cells, medullary ray tissue and parenchyma, starch grains, brown cork, lignified fibers; solvents: water, diluted alcohol; contains picramnine 3 p.c., starch 2 p.c., ash 4.5 p.c.  Alterative, bitter aromatic, agreeable flavor.  Dose, gr. 15-30 (1-2 Gm.); 1.  Fluidextractum Trifolii Compositum, 10.8 p.c.: Prep.: 1. Syrupus Trifolii Compositus, 30 p.c.


    Picrasma excelsa, (Swartz) Planchon, Quassia amara, Linne'.  The wood.
    Habitat.  1. W. Indies (Jamaica, St. Kitt's, Antigua, St. Vincent.  2. Surinam, W. Indies,  Brazil, Guiana, Columbia, Panama.
    Syn.  Quasa, Bitter Wood, Bitter (Ash, Bark) Quassia, Lofty Quassia, Bitterwood Tree;  Br. Quassiae Lignum; Fr. Quassia de la Jamaique, Bois (amer) de Quassia; Ger. Lignum  Quassiae, Quassiaholz.
    Pic-ras'ma.  L. fr Gr...., bitter -- i.e., the plant's chief property.
    Quas'si-a.  L. fr. Quassi, Quassy, Quash, name of Surinam negro slave who used the  bark as a secret remedy in curing malignant fevers (febrifuge).
    Ex-cel'sa.  L. excelsus; ex, out, + celsus, beyond, surpassing -- i.e., highest species of the  genus.
    A-ma'ra.  L. amarus, bitter -- i.e., the intense bitterness of the wood.
    PLANTS. -- Picrasma excelsa, tree 15-24 M. (50-80 degrees) high, .6-1 M. (2-3 degrees) thick, erect, spreading; bark grayish-brown, smooth, wrinkled; leaves imparipinnate, 4-5 pairs; leaflets 5-10 Cm. (2-4') long, ovate, petiolate, when young covered with fulvous down; flowers, Oct.-Nov., small, yellowish-green, panicles, polygamous; fruit, Dec.-Jan., black drupe, size of a pea; Quassia amara, small branching tree or shrub; flowers bright red, rather large racemes, hermaphrodite, decandrous; fruit 2-celled capsule, seed globular.  WOOD (P. excelsa): Jamaica, usually in chips, raspings, shavings occasionally billets 5-20 Cm. (2-8') thick, yellowish-white, with few light gray pieces somewhat coarsely grained; tracheae in groups 2-6, medullary rays 1-5 cells wide, 10-20 rows deep, calcium oxalate, starch grains; fracture tough, fibrous; odor slight; taste very bitter; Q. amara: Surinam, similar to preceding, but billets usually thinner, tracheae smaller, single or in pairs, medullary rays 1-2 cells wide, 10-30 rows deep, calcium oxalate crystals few or absent.  POWDER, yellowish-fragments of tracheae, bordered pores; wood-fibers, oblique pores; medullary rays and parenchyma with pores, calcium oxalate 4-6-sided prisms, crystal-fibers, starch grains.  Solvents: water, diluted alcohol.  Dose, gr. 15-60 (1-4 Gm.)
    Commercial. -- Plants resemble our common ash and contribute two varieties: 1. Jamaica (P. excelsa -- Quassia (Simaruba) excelsa), the larger, and furnishing most of the supply; 2, Surinam (Q. amara), the smaller and the original source of drug, upon which the slave Quassi established his own and its reputation, being prevailed upon to reveal his secret for compensation, 1756, when the wood was taken to Stockholm and soon became a popular remedy in Europe and elsewhere; owing to scarcity, smallness of plant, and great demand there arose the necessity of recognizing the larger and more abundant source.  The plants are felled, but into segments, 1-1.2 M. (3-4 degrees) long, 5-20 Cm. (2-8') thick, and shipped from Jamaica or Surinam with or without the bark, and upon reaching us are turned into cups, etc., reserving the shavings for store use; the wood at first is white, but changes by age to yellow.
    CONSTITUENTS. -- Picrasmin (quassiin) .05-.15-.75 p.c., alkaloid (yellowish, blue fluorescence with acidified alcohol), resin, mucilage, pectin; Surinam quassia also contains trace of tannin, giving black or bluish-black with ferric salts.
    Picrasmin. -- Obtained by neutralizing infusion with sodium hydroxide, precipitating with tannin, decomposing precipitate by heating with lead oxide or lime, dissolving out with alcohol.  It is a mixture of two crystalline compounds, a-picrasmin, C35H46O10, and b-picrasmin, C36H48O10, homologous with quassiin, C32H40O10, of Surinam quassia, crystallizing in needles or prisms, soluble in alcohol, chloroform, water (1200).  Dose (amorphous) gr. 1/2-1 .03-.06 Gm.); (crystalline) gr. 1/32-1/3 (.002-.02 Gm.).
    PREPARATIONS. -- 1. Fluidextractum Quassiae, N.F. (33 p.c. alcohol).  2. Tinctura Quassiae, N.F. (33 p.c. alcohol).  Dose, mxv-60 (1-4 cc.).
    Unoff. Preps.: Extract (water), gr. 1-3 (.06-.2 Gm.); Infusion (Br.), 1 p.c., 3iv-8 (15-30 cc.); Concentrated Solution, 10 p.c.; Syrup, for fly poison.
    PROPERTIES. -- Tonic, febrifuge, anthelmintic, simple bitter (similar to calumba).
    USES. -- Atonic dyspepsia, diarrhea, gastric vertigo, constipation, loss of appetite, poisons flies (papier mouri), fish, dogs, rabbits.  Infusion 3viij; 240 cc.), patient being in the knee-chest position, as enema for thread worms (Oxyu'ris vermicula'ris) or ascarides of rectum; internally for lumbricoid worms.  Large doses cause headache, nausea, vertigo, vomiting, diarrhea, cramps, narcosis.  Substituted for hop in making beer and ale.


    Pilocarpinae Hydrochloridum.  Pilocarpine Hydrochloride, U.S.P.
    Pilocarpinae Nitras.  Pilocarpine Nitrate, U.S.P.
    Pilocarpus Jaborandi, Holmes, Microphyllus, Stapf.  The hydrochloride and nitrate of pilocarpine,an alkaloid obtained from the dried leaflets.
    Habitat.  1. Brazil -- from Pernambuco; 2, Brazil -- from Maranham; Paraguay, Uruguay;  in forest-cleanings on the hill-slopes.
   Syn.  Pilocarp., Jaborandi, Pilocarpi Foliata; 1. Pernambuco Jaborandi.  2. Maranham  Jaborandi; Fr. Jaborandi; Ger. Folia Jaborandi, Jaborandiblatter; Pilocarpin, Hydrochl.,  Pilocarpine Chloride, Pilocarpinae Hydrochloras; Fr. Chlorhydrate de Pilocarpine; Ger.  Pilocalpinum hydrochloricum, Pilokarpin-hydrochlorid; Pilocarpin, Nit.; Fr. Azotate de  Pilocarpine; Ger. Pilocarpinum nitricum, Pilokarpinnitrat.
    Pi-lo-car'pus.  L. pilus, hair, or fr. Gr.... a cap, + ... fruit -- i.e., fruit hat-shaped.
    Jab-o-ran'di.  L. fr. Port. zha-bo-ran-de' -- i.e., South American name.
    Mi-cro-phyl'lus.  L. fr. Gr.... small, + ... leaf -- i.e., having small leaves.
    PLANTS. -- Shrubs 1.2-1.5 M. (4-5 degrees) high, branches erect; bark smooth, with gray and white dots, roots 18 Mm. (3/4') thick; flowers small, pinkish-purple, pedicellate, racemes 45 Cm. (18') long; fruit, 5 carpels 4 Cm. (1 3/5') long, compressed, curved ridges dotted with oil-glands, carpels 1-seeded, reniform, black; leaves imparipinnate, .3-.4 M. 1-1 ½ degrees long, (2-5 pairs.  Leaflets (P Jaborandi): Pernambuco, oval, oblong, elliptical, 4-10.5 Cm. (1 3/5-4') long, 2-4 Cm. (4/5-1/3/5') broad, short, stout petiolules, acute, emarginate (rounded), base rounded or acute, mostly unequal, entire, narrowly revolute, smooth, shiny, coriaceous, glandular-punctate, grayish-brownish-green above, midrib mostly depressed, yellowish-, greenish-brown beneath, slightly pubescent on the prominent midvein; peculiarly aromatic when crushed; taste bitterish, becoming pungent with sialagogue effect; (P. Microphyllus): Maranham, rhomboidally oval, obovate, elliptical, 1.5-5 Cm. (3/5-2') long, 1-3 Cm. (2/5-1 1/5') broad, lateral ones nearly sessile, terminal ones on margined petiolules, .5-1.5 Cm. (1/5-3/5') long, nearly uniform grayish-, yellowish-green, rather thin, otherwise resembling the preceding.  Powder, dark green-, greenish-brown -- epidermal cells 5-6 sided, stomata usually with 4 neighboring cells, fragments of fibro-vascular bundles showing tracheae, wood-fibers, bast-fibers, rosette aggregates of calcium oxalate, oil-secretion reservoirs with oil globules, non-glandular hairs; solvents: diluted alcohol; boiling water partially.  Dose, gr. 15-30 (1-2 Gm.).
    ADULTERATIONS. -- Leaves from which pilocarpine has been extracted, or leaves of Pilocarpus species possessing little activity or of piperaceous plants (thin, subcoriaceous, ovate, not emarginate but acuminate, finely granular, not pellucid-punctate), or of Monnie'ra trifo'lia and Casca'ria species, or leaflets of Swart'zia decip'iens (ovoid, short hairy petiole, upper surface shining, lower minutely hairy, not pellucid-punctate, some only 5 Mm. (1/5') long), for "Maranham Jaborandi," sometimes 30 p.c., or "False Jaborandi"--leaves of Haematoxylon campechianum, notched apex, pellucid-punctate, without alkaloid, with red-bown secreting vessels, cinnamon and clove odor.
    Commercial. -- Plant was introduced into Europe, 1847, and now is cultivated.  The names Jaborandi, Jamborandi, laborandi are applied natively, in both generic and specific sense, to several dissimilar pungent plants having sialagogic, diaphoretic and sudorific properties, as Serro'nea Jaborandi, Piper Jaborandi (possibly the true Jaborandi), P. unguicula'tum, P. citrifo'lium, P. reticula'tum, P. Mollico'mum, Erte'la (Auble'tia) trifo'lia, Xanthoxylum el'egans.  Leaves should be collected when grown, after rainy season, and, inclining to mustiness, should be dried thoroughly before packing.  The once official species are high-priced, scarce, and subject to much substitution, while the Rio Jaborandi (P. Selloanus), also once official and popular, continues to have a limited demand in spite of great irregularity in characteristics and constituents.
    CONSTITUENTS. -- Pilocarpine .5-1 p.c. (1874), isopilocarpine, pilocarpidine, jaborine (?), volatile oil .5 p.c., (resin, tannin, malic acid, salts), ash 7 p.c.
    Pilocarpine (Pilocarpina), C11H16O2N2. -- This liquid alkaloid, as first obtained under the name of jaborandine, was believed to be volatile, but this is not true, although it occurs as a colorless, syrupy liquid.  It may be prepared by moistening powdered leaves with solution of sodium carbonate, exhausting with warm benzene, shaking out with diluted hydrochloric acid, after separation rendering acid solution alkaline with solution of sodium carbonate, shaking out with chloroform, evaporating chloroformic liquid getting residue of crude alkaloids; neutralize with diluted nitric acid, evaporate to dryness, purify by repeated crystallization from alcohol, dissolve pilocarpine nitrate in water, render alkaline with ammonia, shake out with chloroform, evaporate getting pure pilocarpine as a colorless syrupy liquid; it is soluble in water, alcohol, chloroform, slightly in ether, forms crystallizable salts (hydrochloride, nitrate, etac.); resembles nicotine in action.
    Pilocarpinae Hydrochloridum.  Pilocarpine Hydrochloride, C11H16O2N2.HCl. -- Obtained by neutralizing diluted hydrochloric acid (17.5) with pilocarpine (10), concentrating, setting aside over sulphuric acid to crystallize; it is in colorless, translucent crystals, odorless, faintly bitter taste, hygroscopic on exposure, soluble in water (.3), alcohol (3), hot alcohol (1.5), chloroform (366), insoluble in ether; aqueous solution (1 in 20) slightly acid, melts at 197 degrees C. (387 degrees F.).  Tests: 1. To aqueous solution (.01-.02 in 2) add 2 cc.acid hydrogen dioxide T.S., benzene layer -- violet, aqueous layer -- yellow (dist. from other alkaloids).  2. Aqueous solution with silver nitrate T.S. -- white precipitate, insoluble in nitric acid.  3. Solution of .1 Gm. in 2 cc. sulphuric acid -- colorless or faintly yellow (abs. of readily carbonizable substances).  4. Add to 10 cc. aqueous solution (1 in 100) ammonia T.S., or potassium dichromate T.S. -- no turbidity (abs. of foreign alkaloids); ash from .1 Gm. -- negligible.  Impurities: Foreign alkaloids, readily carbonizable substances.  Should be kept dark, in well-closed containers.  Dose, gr. 1//8-1/2 (.008-.03 Gm.), administered best hypodermically (2 p.c. aqueous solution.).
    Pilocarpinae Nitras. Pilocarpine Nitrate, C11H16O2N2HNO3. -- Obtained by neutralizing diluted nitric acid (121) with pilocarpine (40), evaporating to dryness, redissolving in alcohol, crystallizing; it is in shining crystals, odorless, permanent, soluble in water (4), alcohol (75), hot alcohol (21), insoluble in chloroform, ether, melts at 172 degrees C. (342 degrees F.).  Tests: 1. Aqueous solution mixed with equal volume of ferrous sulphate T.S. and carefully poured over sulphuric acid without shaking -- brown ring at juncture of two layers.  2. To 5 cc. aqueous solution (1 in 50), acidulated with nitric acid, + few drops silver nitrate T.S.-no immediate opalescence (abs. of chloride); ash from .1 Gm. -- negligible.  Impurities: Chloride, etc.  Should be kept dark, in well-closed containers.  Dose, gr. 1/8-1/2 (.008-.03 Gm.), administered best hypodermically (2 p.c. aqueous solution).
    Isopilocarpine. -- Obtained by action of heat or alkali on pilocarpine; it is a colorless, viscid oil, oxidizing into pilocarpic acid, C11H16O5N2, boiling at 261 degrees C. (502 degrees F.), distilling without decomposition, isomeric with pilocarpine; pilocarpidine, C10H14O2N2, found in P. Jaborandi but not in P. Microphyllus, is a liquid body, differing from pilocarpine by auric chloride not precipitating aqueous solutions, in being weaker, deliquescent, oxidizing in air to syrupy jaboridine (possibly identical with jaborandine, C10H12O3N2; jaborine, C22H32O4N4, is of doubtful occurrence, although formerly believed to be in the leaves and to be formed by evaporating acid solutions of pilocarpine; as such it was yellow, amorphous, less soluble in water, but more so in ether than pilocarpine, isomeric with it (same molecular formula), but antagonizing its action, resembling atropine; the commercial jaborine has been found to be a brown oil composed of isopilocarpine, pilocarpidine, pilocarpine, and coloring matter.
    Volatile Oil. -- Obtained by distillation at 176 degrees C. (350 degrees F.), and is chiefly a terpene pilocarpene) C10H16, with little solid paraffin-like substance, sp. gr. 0.875.
    PREPARATIONS. -- (Unoff.).  LEAVES: Fluidextract (67 p.c. alcohol), dose, mxv-30 (1-2 cc.).  Extract, gr. 3-10 (.2-.6 Gm.).  Infusion, 3j-2 (30-60 cc.).  Tinctura Pilocarpi (Jaborandi), 20 p.c., 3ss-2 (2-8 cc.).  Pilocarpine, phosphate, acetate, hydrobromide, dose, each gr. 1/8-1/2 (.008-.03 Gm.), hypodermically.
    PROPERTIES. -- Diaphoretic, sialagogue, myotic, cardiac depressant, emetic, diuretic (repeated small doses), galactagogue, abortive.  Full doses cause flushed face, quickened circulation and respiration, profuse sweating and salivation (lasting 2-4 hours, losing in perspiration 9-15ounces (.27-.45 L.), in saliva 10-27 ounces (.3-.8 L.), these always being in the inverse ratio); increases bronchial, nasal, mammary, gastric, and intestinal secretions, lowers temperature 1-4 degrees, contracts pupils, produces chilliness and weakness.  The heart soon becomes slowed and arterial pressure lowered, by stimulating the terminations of the vagus, or by depressing the motor centers in the heart-muscle.  Both the fluid and solids (especially urea) of the perspiration are increased by direct influence on the nerve-endings govening its secretion, while the cells of the salivary glands are stimulated directly.   Pilocarpine produces identical effects of the drug; isopilocarpine is 8-10 times weaker than pilocarpine, while jaborine irritates the stomach, causing nausea, vomiting, etc.
    USES. -- Dropsies, pleurisy, uremia, pulmonic edema, catarrhal jaundice, mumps, rheumatism, coryza, cold, influenza.  Bright's disease, menengitis, diabetes, agalactia, parotitis, asthma, hiccough, erysipilas, diphtheria; best antidote to atropine, hyoscyamine, daturine, agaricin, etc.; powerful stimulant to hair growth -- locally and internally.  In ophthalmia use pilocarpine, in amblyopia (from alcohol or tobacco), detached retina, chronic iritis, keratitis, glaucoma, atrophic choroiditis, instead of physostigmine as a myositic.  To avoid nausea, may give in form of enema.
    Poisoning: Have profuse sweating, dizziness, salivation, vomiting, purging, contracted pupils, pain in eyes.  Empty the stomach and wash it out with tannin; give atropine hypodermically and morphine to control nausea and vomiting; cardiac stimulants if necessary.
    Incompatibles: Atropine, agaricin, morphine, tannin, caustic alkalies, ferric and metallic salts.
    Synergists: Aconite, veratrum viride, gelsemium, sarsaparilla, spirit of ethyl nitrite, and drugs which paralyze the vasomotor system.  P. Selloa'nus (possibly the same as P. Pinnatifo'lius, leaflets under both names formerly official); P. Grandiflo'rus, P. Pauciflo'rus, P. Heterophy'lus, P. Spica'tus, P. Trachylo'phus -- all have similar medicinal value.

Pimenta acris

    Pimenta ac'ris, Myrcia, Bay, Wild Clove; Oleum Myrciae, Oil of Bay, N.F. -- The volatile oil distilled from the leaves; W. Indies, Jamaica, cultivated.  Tree, beautiful, fragrant, 9-12 M. (30-40 degrees) high; leaves 5-8 Cm. (2-3') long, oval, coriaceous, pellucid-punctate, exhaling aroma when bruised similar to clove (volatile oil); flowers small, white with red tinge; fruit globular berry, size of a pea blackish, resembling allspice; contains volatile oil, tannin.  Oleum Myrciae, is a yellowish liquid, pleasant aromatic odor pungent, spicy taste, with equal volume of alcohol (acid reaction), acetic acid, or carbon disulphide -- slightly turbid solutions, sp gr. 0976, levorotatory; contains eugenol 65 p.c., chavicol, myrcene, phellandrene, citral.  Impurities: Oil of pimenta, oil of clove, phenol.  Should be kept cool, dark, in small well-stoppered, amber-colored bottles.  Astringent, tonic, stimulant, perfume; nervous headache, faintness, chafing, hair washes, perfumery; 1. Spiritus Myrciae Compositus, Bay Rum, 4/5 p.c., + oil of orange, oil of pimenta, aa, 1/20 p.c., alcohol 61, water q.s. 100; better grades made by distilling leaves with St. Croix rum (Jamaica, imported bay rum.

Pimenta off.

    Pimen'ta officina'lis, Pimenta, Allspice, N.F. -- The dried, nearly ripe fruit with not more than 3 p.c. of foreign organic matter nor .4 p.c. of acid-insoluble ash; C. and S. America, W. Indies, cultivated.  Handsome evergreen tree, 9-12 M. (30-40 degrees) high; bark smooth, gray; leaves 10-15 Cm. (4-6') long, oval-oblong, entire, bright green, pellucid-punctate; flowers white.  Fruit, subglobular, 4-7 Mm. (1/6-1/4') broad, apex with 4 calyx teeth, dark brown, glandular-punctate, pericarp brittle 1 Mm. (1/25') thick, 2-celled, each cell 1-seeded; odor and taste, particularly the pericarp, aromatic, distinctive.  Powder, dark brown--numerous starch grains with central cleft, many stone cells with lumina often filled with yellowish amorphous substance, oil secretion reservoirs with oil, parenchyma cells with tannin masses; stem fragments few, characterized by non-glandular hairs, calcium oxalate rosettes, tracheid-like wood tissues and long bast-fibers; yield of crude fiber does not exceed 25 p.c.; solvents: alcohol extracts the virtues, water absorbs, the flavor and, if hot, some constituents; contains volatile oil 3-4 pc., resin, fixed oil 6-8 p.c., tannin, sugar, gum, ash 6 p.c.  Dose, gr. 5-30 (.3-2 Gm.)
    Oleum Pimentae, Pimento Oil, Oil of Pimenta (Allspice), N.F. -- This volatile oil distilled from the fruit, yielding not less than 65 p.c., by volume, of eugenol, comes over in two fractions mixed together, one light, the other heavy; it is a colorless, yellow, or reddish liquid, darker with age, characteristic odor and taste of allspice; soluble (clear) in equal volume of 90 pc. alcohol, in 2 vols. of 70 p.c. alcohol, sp. gr. 1.033, levorotatory.  Should be kept cool, dark, in well-stoppered, amber-colored bottles.  Dose, mj-5 (.06-.3 cc.).  Fruit: 1. Tinctura Guaiaci Composita, 3.2 p.c. (diluted alcohol).  Water -- 25 Gm. + water 1000, distil 500 cc.; Infusion, 5 p.c.  Oil: 1. Liquor Pepsini Aromaticus, 1/40 p.c.  2. Spiritus Myrciae Compositus, 1/20 p.c.  Stomachic, carminative, condiment; flatulency, nausea, intestinal colic, corrective to griping purgatives--similar to clove.

Pinus alba

    P. Stro'bus, Pinus Alba, White Pine Bark, N.F. -- The dried inner bark, with not more than 2 p.c. of outer bark and 2 p.c. of foreign organic matter; N. America.  Large handsome tree.  Bark in flat pieces of variable size, 1-3 Mm. (1/25-1/8') thick, yellowish, brownish, periderm patches, cottony, scattered pits, inner surface finely striate; fracture short; odor slight, terebinthinate; taste slightly mucilaginous, bitter, sweet, astringent.  Powder, brownish -- starch grains, calcium oxalate prisms, resin, few tracheids.  Dose, 3ss-1 (2-4 Gm.); 1. Syrupus Pini Albae Compositus, 8.5 p.c.  Prep.: 1. Syrupus Pini Albae Compositus cum Morphina, morphine sulphate 1/25 p.c.  Dose, each, 3ss-1 (2-4 cc.).

Pinus montana

    Pinus Pini Pumilionis.  Oil of Dwarf Pine Needles, U.S.P.
    Pinus montana, Miller.  A volatile oil distilled from the fresh leaves, yielding not less than 5 p.c. esters calculated as bornyl acetate.
    Habitat.  C. Europe: Tyrolese Alps, Carpathian Mountains, 1300-2500 M. (4200-8200  degrees) elevation.
    Syn.  Dwarf Pine, Mountain Pine; Ol. Pin. Pumil., Dwarf Pine Oil, Pine Needle Oil;  Ger. Latschenkieferol, Krummholsol.
    Mon-ta'na.  L. Montanus, mountainous -- i.e., preferred place of growth.
    Pu-mil'lo.  L. pumilio, onis, fr. pumilus, dwarfish, diminutive -- i.e., in reference to its  small size.
    PLANT. -- Small tree, branches decumbent or knee-like, more or less erect; bark persistent, dark colored; leaves 2 in a sheath, 2-5 Cm. (4/5-2') long, straight, scythe-shaped, obtuse apex, dull green, slightly glaucous; fruit (cones) ovoid, 4 Cm. (1 2/4') long, pyramidal protuberance on each scale on exposed side (outer).
    CONSTITUENTS. -- Volatile oil, resin, tannin, bitter extractive.
    Oleum Pini Pumilionis.  Oil of Dwarf Pine Needles. -- This volatile oil, distilled from the fresh leaves (needles), is a colorless, faintly yellowish liquid, pleasant, aromatic odor, bitter, pungent taste, sp. gr. 0.861, no portion distils below 165 degrees C. (329 degrees F.), levorotatory, neutral, slightly acid; contains l-pinene, l-phellandrene, sylvestrene, bornyl acetate (to which odor is due), cadinene.  Should be kept cool, dark, in well-stoppered, amber-colored bottles.  Dose, mj-5 (.06-.3 cc.), on sugar, capsules, pastilles.
    PROPERTIES AND USES. -- Antirheumatic, expectorant, stimulant, antiseptic; chronic rheumatism (internally), chronic bronchitis, laryngitis (inhaled); may rub on rheumatic joints, and cover with cotton; inhalant or vapor (oil 10 cc. + magnesium carbonate 5 Gm. + distilled water q.s. 100 cc.; of this add 3j (4cc.) to hot water 3xx (600 cc.) and inhale through it; allays irritation and diminishes bronchial secretion, catarrhal inflammation.  A juice Hungarian balsam) exudes spontaneously from the tips of young branches, to which flasks are attached for easy collection, and this possesses properties of turpentine as well as of the oil.

Pinus sylvestris

    P. Sylves'tris, Wild Pine, Scotch Fir. -- Europe.  Tree 21-24 M. (70-80 degrees) high, leaves and cones only 5-7.5 Cm. (2-3') long; this yields much of the common European turpentine; P. Pinaster (P. Marit'ima), S. Europe, much used for obtaining turpentine, pitch, and tar.

Pinus taeda

    Pinus Tae'da, Loblolly, Old Field or Frankincense Pine. -- Delaware, Florida, thence Texas, Arkansas.  Grows along with P. Palustris, and like it is a large tree, 18-30 M. (60-100 degrees) high, but leaves 15-25 Cm.(6-10') long and cones (7.5-12.5 Cm. (3-5') long are smaller.  This yields not near so great a percent of oleoresin as official plant, but one quite as good, consequently it is utilized for this and other purposes.

Pinus palustria

    1.  Oleum Terebinthinae.  Oil of Turpentine, U.S.P.
    2. Resina.  Rosin, U.S.P.
    Pinus palustria, Miller, and other species, yielding exclusively terpene oils. The volatile oil (1), and residue left (2) from distilling the oleoresin (turpentine).
    Habitat.  S. United States, Virginia to Texas, near the coast.
    Syn.  Long leaved (Yellow Pitch, Broom, Pitch, Swamp, Georgia) Pine; Common  Frankincense, Terebinthina Communis.  Thus Americanum, Frankincense, Crude  Turpentine: 1. Ol. Tereb., Turpentine Oil, Spirits of Turpentine; Fr. Terebinthine (du Pin)  de Bordeaux; Essence de Terebenthine officinale; Ger. (Gemeiner) Terpentin;  Terpentinol: 2, Resin, Colophony; Fr. Resine blanche (jaune); Ger. Colophonium,  Kolophonium, Geigenhars.
    Pi'nus. L. see etymology, page 72 of Pinaceae.
    Pa-lus'tris.  L. Poluster, swampy -- i.e., it inhabits swamps or near marshy places.
    Ter-e-bin'thi-na.  L. Terebinthus; Gr...., of or from the terebinth -- turpentine tree.
    Tur'pen-tine, fr. turbentine, terebinthine, terebinthina.
    PLANT. -- Large tree, 18-30 M. (60-100 degrees) high, .3-.6 M. (1-2 degrees) thick; bark thin, scaled, furrowed; wood hard, resinous; leaves many, crowded at end of branches, in 3's 25-40 Cm. (10-16') long, very narrow, sharp-pointed, triquetrous, in clusters surrounded by a sheath 25 Mm. (1') long; flowers sterile in violet aments, 5 Cm. (2') long' Fruit cone, large, oblong, 15-25 Cm. (6-10') long, scales armed with short spine.  Oleoresin -- Terebinthina, Turpentine, N.F.  Concrete oleoresin containing not more than 2 p.c. of foreign matter, occurs in yellowish, opaque masses, lighter internally, sticky, more or less glossy, brittle in cold; odor and taste characteristic; freely soluble in alcohol, ether, chloroform, glacial acetic acid; alcoholic solution acid reaction: rarely seen as yellow, opaque, viscid liquid.
    CONSTITUENTS. -- (CONCRETE) OLEORESIN: Volatile oil 20-30 p.c., Rosin (resina, resin) 50-60 p.c., bitter principle, formic, succinic, and possibly other resin acids--pinic and sylvic acids.
    1.  Oleum Terebinthinae.  Oil of Turpentine, C10H16. -- Obtained by distilling with water or steam the (concrete) oleoresin (turpentine); it is a colorless liquid, characteristic odor and taste, both becoming stronger and less pleasant on aging or exposure (owing to formation of ozone, resin, formic and acetic acids), soluble in 5 vols. of alcohol, sp. gr. 0.861, rotation--dextro (variable), with hydrochloric acid forms artificial crystalline camphor, C10H16HCl; contains chiefly d-pinene (French oil l-pinene), also derivatives of pinene, and often camphene and fenchone.  Tests: 1. Evaporate 5 cc. over boiling water -- residue .1 Gm. (abs. of petroleum, paraffin, rosin oils).  2. Expose to air 3 drops on unsized white paper -- evaporates without leaving permanent stain (abs. of fixed oils).  3. Shake vigorously 5 cc. with equal volume of  hydrochloric acid -- only a light straw-yellow color in either acid or oily layer on standing 5 minutes, no brown or green.  Must be added to fuming acids drop by drop, and should be kept cool, in well-stoppered containers.
    ADULTERATIONS. -- Tar oils, kerosene, petroleum benzin, paraffin oils, rosin oil, etc.
    2. Resina.  Rosin. -- This residue, left after distilling off the volatile oil from the (concrete) oleoresin (turpentine), is usually in sharply angular, translucent, amber-colored fragments, frequently covered with a yellow dust, fracture brittle at ordinary temperatures shiny and shallow-conchoidal; odor and taste slightly terebinthinate; freely soluble in alcohol, ether, benzene, glacial acetic acid, fixed or volatile oils, dilute solutions of the fixed alkali hydroxides; contains anhydride of abietic acid, C44H62O4, 80-90 p.c., pinic and sylvic acids.  Tests: 1. Alcoholic solution--acid; sp. gr. 1.08.  2. Easily fusible and burns with a dense yellowish smoke; ash .05 p.c.  3. Shaken with warm diluted alcohol -- abietic anhydride converted into abietic acid, C44H64O5, crystalline; boiled with alkaline solution -- greasy salts of abietic acid (rosin soap); distil with super-heated steam -- benzene and toluene.  The varieties depend upon color, and this upon degree of heat employed in distillation; the older the trees, the greater the yield of rosin, the smaller the yield of oil.
    Commercial. -- The P. Palustris (P. Austra'lis -- i.e., southern) grows in dry sandy soil from the sea to 100 miles (160 Km.) inland, the young trees resembling brooms, the older furnishing (Florida, Georgia, N. And S. Carolina) most of the turpentine and rosin of commerce.  The oleoresin secretes in the sapwood, and sparingly exudes spontaneously, so that to obtain it economically on a large scale the trees are cornered and chipped, which consists in removing, according to size of tree, one or two sections of bark -- each one-fourth the entire circumference, and a foot from the ground upward 4-5 feet -- then hacking the exposed wood in shape of the letter L, which may be extended slightly higher every few weeks to increase the flow.  Formerly at the base of each decorticated section the experienced axman cut a triangular-shaped cavity (box -- boxing), 4-8 pints (2-4 L.), capacity, to catch the exudation, which was ladled out with "turpentine dippers" every 2-3 weeks, poured into barrels (250 pounds; 110 Kg.) and subsequently distilled at a nearby station. But these deep-seated wounds were so depleting as to render the trees worthless, save for lumber, in 4-5 years, consequently this method has been replaced by the less destructive "cup and gutter system," which consists in suspending from a zinc nail near the base of scarified section a detachable terra cotta (Herty) or zinc cup, similar in appearance to the quart-flower pot, and above that nailing at incline, on either side of median line, a zinc gutter, 6 x 2', to direct flow into the cup, which, when filled, is easily removed, emptied into barrels and returned.  The first season's yield is about 100 gallons per 100 trees, diminishing thereafter.  The "crude" begins to flow early in March, becomes most rapid July-August when hot and dry, then slackens September-October.  The first year's product is best, virgin dip, yielding 6 ½ gallons (24 L.) of oil per barrel and "window'glass rosin;" succeeding years give yellow dip, yielding 4 gallons (15 L.) of oil per barrel and medium grades of rosin; some hardens on trees, scrapings, scrape, yielding 2 gallons (7.5 L.) of oil per barrel and brownish-black rosin.  In France covered pails or cups with lips, to avoid evaporation, chips, bark, etc., are used, into which the sap flows by a gutter through comparatively small hacked spaces, which, when alternating 5 working with 2 resting seasons, insures a handsome yield for 2 generations.  The comminuted wood has been distilled with water, steam, alkali, etc., but with questionable satisfaction.
    In the distillation of concrete oleoresin, when the volatile oil ceases to come over, the resin (rosin) while hot is run off from the bottom of still and strained into barrels, while the condensed distillate (oil), floating above the water, is dipped out and barrelled for market.
    PREPARATIONS. -- I. OIL: 1. Oleum Terebinthinae Rectificatum.  Rectified Oil of Turpentine.  (Syn., Ol. Tereb. Rect., Rectified Turpentine Oil; Fr. Essence de Terebenthine rectifiee; Ger. Gereinigtes Terpentinol.)
    Manufacture: Shake thoroughly oil of turpentine, a convenient quantity, with an equal volume of sodium hydroxide solution, recover about three-fourths of the oil by distillation, separate the clear oil from the water, dry it by shaking with anhydrous calcium chloride or anhydrous sodium sulphate, filter.  It is a colorless liquid, conforming to the properties and tests of oil of turpentine, sp. gr. 0.858; evaporate 5 cc. -- residue .015 Gm.  Should be kept cool, cark, in well-stoppered, amber-colored bottles, and dispensed when oil of turpentine is required for internal use.  Dose, stimulant, diuretic, mv-30 (.3-2 cc.); anthelmintic, 3ss-4 (2-15 cc.), on sugar or emulsified.
    Preps.: 1. Emulsum Olei Terebinthinae.  Emulsion of Oil of Turpentine.  (Syn., Emuls. Ol. Tereb., Turpentine Emulsion;l Fr. Emulsion d'essence de Terebenthine; Ger. Terpentinolemulsion.)
    Manufacture: 15 p.c.  Add to dry bottle acacia 15 Gm., then rectified oil of turpentine 15 cc. and water exactly 10, agitate briskly until emulsified, add water q.s. 100 cc.  Dose 3j-8 (4-30 cc.).
    2. Terpini Hydras.  Terpin Hydrate, C10H18(OH)2.H2O.  (Syn., Terpin. Hyd.; Fr. Dihydrate de terebenthene (terpilene); Ger. Terpinum hydratum, Terpinhydrat.)
    Manufacture: This hydrate of the dihydric alcohol terpin is obtained bymixing in a shallow dish rectified oil of turpentine (4), alcohol (3), nitric acid (1), allowing to stand 3-4 days, collecting crystals, draining, drying on filter paper, recrystallizing from alcohol rendered slightly alkaline to remove adhering acid.  It is in colorless, lustrous, rhombic prisms, nearly odorless, slightly aromatic (resembling fresh lilacs, but not turpentine); somewhat bitter taste, efflorescent in dry air; soluble in water (200), boiling water (34), alcohol (13), boiling alcohol (3), chloroform (135), boiling glacial acetic acid (1); hot, saturated aqueous solution not acid to litmus.  Tests: 1. Heated slowly at 100 degrees C. (212 degrees F.) -- sublimes in fine needles; quickly heated -- melts at 116 degrees C. (241 degrees F.) with the loss of water; also loses water of crystallization slowly over sulphuric acid.  2. Hot aqueous solution with a few drops of sulphuric acid -- turbid, developing a strongly aromatic odor; incinerate 2 Gm. -- ash .05 p.c.  Should be kept cool, in well-closed containers.  Dose, gr. 2-15 (.13-1 Gm.).
    Preps.: 1. Elixir Terpini Hydratis, N.F., 1.75 p.c.  Prep.: 1. Elixir Terpini Hydratis   et Codeinae, N.F. -- codeine 1/5 p.c.; 2. Elixir Terpini Hydratis et Creosoti   Compositum,  N.F., .44 p.c. + creosote .44, calcium glycerophos. .875, sodium   glycerophos. .875.   Dose, each 3j-2 (4-8 cc.).
 2. Terebenum.  Terebene, C10H16.  (Syn., Tereben.; Fr. Terebene; Ger. Tereben.)
    Manufacture: This liquid, consisting of dipentene (chiefly) and other hydrocarbons (terpinene, cymol, camphene, etc.) is obtained by adding gradually sulphuric acid (1) to oil of turpentine (20), allowing to stand for 24 hours, removing supernatant layer, neutralizing with chalk, distilling, further rectifying with steam.  It is a colorless, thin liquid, rather agreeable, thyme-like odor, aromatic, somewhat terebinthinate taste, soluble in alcohol (3), slightly in water; on exposure to light gradually becomes resinified and of acid reaction, sp. gr. 0.863, boils at 166 degrees C. (33l degrees F.).  Impurities: Rosin, unaltered oil of turpentine.  Should be kept dark, in well-closed containers.  Dose, mv-15 (.3-1 cc.).
    3. Ceratum Cantharidis, 15 p.c.  4. Linimentum Terebinthinae, Kentish Ointment, N.F., 35 p.c. + rosin cerate 65.  5. Linimentum Opii Compositum, N.F., 22 p.c.  6. Linimentum Terebinthinae Aceticum, Linimentum Album, Stoke's Liniment, St. John Long's Liniment, N.F., 40 p.c. -- triturate 40 cc. + 2 fresh eggs + yolks of 2 other eggs, oil of lemon 16; then add acetic acid 80, water q.s. 1000 cc.  7. Petroxolinum Sulphuratum Compositum, N.F., 30 cc. in 100 cc. product.
 II ROSIN: 1. Ceratum Resinae.  Rosin Cerate.  (Syn., Cerat. Res., Basilicon Ointment, Unguentum Tetrapharmacum; Br. Unguentum Resinae; Fr. Cerat (onguent) de Resine anglais; Ger. Konigssalbe, Harzsalbe, Zugsalbe.)
    Manufacture: 35 p.c.  Heat until liquefied rosin 35 Gm., add yellow wax 15, lard 50, strain, allow to congeal, stirring occasionally; in cold weather may use yellow wax 12, lard 53.
    Prep.: 1. Linimentum Terebinthinae, N.F., 65 p.c., see above.
    2. Emplastrum Adhesivum.  Adhesive Plaster.  (Syn., Emp. Adhaes., Emplastrum Elasticum, Rubber Adhesive Plaster; Fr. Emplatre caoutchoute simple; Ger. Kautschukheftpflaster.)
    Manufacture: Mix mechanically rubber 20-30 p.c., resins, waxes, and an absorbent powder (zinc oxide, orris root or starch), and spread upon cotton cloth.
    3. Ceratum Cantharidis, 17.5 p.c.  4. Ceratum Resinae Compositum, N.F., 22.5 p.c.  5. Solutio Resinae Chloroformica, N.F., 20 p.c.
    III. OLEORESIN: 1. Ceratum Resinae Compositum, Deshler's Salve, N.F., 11.5 p.c. -- melt rosin 22.5 Gm.; yellow wax 22.5, turpentine 11.5,  prepared suet 30, add linseed oil 13.5, strain, stir.
    PROPERTIES.  I. OIL OF TURPENTINE AND OLEORESIN. -- Internally -- stimulant, carminative, cathartic, anthelmintic, hemostatis, expectorant, diuretic, diaphoretic, antipyretic.  Externally--rubefacient, irritant, counter-irritant, antiseptic, disinfectant; contracts vessels, increases peristalsis, gastric secretion, stimulates heart, depresses nervous system.  Large doses produce gastroenteritis, vomiting, diarrhea, suppressed urine, lumbar pains, urethral burning, hematuria, strangury, insensibility, death by paralyzed respiration.  It is excreted by the skin, bronchi, and kidneys; inhaling vapors give nasal, ocular, and renal irritation.
    II. TERPIN  HYDRATE. -- Antiseptic (arresting the development of tubercle bacilli), expectorant, diuretic, diaphoretic.
    III.  TEREBENE. -- Stimulant, disinfectant, expectorant, astringent.
    IV. RESIN. -- Antiseptic, slight stimulant.
    USES. -- I. OIL OF TURPENTINE AND OLEORESIN: Internally -- chronic bronchial catarrh, cystitis, gonorrhea; leucorrhea, gleet, chronic urinary troubles, piles, hemorrhages, puerperal fever, inflammation of bowels, traumatic erysipelas, intestinal worms, pneumonia, phosphorus-poisoning (old oil).
    Externally -- rheumatism, sciatica, lumbago, neuralgia, bronchitis, pleurisy, peritonitis, tympanites, renal colic, gangrene, sprains, wounds, scabies, ringworms, enlarged glands, burns, frost-bites, colic; vapors of oil in whooping-cough, diphtheria, laryngitis.  Often associated with various liniments, chloroform, camphor, olive oil, narcotic extracts, etc.  The oleoresin may be given in pill form, hardened with magnesium oxide.  Dose, gr. 15-60 (1-4 Gm.).
    II. TERPIN HYDRATE. -- Acute and chronic bronchitis, hay fever, whooping-cough, chronic nephritis, chronic cystitis, gonorrhea.
    III.  TEREBENE. -- Chronic bronchitis by inhalation and on sucrose (sugar) fermentative dyspepsia.
    IV.  RESIN. -- Indolent ulcers, sores, wounds, in plasters, ointments, as emulsifying agent, chronic enteritis.
 Poisoning: Have giddiness, gastro-enteritis, strangury, bloody, scanty urine, with viiolet odor; may have purging, cyanosis, dilated pupils, stertorous breathing, feeble, rapid pulse, coma, collapse.  Give emetics, if no purging use enema, then plenty of water and demulcent drinks, hot fomentations to loins, opium to allay pain.
 Pix Pini, Pine Tar, U.S.P.  (Syn., Pix  Pin., Pix Liquidae, Resina Empyreumatica Liquida; Fr. Goudron vegetal; Ger. Holztheer, Theer.)  A product obtained by the destructive distillation of the wood of Pinus palustris or other species of Pinus (P. Tae'da, P. rig'ida, P. sylves'tris, and Larix sibir'ica.)
    Manufacture: Refuse pine wood, cut in billets, is stacked compactly and covered with earth, except an opening at the apex for ignition and the escape of gases; slow combustion without flame is allowed to proceed, while a ditch at the bottom serves to run off the tarry liquid that is ladled into barrels; the wood is converted into charcoal and this becomes a valuable by-product.  In Europe permanent clay furnaces are used over and over.  It is a true, impure turpentine, semi-liquid, viscid, black-brown, non-crystalline, translucent in thin layers, granular and opaque with age; odor empyreumatic, terebinthinate, taste sharp, empyreumatic; miscible with alcohol, ether, chloroform, glacial acetic acid, fixed or volatile oils; heavier than water, slightly soluble in it -- solution pale yellowish-brown, acid reaction; ash .25 p.c.  Test: 1. Shake 1 cc., for 10 minutes, with water 10, add to filtrate a drop of ferric chloride T.S. -- greenish, then brown color.  Dose, gr 5-30 (.3-2 Gm.), in pill.
    CONSTITUENTS. -- Acetic acid, small quantities of formic, propionic, capronic acids, acetone, methyl alcohol, mesit, toluol, xylol, cumol, methol (all passing over with the light oil of tar), naphthalene, pyrene, chrysene, paraffin, phenols, creosote (25 p.c.), pyrocatechin, empyreumatic resin.
    PREPARATIONS. -- 1. Unguentum Picis Pini.  Tar Ointment.  (Syn., Ung. Pic. Pin., Unguentum Picis Liquidae: Fr. Pomatum cum Pice, Pommade de Goudron; Ger. Theersalbe.)
    Manufacture: 50 p.c.  Melt yellow wax 15 Gm., add petrolatum 35, and to melted mixture pine tar 50, previously warmed, incorporate thoroughly, strain, stir until congealed.
    2. Oleum Picis Rectificatum.  Rectified Oil of Tar.  (Syn., Ol. Pic. Rect., Oleum Picis Liquidae Rectificatum; Fr. Huile volatile de Goudron rectifiee; Ger. Gereinigtes Theerol.)
    Manufacture: Distil wood-tar and collect that fraction of the distillate lighter than water, redistil.  This volatile oil is a thin liquid, dark reddish-brown color, strong, empyreumatic odor and taste; soluble in alcohol, solution being acid, sp. gr. 0.975; contains hydro-carbons, phenols, acetic acid and other acids, undetermined empyreumatic products present in tar, being largely oil of turpentine.  Dose, mij-5 (.13-.2 cc.), in pills, water, or syrup.
    Preps: 1. Syrupus Picis Pini.  Syrup of Pine Tar.  (Syn., Syr. Pic. Pin., Syrupus Picis Liquidae, Syrup of Tar, Syrupus Piceus; Fr. Sirop de Goudron; Ger. Theersirup.)
    Manufacture: 1/10 p.c.  Mix oil .1 cc. with water 45, agitate mixture frequently during 15     minutes, set aside 24 hours, shaking occasionally; dissolve in filtrate sucrose 85 Cm.,     add water q.s. 100 cc., mix thoroughly, strain.  Dose, 3j-4 (4-15 cc.).
    2.  Unguentum Picis Compositum, N.F., 4 p.c. + zinc oxide 3, tincture of benzoin 2.
    3. Glyceritum Picis Pini, N.F., 6.3 p.c., glycerin 25.
    PROPERTIES. -- Pine tar similar to oil of turpentine, but milder, scarcely ever vesicates, stimulant, expectorant, counter-irritant, insecticide.  Internally--disturbs digestion, large doses may cause vomiting, colic, pain, headache, dark urine similar to phenol.
    USES. -- Internally -- bronchitis, phthisis, vesical catarrh, constipation.  Externally -- scabies, scaly eruptions, eczema, burns, boils, sores, ulcers, gangrene, fissured nipples, hemorrhoids; fumes destroy foul odors.

Piper angustifolium

    Piper angustifo'lium, Matico, N.F. -- The dried leaf with not more than 5 p.c. of stems, flower spikes or other foreign organic matter, yielding not more than 6 p.c. of acid-insoluble ash; S. America -- Andes of Peru, Bolivia.  Large soft-wooded shrub or small tree; branches quadrangular, the younger hairy; flowers small, yellowish; fruit small, hard, black, 1-seeded; leaves, usually broken in compressed, matted masses, 10-20 Cm. (4-8') long, 2-5 Cm. (4/5-2') broad, lanceolate, acute, unequal cordate, crenulate, dark green above, tessellated, pale green below, reticulate with prominent midrib and veins, quadrangular-meshed, pubescent; odor distinct, aromatic; taste pungent, pepper-like.  Powder, greenish-yellow -- non-glandular hairs, epidermal cells with stomata, secretion cells; solvents: alcohol (50-75 p.c.), boiling water; contains volatile oil 2-3 p.c., artanthic acid, pungent resin, bitter principle, tannin, mucilage--maticin is only a potassium salt.  Stimulant, tonic, diuretic, styptic, vulnerary, aphrodisiac (similar to cubeb--mostly due to volatile oil); bronchitis, gonorrhea, menorrhagia, hemorrhoids, diarrhea, dysentery, hematuria, hemorrhage, vesical catarrh, incontinence of urine; locally to bleeding surfaces, owing to the many hairs promoting blood-clot.  Adulterations: Leaves of allied species of its own genus, and those of Eupato'rium and Walthe'ria genera -- none being tessellated above or rough and hairy beneath.  Dose, gr. 15-60 (1-4 Gm.); 1. Fluidextractum Matico (75 p.c. alcohol), dose, mxv-60 (1-4 cc.).  Infusion, 5 p.c., 3j-2 (30-60 cc.); Tincture, 10 p.c., 3j-2 (4-8 cc.).

Piper cubeba

    Piper Cubeba, Linne filius, Cubeba Cubeba, (Linne' filius) Lyons.   The dried, nearly full-grown, unripe fruit, with not more than 5 p.c. shriveled fruits or stems nor 2 p.c. foreign organic matter, yielding not less than 10 p.c. volatile ether-soluble extractive.
    Habitat.  Java, Sumatra, Borneo; cultivated in two former islands, and in W. Indies,  Ceylon.
    Syn.  Cubeb, Cubeba, Tailed Cubeba, Cubeb-, Java-, or Tailed-Pepper; Br. Cubebae  Fructus (Baccae), Piper Caudatum; Fr. Cubebe, Poivre a Queue; Ger. Cubebae, Kubeben.
    Pi'per.  L. See etymology, above, of Piperaceae.
    Cu-be'ba.  L. fr. Gr...., of Actuarius; name used since the 10th century; Pers. Kababa,  their native name of the plant.
    PLANT. -- Climbing woody perennial; stem jointed, flexuous, 6 M. (20 degrees) high; leaves 15 Cm. (6') long, lanceolate, leathery, shining, nerved, petiolate; flowers dioecious, spikes, 2.5-5 Cm. (1-2') long.  FRUIT, upper portion globular, 3-6 Mm. (1/5-1/4') broad, abruptly contracted into a slender, stem-like portion (stipe, thecaphore -- not a true pedicel, but stigma remnant), 5-7 Mm. (1/5-1/4') long; pericarp brown, dark brown, rarely gray, coarsely reticulate, .3 Mm. (1/75') thick; 1-locular, 1-seeded, the seed attached at base of pericarp, usually not completely filling loculus; odor aromatic, characteristic; taste strongly aromatic, pungent.  POWDER, brown -- numerous starch grains, .002-.012 Mm. (1/12500-1/2000/) broad, and stone cells with yellowish porous walls; few wood bundles with spiral tracheae and fibers; with sulphuric acid against white background -- crimson-red.  Solvents: ether; alcohol.  Dose, gr. 15-60 (1-4 Gm.)
    ADULTERATIONS. -- FRUIT: Rachis or stalks (inodorous, increasing fibro-vascular tissue and ash), partially grown fruit, siftings (darker and without starch masses), black pepper and other piperaceous fruits (P. cani'num, P.cras'sipes, P. Lo'wong, P. mollis'simum, P. ribes-oi'des, , P. clusii, Sit'sea citra'ta, etc.), all distinguished by characteristic shape, odor, and taste.  Rhamnus cathartica fruit (pedicellate and contains 4 seed), allspice (much larger, 2-seeded, no pedicel).  Juniperus communis fruit (much larger, different taste); POWDER: Deteriorates unless kept in tight containers, hence best to powder only when needed, sometimes mixed with powdered allspice, flour, or starch.
    Commercial. -- Plant grows extensively in coffee plantations or on grounds reserved for the purpose, being supported usually on shade trees; fruit is gathered when full-grown, but before ripe -- still of a green color -- dried carefully in the sun, and exported from Java to Singapore, whence it enters market.
    CONSTITUENTS. -- Volatile oil 5-15 p.c., Resin 2.5-3.5 p.c., Cubebin .4-3 p.c., Cubebic acid 1-3.5 p.c., fixed oil 1 p.c., gum 8 p.c., starch, ash 5-8 p.c. (cubeb stalks 10 p.c.).
    Oleum Cubebae.  Oil of Cubeb. -- This volatile oil, distilled with water or steam from the unripe fruit, is a colorless, pale green, yellowish-green liquid, characteristic odor and taste of cubeb, sp. gr. 0.915, levorotatory, soluble in equal volume of alcohol, neutral reaction; contains a little dipentene, C10H16, but mostly sesquiterpene, cadinene, C15H24.  If old, or distilled from old fruit, has additionally an inodorous stearoptene, cubeb camphor, C15H24H2O, which soon deposits.  Dose, mv-20 (.3-1.3 cc.).
    Resin. -- Extracted by ether, which also takes up volatile oil, fixed oil, cubebin, chlorophyll, and wax; evaporate off volatile oil, when cold cubebin and wax deposit; decant from these, separate fat and have left the resin, which is amorphous, soluble in alkalies, alcohol not precipitated by alcoholic solution of lead acetate.
    Cubebin, C10H10O4. -- This constitutes the precipitate from oleoresin upon standing; it is white, crystalline, inodorous, inert; alcoholic solution bitter.
    Cubebic Acid, C14H16O4. -- Brownish, resin-like mass, soluble in alkalies, alcohol, ether, chloroform, precipitated by lead acetate; diuretic.  Dose, gr. 5-10 (.3-.6 Gm.).  Last three are red with sulphuric acid.
    PREPARATIONS. -- 1. Fluidextractum Cubebae, N.F. (alcohol), dose, mxv-60 (1-4 cc.).  2. Oleoresina Cubebae, N.F. (alcohol); on standing deposits waxy crystalline precipitate -- must use only liquid portion, dose, mv-30 (.3-2 cc.).  3. Tinctura Cubebae, N.F., 20 p.c. (alcohol), dose, 3ss-2 (2-8 cc.).  4. Fluidextractum Buchu Compositum, N.F., 12.5 p.c.  5. Pilulae Antiperiodicae, N.F., 1/8 gr.  6. Tinctura Antiperiodica, N.F., 1/5 p.c.
 Unoff. Preps.: Extract, gr. 2-10 (.13-.6 Gm.).  Infusion, 5 p.c., 3j-2 (30-60 cc.).  Troches (each 1/3 gr. oleoresin).
    PROPERTIES. -- Diuretic (resin + cubebic acid), stimulant, carminative, expectorant, disinfectant, local irritant (volatile oil), may cause headache, giddiness, nausea, purging, paralysis; it is eliminated by bronchial mucous membrane, skin, and kidneys, all being stimulated and the increased secretions disinfected; imparts to urine a peculiar odor.
    USES. -- Gonorrhea, urethritis, vesical irritability, cystitis, abscess of prostate gland, piles, chronic bronchitis, catarrh.  Arabians used it similarly to black pepper, and were the first to introduce it into Europe.
    1. Piper Lo'wong (Cubeba  Lowong) and P. ribesoi'des (C. Wallich'ii), fruit of both much like the official.
    2. P. cani'num (C. canina), fruit smaller than official, contracted below into a stalk half the length of the globular portion, and P. cras'sipes (C. crassipes), fruit larger than the official.
    3. False Cubeb. -- Origin unknown, fruit wrinkled, brownish-gray, size of the official, stalk 5 Mm. (1/5') long, odor mace-like.

Piper methysticum

    Piper methys'ticum, Kava, Methysticum, Kava Kava, N.F. -- The dried rhizome and roots with not more than 1 p.c. of foreign organic matter; Sandwich Islands; cultivated.  Tall, soft-wooded herb.  Rhizome, irregular knotty crown, 12 Cm. (5') thick, from which radiate many tough roots with ends separating fibro-vascular bundles, sometimes cut into angular pieces; crown soft, light, spongy, granular, starchy, dark brown -- crown, lighter where scraped, internally white; odor faint, characteristic; taste aromatic, pungent, bitter -- more or less anesthesia.  Powder, whitish -- starch grains, yellow resin and oil cells, sclerenchymatous fibers, tracheae with markings, parenchyma cells (stem); solvent: diluted alcohol; contains resins (alpha-, beta-) 2 p.c., yangonin, kavaine, methysticin (kavahin -- resembles piperine), volatile oil, starch 50 p.c., ash 8 p.c.  Local anesthetic -- lasts several days, but too irritating for general use; on mucous membranes -- tingling sensation then anesthesia; natives prepare a beverage kava, by fermenting infusion which produces drowsiness, mutterings, weakness of limbs, without impairing intelligence.  Diuretic; cystitis, vaginitis, acute and chronic diarrhea, leucorrhea.  Dose, gr. 15-30 (1-2 Gm.); 1. Fluidextractum Kavae (60 p.c. alcohol).

Piper longum

    Piper officina'rum (lon'gum), Long Pepper. -- The immature fruit dried in the sun, U.S.P. 1830; Java, India, Ceylon, Philippine Islands, Bengal.  Shrub like P. nigrum; leaves cordate; flowers spikes; fruit spike-like cone 2.5-4 Cm. (1-1 2/4') long, 5 Mm. (1/5') thick, cylindrical, uneven, dusty, blackish-gray, the many coalesced fruits spirally arranged, each crowned with style remnant; odor, taste, properties, and composition like that of P. nigrum.  The Bengal long pepper is darker and shsorter (2.5 Cm. (1') long than that from elsewhere.

Piper album

    Piper al'bum, White Pepper. -- The ripe fruit of P. nigrum deprived of the pericarp from which it separates easily, and may be facilitated by gathering spikes, cleaning, immersing in water, and rubbing with the hands in baskets.  It is somewhat larger than the black, smooth, yellowish, hard, horny, mealy within, odor and taste similar but less powerful.  There are four varieties: 1. Tellicherry; 2., Penang; 3, Batavia; 4, Singapore.  Largely used in China.  Still another variety is made by soaking off (or using mechanical means) the outer portion (percarp) of black pepper, or simply drying the very young and immature fruit, but this is smaller and inferior.  Adulterations: Same as in black.

Piper sp.

    Piper Famecho'ni, Kissi, Kinnine, Guinea Pepper; Upper Guinea.  Fruit in cylindrical clusters -- small blackish-brown, ovoid berries, each with cubeb-like pedicle at base; aromatic odor, agreeable taste; contains volatile oil 4.5-11.5 p.c., piperine 3.5-5 p.c.  Used like pepper.

    Piper. Be'tel. -- India.  Climbing plant; leaves chewed by the Malays with lime and areca-nut shavings.  P. carpun'ya, Chile, Peru; small tree. P. pelta'tum, P. umbella'tum; Tropical America.  Diuretic; skin deseases, tumor.

Piper nigrum

    Piper ni'grum, Piper, Pepper, Black Pepper, N.F. -- The dried unripe fruit with not more than 2 p.c. of stems or other foreign matter, yielding not less than 6 p.c. of non-volatile extract, soluble in ether; S. Asia; cultivated.  Perennial woody, evergreen climber; leaves 10-15 Cm. (4-6') long, ovate, entire, smooth, leathery, dark green, 5-7-nerved; flowers, spikes, whitish.  Fruit, berry-like -- green, red, yellow (ripe), nearly globular, 3.5-6 Mm. (1/7-1/4') broad, epicarp thin, easily separable from sarcocarp, grayish-black, coarsely reticulate, unilocular, 1-seeded, seed nearly white, hollow, adhering to pericarp; odor aromatic, slightly empyreumatic; taste aromatic, very pungent.  Powder, grayish-black -- fragments of pericarp -- blackish-brown, of perisperm and embryo -- whitish, starch grains, stone cells (epicarp) with reddish-brown pigment, or (endocarp) with reddish-brown substance; oil cells with yellowish oil that may separate piperine prisms; solvents: ether, acetone, alcohol, water partially; contains piperine 5-8 p.c., piperidine .56 p.c., volatile oil 1-2 p.c., resin (pungent), chavicin, piperic acid, starch 25-45 p.c., fixed oil 7 p.c.  The commercial oil of black pepper (Oleum Piperis), a by-product in making piperine, consists of the volatile oil, fixed oil, and pungent resin -- practically the oleoresin.  Stimulant, tonic, antiperiodic, carminative, rubefacient; intermittents, colic, indigestion, flatulence; gargle for throat; gums; plaster for rheumatism; universal condiment.  There are several varieties: 1, Malabar -- heaviest; 2, Penang -- strongest; 3, Singapore -- darkest; 4, Straits Settlements -- chief and best; the first three suitably mixed furnish popular trade brands.  Adulterations. -- FRUIT: That of allied species, stalks, siftings, grape seeds, ivory nut, cinnamon, mace.  POWDER: starch, flour, mustard, husks, flaxseed, capsicum -- all recognized by microscope.  Dose, gr. 5-20 (.3-1.3 Gm.); 1. Tinctura Antiperiodica, 1/30 p.c.  Oleoresin, 5-6.5 p.c., mss-2 (.03-.13 cc.).  Fluidextract, mv-20 (.3-1.3 cc.).


    Ichthyome'thia Piscip'ula (Piscid'ia Erythri'na), Jamaica Dogwood. -- W. Indies.  Well-developed tree, whose root-bark has long been used for catching fish, orange-yellow, fissured, tough, fibrous, odor opium-like, taste bitter, acrid; contains piscidin piscidic acid, resin, starch, fat.  Narcotic, analgesic, soporific; neuralgia, nervous insomnia, whooping couth, dysmenorrhea; similar to opium, but less powerful, and devoid of unpleasant after-effects.  Dose, 3ss-1 (2-4 Gm.); extract, fluidextract.


    Pista'cia Lentis'cus, Mastiche, Mastic, F N. -- The concrete resinous exudation with not more than 1 p.c. of foreign organic matter; Mediterranean Basin (Spain, France, Italy, Morocco, Greece, etc.), Island of Scio, Grecian Archipelago, etc.  Small tree, 3-4.6 M. (10-15 degrees) high, branched, bark smooth, brownish-gray; leaves paripinnate; leaflets 3-5 pairs, lanceolate, entire, mucronate, sessile; flowers small, dioecious; fruit drupe, 6 Mm. (1/4') thick, orange-red.  Resin (mastic), subglobular, lenticular pear-shaped tears, 3 Mm. (1/8') broad, pale yellow, greenish-yellow, transparent, glass-like luster, surface sometimes dusty, brittle, plastic when chewed; odor slight balsamic; taste mild, terebinthinate; loses platicity and deepens in color with age.  Secretes in long ducts in the bark from which it is obtained by making longitudinal or transverse incisions in stem and branches, whereupon it slowly exudes, becoming within 2-3 weeks sufficiently hard to be collected carefully in soft-lined baskets.  There are two varieties: 1, Separate tears (best, recognized by N.F.); 2, Agglutinated tears (allowed to run to the ground, often collected with sand, bark, etc. -- inferior); yield 10 pounds (4.5 Kg.), per plant; solvents: chloroform, not less than 97 p.c. in ether, nor less than 80 p.c. in alcohol; contains volatile oil 1-2 p.c., alpha-resin (mastic(h)ic acid) 90 p.c., beta-resin (masticin), soluble in ether, oil of turpentine, bitter principle.  Stimulant, diuretic, protective (solution); bronchial, vesical catarrhs, leucorrhea, gastric debility, chronic diarrhea, toothache (saturated ethereal solution in cavity allowed to harden -- temporary filling), masticatory (preserves teeth) fumigation; in alcohol, oil of turpentine as varnish for maps, etc.; seldom used internally.  Dose, gr. 15-30 (1-2 Gm.); 1. Pilulae Aloes et Mastiches, 2/3 gr. (.04 Gm.); 2. Solutio Mastiches Chloroformica Composita, Pulp Capping Varnish, 30 p.c., + balsam of Peru 30, chloroform q.s. 100 -- should be kept in small, well-stoppered bottles.

Piper Cubeba

    Podophyllum peltatum, Linne'.  The dried rhizome and roots with not less than 3 p.c. of resin.
    Habitat.  N. America (Canada, United States) in rich woods, thickets.
    Syn.  Podoph., Mandrake, May Apple Rhizome, American (Wild) Mandrake, Ground  (Wild) Lemon, Hog (Indian, Devil's) Apple, Duck's Foot, Umbrella Plant, Vegetable  Mercury (Calomel); Br. Podophylli Rhizoma; Fr. Rhizome de Podophyllum; Ger.  Fussblattwursel.
    Pod-o-phyl'lum.  L. fr. Gr..., foot, + ..., leaf -- i.e., its 5-7-parted leaf resembles the  foot of aquatic birds or domestic fowls, as ducks, etc.
    Pe-la'tumL. peltatus, having a pelta or light shield -- i.e., petioles attached to the  middle of the lamina instead of to the margin.
    May apple -- i.e., plant blooms in May, thus starting the fruit, which ripens in summer  (August).
    PLANT. -- Perennial herb; stem .3 M. (1 degree) high, pale green, divides near the sumit into 2 petioles, each bearing a palmately 5-7-deeply-lobed, peltate leaf 10-15 Cm. (4-6') wide, segments wedge-shaped, coarsely toothed at their ends, glaucous-green, petioles 7.5 Cm. (3') long; flowers May, borne at fork of petioles, single, nodding, white 5 Cm. (2') broad, 6-9 petals, 12-18 stamens; fruit yellowish berry, 2.5-5 Cm. (1-2') long, ovoid, fleshy, soft, indehiscent; seed about 12; often eaten by animals, hence some of its names.  RHIZOME, of horizontal growth, creeping, subcylindrical, jointed, compressed on upper and lower surfaces, sometimes branched, 3-20 Cm. (1 1/5-8') long, internodes 2-9 Mm. (1/12-1/3') thick, nodes annulate, 12 Mm. (1/2') thick, dark brown, longitudinally wrinkled or nearly smooth with irregular, somewhat V-shaped scars of scale leaves, upper surface of nodes marked with large, circular, depressed stem-scars, sometimes with buds or stem-bases, lower surface of nodes with numerous root-scars or roots, 2-7 Cm. (4/5-3') long, 2 Mm. 1/12') thick, fracture short; internally, cork light brown, wood with yellowish vascular bundles, pith large, white; odor slight; taste disagreeably bitter, acrid.  POWDER, yellowish-brown -- numerous starch grains, .003-.02 Mm. (1/3325/1/1250/) broad, few rosette aggregates of calcium oxalate, tracheae, parenchyme, cork cells; odor pronounced, characteristic.  Solvents: alcohol; boiling water partially.  Dose, gr. 5-15 (.3-1 Gm.).
    ADULTERATIONS. -- Sanguinaria (due to similarity of leaves despite greater value) 2-3 p.c., geranium 2-3 p.c., comfrey 1 p.c.
    Commercial. -- Plants of 100 or more grow in rounded or irregular-shaped clusters (patches), 3-6 M. (10-20 degrees) broad, near wood-borders, fence-panels, or in the open, preferably on heavy soil; rhizome and roots should be collected soon after the leaves fall off, Aug.-Sept., those containing much resin being surprisingly heavy considering their appearance, breaking with an elastic, short, noisy fracture; drug often recognized in the trade as thick, thin, heavy, light, referring chiefly to physical characteristics.  That collected in autumn, after flowering and fruiting, is preferred, being heavier from abundant resin content (podophyllotoxin) and breaking with a cleaner fracture.
    CONSTITUENTS. -- Resin 4-5 p.c. (varying little in quantity but greatly in content (podophyllotoxin) according to season and time of collection), starch, gum, fixed oil, gallic acid, ash 2-3 p.c.
    Resin (Resina Podophylli, Podophyllin), U.S.P. -- This is a complex substance consisting of: (1) podophyllotoxin, C15H14O6,  20-26 p.c. which is obtained after removing the fat with benzin, by precipitating the podophyllinic acid from a chloroformic solution of the resin or rhizome, by the addition of ether and then simply evaporating the ethereal solution; this is the cathartic principle, being whitish, bitter, resinous, crystallizable, soluble in chloroform, ether, acetone, alcohol; cherry-red, then greenish-blue and violet by sulphuric acid, when heated with alkalies is converted by hydration into podophyllic acid, C15H16O7, which readily loses water, forming crystalline picropodophyllin (inactive, isomeric with podophyllotoxin); (2) podophyllinic acid, which is an inactive resin-acid, insoluble in ether, but soluble in chloroform or alcohol, and obtained by the above process for podophyllotoxin (being precipitated and left behind upon the addition of ether).  The color is due to podophylloquercetin, which occurs in yellow needles, insoluble in water, slightly in chloroform, more so in ether, freely in alcohol.  The small amount of uncrystalizable resin, podophylloresin, is also purgative.
    PREPARATIONS. -- 1. Resina Podophylli.  Resin of Podophyllum.  (Syn., Res. Podoph., Podophyllin; Fr. Resine de Podophylle; Ger. Podophyllinum, Podophyllin, Podophyllumharz.)
    Manufacture: Macerate, percolate 100 Gm. with alcohol until percolate when dropped into water produces only slight turbidity, reclaim alcohol until percolate the consistence of thin syrup, and pour this slowly, stirring constantly, into 100 cc. of water mixed with hydrochloric acid 1 cc., cool, let precipitate subside, decant supernatant liquid, wash precipitate twice by decantation, each time with cold water 100 cc., dry on strainer in a cool place exposed to air and protected from light, and if it should coalesce into lumps with a glossy surface reduce to powder in a mortar.  It is an amorphous powder, light brown, greenish-yellow, darker on exposure to heat or light, slight peculiar odor, faintly bitter taste; very irritating to mucous membrane, especially that of the eye; soluble in alcohol with only slight opalescence; alcoholic solution faintly acid; 75 p.c. soluble in ether; 65 p.c. soluble in chloroform.  Tests: 1. Hot aqueous solution on cooling -- deposits most of its contents; filtrate bitter with a few drops of ferric chloride T. S. -- deep yellow liquid, becoming darker on standing, from which resin is reprecipitated by acids.  3. Add .4 Gm. to 3 cc. of 60 p.c. alcohol, + .5 cc. potassium hydroxide T.S., shake -- does not gelatinize (dif. from resin in P. Emodi); ash 1.5 p.c.  Should be kept dark, in well-closed containers.  Dose, gr. 1/8-1 (.008-.06 Gm.).
    Preps.: 1. Pilulae Aloes et Podophylli Compositae, N.F., ½ gr.  2. Pilulae Aloes,     Hydrargyri et Podophylli, N.F., 1/4 g.  3. Pilulae Aloini Compositae, N.F., 1/8 gr.  4.    Pilulae Catharticae Vegetabiles, N.F., 1/4 gr.
    Unoff. Preps.: Fluidextract (alcohol), dose, mv-30 (.3-2 cc.).  Abstract (alcohol), dose, gr. 1/4-2 (.016-.13 Gm.).  Extract (80 p.c. alcohol), dose, gr. 5-10 (.3-.6 Gm.).  Tincture (Br.), 3.65 p.c. of resin in alcohol, dose, mv-15 (.3-1 cc.).  Podophyllotoxin (pure), dose, gr. 1/12-1/8 (.005-.008 Gm.).
    PROPERTIES. -- Hydragogue cathartic, cholagogue, alterative, irritant, tonic -- slowest acting official purgative.  Increases intestinal secretion, bile-flow, causes copious watery stools, griping, nausea in from 10-20 hours, acts mainly on the duodenum, but is a powerful intestinal irritant, resembling jalap and calomel, only slower; large doses are distinctly poisonous, producing in the young vomiting, purging, collapse, coma, finally epileptiform convulsions.  Those employed in powdering the drug have irritation of the eyes, nose, mouth, respiratory passages, and skin.  The resin applied to ulcers produces purgation and is also a powerful irritant to the skin.  Its action upon the liver, being somewhat similar to that of mercury, led some early to claim for it alterative properties equal to those of that metal, and for a time it was employed under the name of "vegetable calomel" in those diseases for which mercury is a recognized specific, but now it is believed to have incidentally only very slight alterative power, and to possess no property in common with mercury save that of catharsis.
    USES. -- Constipation, torpid liver, lead costiveness, diarrhea, catarrhal or malarial jaundice, remittent fevers, dyspepsia, bilious vomiting, and headache.  With cream of tartar useful in dropsies, rheumatic, scrofulous, and syphilitic affections; should be associated with hyoscyamus or belladonna to overcome griping, and, owing to extremely slow action, should not be given in combination with brisk cathartics, but preferably with such as act in approximately the same time, as calomel, jalap, aloe, leptandra, etc. -- gr. 5 (.3 Gm.) of podophyllin (resin) have killed, so have 3iss (6 Gm.), but in one case gr. 10 (.6 Gm.) failed to produce more than abdominal pains.
    Allied Plants:
    1. Podophyllum Emo'di, Podophylli Indici Rhizoma (Br.) -- India, Hazara, Kashmir; Himalaya Mountains; rhizome, collected after flowering, cylindrical, stem-scars crowded on upper surface, many roots beneath; yields resin (Podophylli Indici Resina--Br.) 10-14 p.c., which contains podophyllotoxin 38-63 p.c., thereby making it similar to but stronger than our official drug.  Dose of resin, gr. 1/8-1 (.008-.06 Gm.).

Polygala senega

    Polygala Senega, Linne'.  The dried root, with not more than 5 p.s. of stems and other foreign organic matter.
    Habitat.  United States, in woods and rocky soil; Canada to S. Carolina, west to Wisconsin.
    Syn.  Seneg., Senega Snakeroot, Seneca Snakeroot, Seneka, or Snake Root, Rattlesnake  Root, Milkwort, Mountain Flax; Br. Senegae Radix; Fr. Polygala de Virginie; Ger.  Senegawurzel.
    Po-lyg'a-la.  L., see etymology, above of Polygalaceaae.
    Sen'e-ga.  L. fr. the Seneca (Senega) tribe, one of the five N. American Indian tribes;  they inhabited W. New York and used this plant as a remedy for snake-bites.
    PLANT.  Perennial herb; stems several, erect, 22.5-37.5 Cm. (9-15') high, smooth, round, leafy, occasionally reddish or purplish below, green above; leaves 2.5-5 Cm. (1-2') long, 12 Mm. (1/2') wide, lanceolate, sessile, margins rough, bright green; flowers May-June, small diadelphous, white, spike 2.5-5 Cm. (1-2') long, calyx showy; sepals 5 (3 small, green; 2 larger, petaloid, called wings); corolla small, closed; fruit capsule, 2-celled, compressed, 2-seeded, black.   ROOT, usually in pieces; when entire, slenderly conical, with an enlarged crown, 3-15 Cm. (1 1/5-6') long, 2-10 Mm. (1/12-2/5') thick, tortuous, somewhat branched, few rootlets, crown knotty with numerous buds and short stem-bases, brownish-yellow, crown darker and rose-tinted, longitudinally wrinkled, frequently with a distinct ridge (keel); fracture short, wood pale yellow; usually eccentrically developed and in pieces; odor suggesting methyl salicylate; taste sweetish, afterward strongly acrid.  POWDER, grayish-yellow, sternutatory -- fragments of cork, parenchyma and sieve tissue developing oily globules, tracheae, tracheids, numerous pores, wood-fibers, lignified medullary ray cells.  Solvents: boiling water; alcohol; diluted alcohol.  Dose, gr. 5-30 (.3-2 Gm.).
    ADULTERATIONS. -- Allied species, also gillenia, triosteum (rhizome and roots), American gentians (rootlets), often to 25 p.c. -- result of careless collection and intentional fraud; in Europe occasionally the underground portion of Cynan'chum Vincetox'icum.  Of these none has a keel, some contain starch, and all differ in odor, color, and taste.
    Commercial. -- The official root, as well as some of the growing plants of this genus emit a slight wintergreen odor; the southern root is smaller and usually paler, while the Manitoba is larger and stouter, often dark, with purple discoloration about the crown; the large, broad-leaved form is considered var. latifo'lia.  Root should be collected in the autumn, and comes chiefly from Minnesota and northward.
    CONSTITUENTS. -- Saponin-like compound 5-6 p.c., composed of senegin 1.5 p.c.,
and polygalic acid 4 p.c. (analogous to saponin and components, quillaja-sapotoxin, quillajic acid, of quillaja), fixed oil 8-9 p.c., volatile oil .12 p.c., methyl salicylate (increasing with age), resin, polygalite, sugar 7 p.c., pectin and albuminoids 18.40 p.c., malates, yellow coloring matter, ash 4-5 p.c.
    Senegin (polygalin, saponin), C32H54O18. -- Obtained by exhausting root with 60 p.c. alcohol, concentrating, precipitating with alcohol and ether; mother-liquor contains the salt of an organic acid.  It is a neutral glucoside, white, amorphous, inodorous powder, insoluble in alcohol, not precipitated by normal lead acetate, and forms soapy emulsion with boiling water; by hydrochloric acid decomposed into glucose and sapogenin, C14H22O2.
    Polygalic Acid, C19H30O10. -- Sparingly soluble in alcohol, insoluble in ether or chloroform, precipitated by neutral and basic lead acetates.
    Fixed Oil. -- Obtained from root by ether; contains virgineic acid which gives disagreeable aroma.
    Volatile Oil. -- This is a mixture of valer(ian)ic ether and methyl salicylate.
    PREPARATIONS. -- 1. Fluidextractum Senegae.  Fluidextract of Senega.  (Syn., Fldext. Seneg., Fluid Extract of Senega; Fr. Extrait fluide de Polygale de Virginie; Ger. Senegafluidextrakt.)
    Manufacture: Macerate, percolate 100 Gm. with alcohol 200 cc. + water 100 cc., proceed with menstruum (same strength) until exhausted, reserve first 80 cc, evaporate remainder to soft extract, which dissolve in the reserve, add ammonia water gradually until faintly alkaline (slight odor of ammonia), and menstruum q.s. 100 cc.  Dose mv-30 (.3-2 cc.).
    Preps.: 1. Syrupus Senagae.  Syrup of Senega.  (Syn., Syr. Seneg.; Fr. Sirop de Polygale; Ger. Senegasirup.)
    Manufacture: 20 p.c.  Mix ammonia water 1 cc. with fluidextract of senega 20 cc., add syrup q.s. 100 cc.; mix well.  Dose, 3j-2 (4-8 cc.).
    2. Syrupus Scillae Compositus, 8 p.c.  3. Mistura Pectoralis, N.F., 3.5 p.c.
    Unoff. Preps.: Abstract, gr. 5-10 (.3-.6 Gm.).  Infusum Senegae (Br.), 5 p.c., 3iv-16 (15-60 cc.).  Liquor Senegae Concentratus, 50 p.c., 3ss-j (2-4 cc.).  Tinctura Senegae (Br.), 20 p.c. (60 p.c. alcohol), 3ss-j (2-4 cc.).
    PROPERTIES. -- Stimulating expectorant, diuretic, diaphoretic, irritant.  Produces throat and gastro-intestinal irritation, some salivation with inclination to cough, increased bronchial secretion; large doses vomit and purge.  Insufflation causes sneezing, coughing, and nasal catarrh.  Externally--an irritant to the skin.  Senegin is a violent irritant, heart depressant, likewise same to vascular, nervous, and irritant, heart depressant, likewise same to vascular, nervous, and muscular systems.  It is excreted by kidneys, skin, bronchial mucous membrane, all being stimulated and irritated by it.
    USES. -- Secondary stage of acute and in chronic bronchitis, in typhoid pneumonia, asthma, croup, renal dropsy, promotes expectoration; no value when mucus tough and scanty, or unless the primary acute inflammation has been subdued; slight value in dropsy.  In amenorrhea, give decoction two weeks before each menstruation, chronic rheumatism, rheumatic paralysis; senegin in gr. 2 (.13 Gm.) doses for uterine hemorrhage.  Popular with North American Indians for rattlesnake and other snake-bites.

Polygala alba

    Polygala al'ba, White, Texas or False Senega. -- West of Mississippi River; root 6 Mm. (1/4') thick, resembling official, but has a lighter color internally, also a cylindrical wood, and is destitute of keel; contains polygalic acid 3 p.c.; yields light-colored infusion and tincture.  P. Boyki'nii, Southern States; like the P. alba, only thinner, yet some consider both to be one and the same species.

Polygala spp.

    Polygala polyg'ama (rubel'la), Bitter Polygala. -- The root and herb, U.S.P. 1820-1870; Canada-Florida.  Plant 15-22.5 Cm. (6-9') high; leaves mucronate; flowers purple; keel crested, shorter than the wings; fruit 2-seeded, capsule oblong; contains bitter principle analogous to senegin; similar to P. ama'ra of Europe.  Tonic in bronchial catarrh; large doses laxative, diaphoretic.


    Polygona'tum (Convallaria) multiflo'rum, European Solomon's Seal, and P. commuta'tum (gigante'um), American Solomon's Seal. -- Rhizome similar and contains convallarin, asparagin, mucilage, starch.

Polygonum bistorta

    Polyg'onum Bistor'ta, Bistort. -- Europe, Asia, N. America, in meadows.  Produces an S-shaped rhizome, bent upon itself -- bistorted.  5 Cm. (2') long, 15 Mm. (3/5') thick, flattened or channeled, upper side transversely striate, root-scars on under side, red-brown; contains tannin 20 p.c., starch, calcium oxalate, tonic, astringent.  Dose, gr. 5-30 (.3-2 Gm.)


    Populus ni'gra, P. can'dicans, or P. balsamif'era, Populi Gemmae, Balsam Poplar Buds, Balm of Gilead Buds, N.F.  The air dried, closed, winter leaf-buds with not more than 10 p.c. of flower buds, yielding not more than 1 p.c. of acid-insoluble ash; United States, Canada.  Large tree.  Buds conical, pointed, up to 2 Cm. (4/5') long, 2-5 Mm. (1/12-1/5') thick, consisting of closely imbricated scales, brown, glossy, glutinous with fragrant resin; internally with abundant oleoresin and salicin crystals; odor pleasant, balsamic; taste aromatic, bitter; contains volatile oil, resin.  Stimulating expectorant, antinephritic, antirheumatic, tonic; bronchitis, nephritis, catarrh, rheumatism; ulcers -- ointment.  Dose, gr. 15-30 (1-2 Gm.); 1. Syrupus Pini Albae Compositus, 1 p.c.: Prep.: 1. Syrupus Pini Albae Compositus cum Morphina.

Potentilla tormentilla

    Potentil'la Tormentil'la, Tormentil. -- The rhizome, U.S.P. 1820-1870; Europe.  Plant resembles P. canaden'sis, Cinquefoil, perennial, 25-30 Cm. (10-12') high, green or reddish leaves, trifoliate; leaflets cuneate; flowers yellow; fruit achenes, reniform.  Rhizome 5 Cm. (2')long, 12 Mm. (1/2') thick, tuberculate, brownish-red; bark thin, wood-wedges small, distant; pith large, inodorous, astringent; contains tannin 25 p.c., red coloring matter (tormentil-red), kinovic acid, ellagic acid.  Astringent, tonic like kino and catechu; diarrhea, dysentery, spongy gums (gargle), ulcers, gleet; decoction, infusion.  Dose, gr. 10-30 (.6-2 Gm.).


    I'lex verticilla'ta (Pri'nos verticila'tus), Prinos, Black Alder, Winter-berry. -- Ilicaceae (Aquifoliaceae).  The bark, U.S.P. 1820-1880; N. America, swamps; shrub, 2-2.5 M. (6-8 degrees) high; leaves serrate, pubescent beneath; flowers white; fruit scarlet berry, size of pea.  Bark thin, fragments 1 Mm. (1/25') thick, brown-ash color, with white patches, black dots and lines; inner surface greenish, striate, bitter, astringent; contains tannin, resin, bitter principle.  Astringent, tonic, alterative, febrifuge, substitute for cinchona; diarrhea, fevers, ulcers, etc.  Dose, 3ss-1 (2-4 Gm.); decoction, fluidextract.


    Prunel'la (Brunel'la) vulga'ris, Self-heal, Heal-all. -- Plant .3 M. (1 degree) high, flowers purplish-blue, in dense spike, leaves hairy, bitter, astringent.

Prunus domestica

    Prunus domes'tica, Prunum, Prune, N.F. -- The partly dried ripe fruit, with 30-35 p.c. of natural moisture when used for pharmaceutical purposes; W. Asia, cult. in S. France, California.  Tree, 4.5-6 M. (15-20 degrees) high; leaves 5 Cm. (2') long, dentate, ovate, pubescent beneath; flowers whitish.  Fruit (drupe), 3-4 Cm. (1 1/5-1 3/5') long, ellipsoidal, brownish-black, shriveled, sarcocarp sweet, acidulous, putamen hard, smooth or ridged; seed almond-shaped, but smaller, bitter almond taste.  Of the several varieties the St. Catherine and Greengage are finer as a dessert, and Prune de St. Julian (France) as a medicine; contains sugar 12-25 p.c., pectin, albumin, malic acid, tartaric acid, salts; seed-fixed oil, amygdalin, emulsin.  Nutritive, laxative, demulcent; constipation -- skins indigestible; fermented and distilled for brandy, which contains alcohol 40 p.c.  Should be kept cool, in air-tight containers.  Dose, ad libitum; 1. Confectio Sennae, 7 p.c.

Prunus laurocerasus

    P. Laurocer'asus, Cherry Laurel, Laurocerasi Folia (Br.). -- Fresh leaves; W. Asia.  Ornamental shrub or tree, 3-6 M. (9-20 degrees) high; leaves 15 Cm. (6') long, obovate, oblong, serrate, coriaceous; bitter almond odor; aromatic, bitter taste; contains prulaurasin, C40H67O30N (similar to amygdalin), emulsin, tannin, sugar, fat, wax, phyllic acid (crystalline, occurring also in leaves of almond, apple, maple, peach); yields hydrocyanic acid .12 p.c., and oil of bitter almond (benzaldehyde) .5 p.c., in which spring leaves are richest.  Sedative, narcotic; used to make cherry laurel water (Aqua Laurocerasi, Br.) By distilling 400 cc. From leaves 320 Gm. + water 1000 cc.  Dose, 3ss-2 (2-8 cc.).

Prunus persica

    Amygdalus (Prunus) Per'sica, Peach. -- Persia, cultivated largely in the United States, etc.  Fruit edible, abounding in sugar, juice ferments, and upon distillation yields peach brandy; kernels poisonous from yielding HCN, often substituted for bitter almonds, also contain fixed oil resembling that of almond, for which it is an adulterant; leaves mild sedative in doses of gr. 15-30 (1-2 Gm.), in infusion.

Prunus serotina

    Prunus serotina, Ehrhart.  The stem-bark collected in autumn and carefully dried.  Borke (ross-sloughing dead tissues), if present, should be removed.
    Habitat.  N. America (Can.to Fla., to Minn., Neb., Kan., La., to Texas), in woods.
    Syn.  Prun. Virg., Wild Black Charry Bark, Cabinet (Rum, Whisky, Blackchoke, Wild)  Cherry; Br. Pruni Virginianae Cortex, Virginian Prune Bark; Fr. Ecorce de Cerisier de  Virginie; Ger. Wildkirschenrinde.
    Pru'nus.  L. fr...., a plum tree; prunum, a plum, -- i.e., classic name.
    Se-rot'i-naL. serotinus, fr. serus, late -- i.e., the latest of the genus to bloom and fruit.   Vir-gin-i-a'na.  L. of or belonging to Virginia -- i.e., Virginian.
    PLANT. -- Large tree 9-24 M. (30-80 degrees) high; trunk regular, straight, with blackish, rugged outside bark, that of young branches smooth, red or purplish; leaves 5-12.5 Cm. (2-5') long, oval, petiolate, serrate, teeth glandular, glabrous, shining, bright green, with 2 small glands on the margin at the base; flowers May-June, appearing after the leaves, small, white racemes; fruit August, drupe, size of a pea, purplish-black, pulpy, sweet, acidulous, slightly astringent and bitter -- bitter cherries; seed subglobular bitter almond flavor, containing bland, yellowish-green fixed oil 25 p.c.  BARK, usually in transversely curved pieces, 2.5-8 Cm. (1-3 1/5') long, 12-25 Mm. (1/2-1') broad, .5-8 Mm. (1/50-1/2') thick; outer surface (rossed bark) light brown, greenish-brown, smooth, except numerous lentical-scars (unrossed bark), reddish-brown, glossy, smooth, with light colored, transversely elongated lenticels, roughened, flaky with gray lichens; inner surface light brown, with delicate, reticulate striations, numerous minute fissures; fracture short, granular; odor distinct, resembling bitter almond when macerated in water; taste astringent, aromatic, agreeable bitter.  POWDER, light brown -- fragments of yellow-brown cork, stone cells, few bast-fibers, not greatly elongated, frequently accompanied by crystal-bearing fibers, calcium oxalate prisms, rosette aggregates, starch grains .002-.015 Mm. (1/12500-1/1665 broad.  Young, thin bark best, and that from very large or small branches should be rejected.  Should be kept dark, in tightly-closed containers.  Solvents: hot or cold water.  Dose, 3ss-1 (2-4 Gm.).
    ADULTERATIONS. -- Unrossed bark, that of old stems, also that of choke cherry, which closely resembles the official, but as a rule is either thinner or thicker, and breaks with a very tough fracture like slippery elm.
    Commercial. -- The Latin official name, from its long usage, has been retained, although misleading; Prunus virginiana was given early by Linnaeus to Choke Cherry, a shrub 2.5-3 M. (8-10 degrees) high, having more sharply-toothed leaves, shorter racemes, and astringent, dark red, crimson fruit, size of wild cherry.  It has received various names at different times, as Prunus ru'bra, P. obova'ta, P. virginiana, P. serotina, Cerasus serotina, C. virginiana.  The true official Prunus serotina grows in fertile soil in fields, woods, along fences, seldom in clusters; wood is valuable for furniture, being hard, red, fine-grained, and easily polished.  Bark after collection is (rossed) deprived of outside layer (periderm or ross -- cork and parenchymatous cells), exposing green phelloderm, and then dried; while that from all portions of the tree is used, that from the root is strongest, yet it all soon deteriorates, consequently only the fresh-dried should be employed; the average bark collected in April yields most starch, but least tannin, and hydrocyanic acid -- .0478 p.c.; in June -- .0956 p.c.; in Oct. -- .1436 p.c. or 1/7 gr. (.009 Gm.) From 100 gr. (6.5 Gm.) bark, which equals 7-8 m (.5 cc.) of 2 p.c. acid; some bark reverse these seasonal percentages; young bark may yield of acid .183-.250 p.c., old bark, .159-.335 p.c.
    CONSTITUENTS. -- Amygdalin, Emulsin, Bitter principle, tannin 2-4.5 p.c., gallic acid, resin, starch, (volatile oil, hydrocyanic acid, benzoic acid from oxidation of benzaldehyde?)
    Amygdalin. -- Cyanogenetic glucoside, similar to laurocerasin (prulaurasin) obtained by the action of alcohol; it is bitter, non-crystalline, and not precipitated by ether, hence in this differs from that in bitter almond.
    Emulsin. -- Enzyme or ferment, identical with emulsin or synaptase, extracted by water; white powder when pure, and by its action on amygdalin, in the presence of water, develops hydrocyanic acid and the volatile oil of bitter almond, neither of which, as such, existed previously in the bark.  These two are obtained also by distilling the seed with water, when they come over more or less mixed.  The poisonous property of the oil depends largely upon the amount of acid present, and when freed of this, the oil becomes a bland, colorless liquid resembling that from bitter almond.  Some think the ferment neither emulsin nor synaptase, but a closely analogous compound.
    Bitter Principle. -- Obtained by mixing soft aqueous extract with alcohol, shaking with milk of lime, evaporating filtrate, boiling residue with alcohol, evaporating, getting brown, bitter, gelatinous mass, which is insoluble in ether, soluble in alcohol, brownish-red with sulphuric acid
    PREPARATIONS. -- 1. Syrupus Pruni Virginianae.  Syrup of Wild Cherry.  (Syn., Syr. Prun. Virg.; Br. Syrup of Virginian Prune; Fr. Sirop d'Ecorce de Cerisier; Ger. Wildkirschenrindensirup.).
    Manufacture: 15 p.c.  Mix glycerin 5 cc. with water 20, moisten wild cherry bark 15 Gm. with 10 cc. of mixture, pack in percolator, add remainder of mixture, and enough water to saturate and leave stratum above, macerate for 24 hours, percolate with water into sucrose 80 Gm. q.s. 100 cc., dissolve by aggitation without heat.  Should be kept cool, in non-metallic, tightly-closed containers, as it rapidly loses hydrocyanic acid under favorable conditions.  Dose, 3j-4 (4-15 cc.); mainly for flavoring.
    2. Fluidextractum Pruni Virginianae, N.F., moisten, 100 Gm., with glycerin 20 cc. + water 40, pack, macerate 24 hours; percolate with alcohol 25 cc. + water 15, finally with 25 p.c. alcohol q.s., 100 cc.  Dose, 3ss-12 (2-4 cc.): Prep.: 1. Elixir Taraxaci Compositum, N.F., 3.5 p.c.
    3.  Syrupus Pini Albae Compositus, N.F., 8.5 p.c.
    Unoff. Preps.: Infusion, 4 p.c., dose, 3ss-2 (215-60 cc.).  Tinctura Pruni Virginianae (Br.), 20 p.c. + alcohol 62.5 p.c., finally add glycerin 10 p.c., dose, 3ss-1 (2-4 cc.).
    PROPERTIES. -- Sedative, pectoral, aromatic bitter tonic, astringent; increases appetite, digestion.  Volatile oil -- local stimulant on alimentary canal like cascarilla, serpentaria, etc.  Hydrocyanic acid -- sedative, nervine, large doses decrease heart action.  Tannin is astringent.
    USES. -- Consumption, cough, bronchitis, scrofula, heart palpitation, stomach atony, dyspepsia, hectic fever, debility; cold infusion in ophthalmia.  It is much inferior to cinchona in intermittents.


    Pte'lea trifolia'ta, Wafer-ash, Hop-tree, Swamp-Dogwood, Wing-seed, Shrubby Trefoil. -- Root-bark; N. America -- N. Y.-Fla.-Texas; rocky places.  Handsome shrub, 2.4-3.6 M. (8-12 degrees) high, branches dark brown; leaves petiolate, light green, trifoliate; leaflets sessile, ovate, short-acuminate, crenulate, lateral ones inequilateral, terminal one cuneate at base, finely pellucid-punctate; root-bark one or more inches long, light brown, wrinkled, with thin epidermis, internally yellowish-white, darker by exposure, odor peculiar, aromatic taste bitter, pungent, acrid; contains berberine (bitter, tonic) tannin, gallic acid, resin.  Aromatic, tonic, stimulant, antiperiodic; dyspepsia, low fevers with gastro-intestinal irritation, typhoid conditions.  Dose, gr. 15-30 (1-2 Gm.); infusion, 3ss-1 (125-30 cc.); fluidextract.  Leaves and young shoots anthelmintic; fruit (samara) aromatic, bitter, good substitute for hop.

Pterocarpus marsupium

    Pterocarpus Marsupium, Rozburgh.  The dried juice from the trunk, yielding not less than 45 p.c. alcohol-soluble extractive, or 80 pc. water-soluble extractive.
    Habitat.  E. India, in forests; C. and S. India (Malabar), Ceylon, Bengal.
    Syn.  Gummi (Resina) Kino, Vengay, Bastard Teak, Bija, Amboyna Kino Tree; Br.  Kino, Kino Eucalypti (Eucalyptus (Red) Gum); Fr. Kino de l'Inde; Ger. Kino.
    Mar-su'pi-um.  L. marsupium, a pouch, bag, purse -- i.e., shape of the fruit.
    Ki'no.  E. India name as given the extract.
    PLANT. -- Large tree, 18-24 M. (60-80 degrees) high, .6-1 M. (2-3 degrees) thick, many spreading branches; bark brownish-gray, internally red and fibrous; leaves alternate, imparipinnate, deciduous; leaflets 5-7, alternate, 5-10 Cm. (2-4') long, obovate, emarginate, coriaceous; flowers May-June, pale yellow; fruit indehiscent pod, orbicular, 2.5-4 Cm. (1-1 3/5') broad; seed 1, kidney-shaped.  JUICE (kino), in small, brittle, angular fragments, usually less than 10 Mm. (2/5') broad, dark reddish-brown, reddish-black; inodorous; taste very astringent; upon mastication coloring saliva pink.  POWDER, dark red--angular fragments, with glass-like, conchoidal surface, thinner pieces translucent, yellowish-red, brownish-red; mounted in water--fragments rounded, gradually disintegrate, leaving colorless, granular particles, some being rod-shaped bacteria and a few cellular fragments; mounted in alcohol--red color of fragments deepens, translucency increases, the angular outlines being preserved while solution takes place.  Tests: 1. Add boiling water, cool, filtrate faintly acid; with ferric chloride T.S.--dark green precipitate; with alkalies--reddish-violet color.  Solvents: alcohol, to the extent of 90 p.c.; boiling water to the extent of 40-80 p.c.; alkalies, with impairment of astringency.  Dose, gr. 5-20 (.3-1.3 Gm.).
    ADULTERATIONS. -- Inferior juices, catechu, dragon's blood (insoluble in water), kinos containing gum (swelling in water, alcohol), etc.
    Commercial. -- Plant, called natively Buja, is prized for fine timber and juice, the privilege of tapping trees for the latter being granted by the government to highest bidders; it is collected to some extent the entire year, but chiefly during inflorescence, dry season, February-March (when it is better and easier dried), by cutting into the tree-trunk to the cambium a perpendicular incision and lateral feeders; the juice, resembling currant-jelly, exudes freely into clay cups, bamboo-joints, etc., placed at the bottom of main incision, when it is dried in the sun and air (inspissated) or boiled to the consistency of a thick extract, occasionally skimming off impurities, then poured into shallow pans to dry until crumbly (half-inch layer requiring a week) and packed in wooden boxes for market.  Trees yield most at night and when small often are killed by excessive bleeding, which may be averted by resting alternate years; each produces about 24 ounces (.7 Kg.) that upon evaporation becomes half as much kino.  Liquid preparations, especially in diluted alcohol tend to gelatinize (with loss of astringency) from presence of an enzyme -- destroyed by boiling -- and should be kept in small bottles and seldom opened; the menstruum making a permanent solution is alcohol 65, water 20, glycerin 15 volumes, although alcohol 50, water 25, glycerin 25 usually gives satisfaction.  There are several varieties: 1, Malabar (E. India), official, described above, rarely found on the market; 2. African (Gambia -- P. erina'ceus), similar to preceding, not in our market but common in England; contains tannin 50-60 p.c.; 3, Bengal (Palas, Buteae Gummi (Br.) -- bu'tea frondo'sa) in transparent ruby-red tears, fragments, often with leaf-vein impressions, brittle, not adhesive on mastication, yields pyrocatechin on dry distillation, one-third to one-half soluble in hot alcohol, the remainder being mucilaginous mtter; contains tannin 15-35 p.c.; 4. Australian (Botany Bay, Kino Eucalypti (Br.) -- Eucalyptus rostra'ta, E. amygdalina, E. resinif'era, and other species of Myrtaceae), not very brittle, adheres to teeth, tinges saliva red, soluble in alcohol, 80-90 p.c., in water, lessening with age; furnishes much of the present commercial kino; contains tannin 45-50 p.c.; 5, W. India (Jamaica, Caracas -- Coccol'oba uvif'era, Polygonaceae), obtained by boiling the violet-brown wood and bark of the large tree, evaporating the decoction; resembles official but has brownish tint, less glossy, bitter, soluble in water, alcohol (90 p.c.); contains tannin 70 p.c.
    CONSTITUENTS. -- Kino-tannic acid, C18H18O8, 40-80 p.c., Kino-red, C28H22O11 Pyrocatechin (pyrocatechuic acid, catechol), C6H6O2 Kinoin, C14-H12O6, gum, ash 1.3-2 p.c.
    Kino-tannic Acid. -- Similar to catechuic acid, always mixed with coloring matter and pectin in extraction; with ferric salts--greenish-black, with ferrous salts in neutral solutions -- violet color.
    Kino-red. -- Obtained by exposing cold aqueous solution to the air, when red precipitate slowly forms, hastened by heating, or heat kinoin to 130 degrees C. (266 degrees F.); it is amorphous, tasteless, nearly insoluble in water, and is the anhydride of kinoin: 2C14H12O6 -- H20 = C28H22O11.
    Pyrocatechin. -- Obtained by treating kino with ether, or the product of dry distillation of kino contains much of it, which may be purified by resublimation; soluble in ether, water.
    Kinoin. -- Boil kino with diluted hydrochloric acid, kino-red immediately separates, now agitate clear solution with ether; occurs in white crystals, slightly soluble in ether, cold water, red with ferric chloride.
    PREPARATIONS. -- 1. Tinctura Kino.  Tincture of Kino.  (Syn., Tr. Kino; Fr. Teinture de Kino; Ger. Kinotinktur.)
    Manufacture: 10 p.c.  Agitate thoroughly in a flask 10 Gm. with boiling water 50 cc., heat for 1 hour on water-bath containing boiling water, shaking frequently, cool, add recently boiled water q.s. 50 cc., than add alcohol 50 cc., stopper flask, set aside in cool place for 24 hours, decant through cheesecloth.  Should be kept cool, dark, in small, tightly-stoppered bottles.  Dose, 3ss-2 (2-8 cc.).
    Unoff. Preps.: Compound Powder of Kino and Opium, 75 p.c., + opium 5, cinnamon 20, dose, gr. 10-15 (.6-1 Gm.).  Compound Tincture of Kino and Opium, 20 p.c. (tincture), + tincture of opium 10, 3ss-1 (2-4 cc.).  Fluidextract, Infusion, Gargle.
 Owing to gum (pectin) coagulating, the liquid preparations are very unstable, consequently catechu often is used instead with equally good results.
    PROPERTIES. -- Astringent, tonic, hemostatic; similar to but less powerful than tannin; locally inferior to other astringents.
    USES. -- Diarrhea, pyrosis, menorrhagia, dysentery, leucorrhea, ulcers, sore throat, epistaxis, hemorrhages, diabetes, manufacture of wines.  Useful in dyeing and tanning, but rather too expensive.
    Incompatibles: Aqueous solution is precipitated by gelatin, soluble salts of iron, silver, lead, antimony, mercuric chloride, sulphuric, nitric, and hydrochloric acids.

Pterocarpus santalinus

    Pterocarpus santalinus, Linne filius.  The heart-wood.
    Habitat.  Madras; cultivated in S. India, Ceylon, Philippines.
    Syn.  Santal. Rub.; Red Santal, Chandam, Chundana, Ruby Wood; Br. Pterocarpi  Lignum, Red Saunders (Sandal) Wood; Fr. Santa Rouge; Ger. Rothes Sandeholz.
    Pter-o-car'pus.  L. from Gr.... wing, + ... fruit -- i.e., its winged fruit pods or legumes  girdled with a broad crisped wing.
    San-ta-li'nus.  L. adj. form fr. Sandal, Pers. sandal, useful; Gr.      .
    San'ta-lum.  L. noun form; sandalwood, saunders.
    Ru-brum.  L. ruber, red, ruddy -- i.e., the color of the wood.
    PLANT. -- Tree 6-9 M. (20-30 degrees) high, .3-.5 M. (12-18') thick, some trunks hollow; leaves trifoliate; leaflets broadly oval, emarginate, 5-15 Cm. (2-6') long, hoary beneath; flowers yellow, papilionaceous corolla, spikes; fruit orbicular legume, wing slightly crisped, 2-seeded.  HEART-WOOD, in billets, logs, 1-1.6 M. (3-5 degrees) long, 10-20 Cm. (4-8') thick, deprived of light-colored sap-wood, hard, heavy, dark reddish-brown, splitting coarse-splintery; usually in coarse powder, purplish to brownish-red, nearly odorless and tasteless.  POWDER, reddish-brown -- numerous wood-fibers of irregular outline and sharp pointed ends, occasionally forked, lumina filled with fine, granular protoplasmic content, occasional tracheae filled with yellow, resinous masses, medullary rays 1 cell wide, 3-6 deep, crystal-fibers with prisms of calcium oxalate; mounts in chloral hydrate T.S. -- deep, rich red color.  Tests: 1. Mix .5 Gm. with ether 10 cc. -- solution orange-yellow, with greenish fluorescence in bright light; .5 Gm. with alcohol 10 cc. -- solution distinctly red.  2. Mix .5 Gm. with water 10 cc. -- liquid clear and colorless.  Solvents: alcohol; ether; acetic acid; alkaline solutions; boiling water or diluted alcohol partially.
    PREPARATION. -- 1. Tinctura Lavandulae Composita, 1 p.c.
    CONSTITUENTS. -- Santalin .25-.5 p.c., Santal, Pterocarpin, Homopterocarpin.
    Santalin (santalic acid), C17H16O5. -- Coloring matter, obtained by precipitating alcoholic tincture with lead acetate, washing precipitate with hot alcohol, decomposing it with hydrogen sulphide in the presence of alcohol, evaporating; occurs in red needles, inodorous, tasteless, resinous, soluble in alcohol (blood-red), ether (yellow), sulphuric acid (deep red), alkalies (violet), also in oils of clove, cinnamon, bergamot, bitter almond.
    Santal, C8H6O3, Pterocarpin, C20H16O6, Homopterocarpin, C24H24O6 -- All occur in colorless scales -- the latter soluble in carbon disulphide and when fused with potassium hydroxide yields phloroglucin.
    USES. -- Red Saunders has no important medicinal properties, being used only for imparting color.  Employed natively as an astringent and with sapan wood for dyeing silk, cotton, wool, giving various reds according to mordants used.


    Pulsatil'la (Anem'one) vulgar'is, P. Praten'sis, or P. Pa'tens, Pulsatilla, Pasque Flower, N.F. -- The dried herb with not more than 5 p.c. of foreign organic matter; Europe (England, Siberia).  Perennial herbs, 10-25 Cm. (4-10') high, covered with soft, silky hairs.  Leaves and flowering scapes matted, silky-villous, petioles hollow often purplish, blades pinnately cleft, flowering scape up to 30 Cm. (12') in length, solid below, hollow above, flowers purplish, terminal, bell-shaped, 6 sepals, fruit achene, plumose-tailed; nearly odorless; taste acrid.  Powder, brownish -- thick-walled hairs, tracheae, stomata, epidermal cells with wavy vertical walls, calcium oxalate crystals and starch grains few or absent; contains anemonin (activity -- volatile, causing drug to be inert after 1 year), acrid anemone camphor, volatile oil, iso-anemonic acid, C15H14O7, ash 10 p.c.  Sedative, anodyne, mydriatic, diuretic, diaphoretic, emmenagogue, expectorant, resicant, emetic, poisonous -- similar to aconite, causing tingling, numbness, reducing respiration, temperature, cardiac and arterial tension, paralysis of motion and sensation; dysmenorrhea, bronchitis, asthma, whooping-cough, gastritis, epididymitis, orchitis, conjunctivitis, eczema, ulcers, meningitis.  Poisoning: Symptoms and treatment similar to aconite.  Dose, gr. 1-5 (.06-.3 Gm.); 1. Tinctura Pulsatillae, 10 p.c. (75 p.c. alcohol), dose mxv-30 (1-2 cc.).  Extract (expressed juice + alcohol), gr. 1/2-3 (.03-.2 Gm.); Homeopathic tincture (extract); anemonin, gr. 1/4-3/4 (.016-.05 Gm.).  P. hirsutis'sima (Anemone pa'tens var. Nuttallia'na); herb, U.S.P. 1880, W. N. America, flowers whitish, purplish, sepals 5-7,--2.5-4 Cm. (1-1/3/5') long, developed before the leaves; A.quinquefo'lia (nemoro'sa), Wood Flower, Wood Anemone, N. America; flowers purplish-white, A. corona'ria, A. sylves'tris, and A.ranumculoi'des, Levant, Asia, Europe, are all acrid and deteriorate upon drying.


    Punica Granatum, Linne'.  The dried bark of the stem or root, with not more than 2 p.c. wood, or other foreign organic matter.
    Habitat.  S. W. Asia, India, Persia, Arabia, China, Japan, E. and W. Indies; naturalized  in subtropics, S. United States, etc.; cultivated for fruit, ornamental flowers.
    Syn.  Granat., Pomegranate Bark, Grenadier, Punic (Carthaginian, Garnet) Apple;  Granati Cortex; Fr. Ecorce de (Grenadier) Balaustier; Ger. Granatrinde.
    Pu'ni-caL. punicus, of or belonging to Carthage, near which city it is said to have first  been found, or fr. puniceus, scarlet -- i.e., the color of its flowers.
    Gra-na'tumL. granatus, having many grains or seeds, fr. granum -- i.e., the many- seeded fruit.
    PLANT. -- Shrub or small tree, 4.5 M. (15 degrees) high, branches angular, with spiny ends; young shoots and buds red.  Leaves 2.5-5 Cm. (1-2') long, shining, lanceolate, entire, half evergreen; flowers June-Sept., large; calyx shining, scarlet, tubular, 3 Cm. (1 1/5') long, corolla crimson, 5-7 petals; fruit (balausta), 5-10 Cm. (2-4') broad, resembles an orange, quince, or tomato, 5-8-angled over the dissepiments, short-necked at top.  Internally, below the median line, divided by a diaphragm into two stories -- upper with 5-9 irregular cells, lower and smaller with 1-3 vertical partitions (cells); seed angular 12 Mm. (1/2') long, so numerous that they, with the thin surrounding edible pulp, fill entire fruit.  BARK (stem), in pieces 2-8 Cm. (4/5-3 1/5') long, .5-3.5 Mm. (1/50-1/7') thick, yellowish-brown, with patches of grayish lichens, elliptical lenticels, furrows or abraded patches of cork, wrinkled; inner surface light yellow, finely striate; fracture short, phelloderm dark green; inner bark yellowish-green; (root) in transversely curved pieces yellowish-brown, conchoidal depressions, irregular patches of cork; internally dark yellow, medullary rays extending nearly to outer surface; odor slight; taste astringent, bitter, nauseous.
    POWDER, yellowish-brown -- calcium oxalate in rosette aggregates, numerous starch grains, .002-.01 Mm. (1/12500/1-2500') broad, whitish cork, stone cells, long wood fibers, tracheae.  Tests: 1. Macerate 1 Gm. for 1 hour in distilled water 100 cc., add to 10 cc. of  yellow filtrate 1 drop of ferric chloride T.S. -- bluish-black precipitate; to another 10 cc. add 40-50 cc. Of calcium hydroxide T.S. -- orange-brown flocculent precipitate.  Should be kept in tightly-closed containers.  Solvents: boiling water; diluted alcohol.  Dose, 3ss-2 (2-8 Gm).
    SUBSTITUTIONS. -- 1, Bux'us semper'virens, Boxwood Bark; 2, Berberis vulgaris, Barberry Bark; neither contain tannin, hence infusions do not precipitate blue-black with iron like pomegranate bark; they also are very bitter, and the former has a nearly white inner surface;  3, Granati Fructus Cortex; this contains tannin 19-28 p.c., extractive 21 p.c., gum 34 p.c., and has the same effect as the bark.
    Commercial. -- Root-bark is three times stronger in alkaloids than stem-bark, but both deteriorate rapidly with age owing to the alkaloids undergoing decomposition; the white-flowered plant yields the richest bark which is imported chiefly in the dry state from France, Iraly, although we use much of our native product.  In addition to bark occasionally the flowers, fruit, rind, and acidulous seed-coating are employed domestically; some prefer the bark from uncultivated plants.
    CONSTITUENTS. -- Tannic acid 20-22 p.c., Alkaloids 1.71 (black-flowered-2.43 (red-flowered)-3.75 p.c. (white-flowered)--Pelletierine (punicine) .5-1.5 p.c., iso-pelletierine, methyl-pelletierine, pseudo-pelletierine (granatonine), mannite (punicin, granatin), gallic acid, sugar, gum, pectin, calcium oxalate, ash 10-16 p.c.
    Tannic Acid, C20H15ON. -- This is a mixture of allotannic acid and punicotannic (granatotannic) acid, the latter insoluble in alcohol, ether, precipitates gelatin, tartar emetic, iron salts, with dilute acids splits into sugar and ellagic acid.
    Pelletierine, C8H15ON (in honor of Pelletier). -- This is obtained by mixing bark with milk of lime, displacing with water, exhausting percolate with chloroform.  It is regarded by Tanret, its discoverer, to be the anthelmintic constituent, and is a colorless, oily, aromatic alkaloid, resinifying on exposure, soluble in water, alcohol; forms crystalline salts (nitrate, sulphate, tannate, etc.) -- considered to be a mixture of the several alkaloids.  Dose, gr. 3-8 (.2-.5 Gm.).
    Pelletierinae Tannas, Pelletierine Tannate, U.S.P. -- (Syn., Pellet. Tann., Punicine Tannate; Fr. Tannate de Pelletierine; Ger. Pelletierinum tannicum, Gerbsaures (Pelletierin) Punicin.)  This is a mixture in varying proportions of the tannates of four alkaloids (punicine, iso-punicine, methyl-punicine, pseudo-punicine), and is obtained by mixing ground bark with milk of lime, percolating with water until exhausted, shaking out percolate with chloroform, and chloroformic solution of free alkaloids with very dilute sulphuric acid; to neutral solution of mixed sulphates add solution tannic acid, whereby tannates are precipitated, dry.  It is a light yellow, odorless, amorphous powder, astringent taste and weak acid reaction, soluble in water (250), alcohol (16), ether (420), warm dilute acids, insoluble in chloroform; ash from .2 Gm. -- negligible.  Tests: 1. Aqueous solution with ferric chloride T.S. -- blue-black color.  2. Cold solution of .1 Gm. In 4 cc. of distilled water + 1 cc. of diluted hydrochloric acid, + platinic chloride T.S. -- no precipitate (abs. of many foreign alkaloids).  3. Dissolve .5 Gm. in sodium hydroxide T.S., shake with 4 successive portions of chloroform, 10, 5, 5, 5 cc., acidulate combined solutions with .1 cc. of hydrochloric acid, evaporate to apparent dryness, dissolve residue in 5 cc. alcohol, evaporate, dry 1 hour -- residue not less than 20 p.c.  Should be kept dark, in small, well-closed containers.  Dose, gr. 3-8 (.2-.5 Gm.) in 3j (30 cc.) of water.
    PREPARATIONS. -- 1. Fluidextractum Granati.  Fluidextract of Pomegranate.  (Syn., Fldext. Granat., Fluid Extract of Pomegranate; Fr. Extrait fluide d'Ecorce de (Grenadier) Balastier; Ger. Granatrindenfluidextrakt.)
    Manufacture: Similar to Fluidextractum Ergotae, page 63; 1st menstruum: alcohol 50 cc., water 40, glycerin 10; 2d menstruum: diluted alcohol.  Dose, 3ss-1 (2-4 cc.)
    Unoff. Preps.: Decoction, 20 p.c., 3ss-2 (15-60 cc.).  Rind, gr. 15-30 (1-2 Gm.).
    Properties. -- Anthelmintic, tenifuge, astringent.
    USES. -- The ancients knew its value as a vermifuge (Celsus, Dioscorides, Pliny).  In Hindustan, Mohammedan physicians used it in tenia, one of whom made public the secret in 1804; French physicians prefer the wild-grown plant.  Externally and internally astringent; large doses occasion vomiting, purging, cramps, numbness in the legs, giddiness, dim vision, incresed urine.  The rind is also astringent in diarrhea, leucorrhea, hemorrhage, cancerous and other ulcers of uterus and rectum; intermittent fever.  For tape-worm take decoction made by boiling bark 3ij (60 Gm.) + water Ojss (.7 L.) down to Oj (.5 L.); give this in 3 divided doses at hour intervals in the morning on empty stomach.  It is well, a couple of hours after administration, to follow with castor oil 3j (30 cc.) or compound tincture of jalap 3j (30 cc.).  The worm should be passed sitting in a tepid sitz-bath, thus preventing the expelled portion tearing from the head by its weight; it passes usually in a knotted mass.  Pomegranate may also be used for tanning, dyeing; the fruit as a refreshing, cooling article of food.


    Pyr'ola rotundifo'lia, Round-leaved Wintergreen; P. Ellip'tica, Shin-leaf, and P. Chloran'tha, Greenish-flowered Wintergreen. -- These three have racemes of nodding wax-like flowers; leaves resembling and containing same as Chimaphila umbellata, and used similarly.

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