The Cayce Herbal 
 A Comprehensive Guide to the  
Botanical Medicine of Edgar Cayce
A Manual of Materia Medica and Pharmacology
by David M. R. Culbreth, Ph.G., M.D. (1927)


    Ranun'culus bulbo'sus, Bulbous Buttercup. -- The corm and herb, U.S.P. 1820-1870, Europe, N. America.  Plant hairy, 15-45 Cm. (6-18') high, bulb at stem base, flowers May, yellow, 5's; contains volatile oil (anemonin + anemonic acid).  Irritant, diuretic, narcotic; externally--bronchitis, rheumatism, sciatica; in decoction, infusion.  Dose, 3ss-1 (2-4 Gm.).

Raphanus sativus

    Raph'anus Raphanis'trum, Wild Radish, Jointed Charlock, and R. sati'vus, Garden Radish. -- Both contain a fixed oil resembling that from mustard, but the sulphuretted volatile oil of the latter differs in some respects.

Rhamnus cathartica
    R. Cathar'tica, Buckthorn Berries, Baccae Spinae Cervinae, N.F. -- The dried ripe fruit with not more than 5 p.c. of unripe fruit or other foreign organic matter; Europe, N. Asia -- naturalized in N. America.  Small tree 3-4.5 M. (10-15 degrees) high, short branches, thorny; leaves 2/5-5 Cm. (1-2') long, 2.5 Cm. (1') broad; flowers greenish.  Fruit, Sept., size of a pea, flattened, globoid, 4-8 Mm. (1/6-1/3') broad, purplish-black, wrinkled, 3-4-celled, each cell with a brown seed-like nutlet -- pedical lacking; odor faint, unpleasant; taste sweetish, then nauseating, bitter; colors saliva -- purplish-red; unripe fruit -- discarded, greenish-brown, firm, furrowed, pedicel attached, very bitter.  Powder, dark brown -- epidermal cells parenchyma--some with an amorphous substance, calcium oxalate rosettes, sarcocarp cells, some with yellow oily content; stone cells, calcium oxalate prisms, fixed oil, aleurone grains; solvent: diluted alcohol; contains emodin-autranol, gesterin, rhamnocathartin (a glucoside of emodin) -- emodin, rhamnonigrin, resin (containing emodin), rhamnose, glucose, fixed oil, quercetin and rhamnin (yellow coloring matter), ash 5 p.c.  Cathartic -- similar to cascara sagrada; chiefly in veterinary practice.  Dose, 3ss-1 (2-4 Gm.); 1. Fluidextractum Rhamni Catharticae, 20 p.c., + ol. foenic., 1/60, ol. cinnam, 1/50, syrup q.s.100, dose, 3j-3 (4-12 cc.).  Decoction, 5 p.c. -- expressed juice made into syrup.  Fresh juice with alum or lime yields the pigment -- sap green, R. carolinia', Carolina (Southern) Buckthorn, New York-Texas, is a shrub or small tree; leaves oblong, serrate;flowers short-peduncled; fruit purple, 3-seeded.

Rhamnus frangula

    Rhamnus Frang'ula, Frangula, Buckthorn Bark, N.F. -- The dried bark with not more than 2 p.c. of foreign organic matter; Europe, N. Asia -- hedges.  Slender straggling bush, 3-4.5 M. (10-15 degrees) high, non-thorny; leaves oval, entire; flowers whitish; fruit (berry) size of a pea; green, white, yellow, pink, red, finally black; 2-3-seeded.  Bark, varying length quills, frequently flattened, crushed; .5-1 Mm. (1/50-1/25') thick, purplish-black, numerous light-colored transverse lenticels, occasional lichens; inner surface smooth, brownish, purplish blotches, striate -- red with solution of alkalies; fracture short, inner layer fibrous; odor distinctive; taste slightly bitter.  Powder, yellowish-brown -- cork and parenchyma tissue, calcium oxalate rosettes, bast-fibers with yellowish lignified walls, crystal-fibers with calcium oxalate prismatic crystals, starch grains; no stone cells (dist. from R. Purshiana); solvent: diluted alcohol; contains frangulin, C21H20O9 (rhamnoxanthin) .04 p.c. -- by hydrolysis yields emodin and rhamnose, C6H12O5, while emodin, C15H10O5, + rhamnose = frangulin + water; also emodin 1-3.8 p.c., isoemodin, frangulic acid, chrysophan, resin, tannin, ash 5-6 p.c.  Purgative, tonic, diuretic -- when fresh emetic, severe intestinal irritant causing much pain, when modified by age resembles rhubarb, senna, although milder; dropsy, costiveness, constipation of pregnancy (fldext. Mxx (1.3 cc.) ter die); parasitic skin affection -- itch, etc. (ointment of fresh bark).  Dose, 3ss-1 (2-4 Gm.); 1. Fluidextractum Frangulae (exhaust with boiling water, add one-fourth alcohol  --  preservtive), dose, 3ss-1 (2-4 cc.): Prep.: 1. Elixir Catharticum Compositum, 12.5 p.c. + fldext. senn. 10, fldext. rhei 6.2, liq. pot. hydrox. .45, sp. menth. pip. 1.4, elix. arom. q.s. 100, dose 3j-4 (4-15 cc.).  Decoction, 5 p.c., 3ss-1 (15-30 cc.); Extract, gr. 2-8 (.13-.5 Gm.).

Rhamnus purshiana

    Rhamnus Purshiana, De Candolle.  The dried bark, collected at least one year before before being used for making medicinal preparations.
    Habitat.  N. Idaho, west to the Pacific (N. California).
    Syn.  Casc. Sagr., Rhamnus Purshiana, U.S.P., 1900, Chittem Bark, Sacred-, Persian-, Persiana or Purchiana Bark, Bearberry, Bear (Shittim) Wood; Rhamni Purshiani Cortex.
    Rham'nus.  L. see etymology, above, of Rhamnaceae.
    Pur-shi-a'na.  L. of Pursh, after Frederick Pursh (L. Purshia), author of Flora Americae  Septentrionalis, 1817.
    Cas'ca-ra Sa-gra'da.  L. Sp. cascara, bark, + sagrada, sacred -- holy bark -- i.e., so  considered by many natives, on account of its medicinal properties.
    PLANT. -- Small tree, 4.5-6 M. (15-20 degrees) high; twigs pubescent; leaves 5-15 Cm. (2-6') long, 2.5-7.5 Cm. (1-3') wide, thin, elliptic, apex obtuse, base rounded, pubescent beneath, dull green, dentate, petioles short, downy; flowers large umbellate cymes; fruit drupe, black, obovoid, 8 Mm. (1/3') long, 3-lobed, 3-seeded.  BARK, usually flattened, transversely curved pieces, occasionally quills, 1-5 Mm. (1/25-1/5') thick; dark brown, brownish-red, longitudinally ridged, grayish or whitish lichen patches, sometimes numerous lenticels, occasionally moss; inner surface longitudinally striate, light yellow, dark reddish-brown, dark brown (old matured bark); fracture short with projections of bast-bundles in inner bark; odor distinct; taste bitter, slightly acrid.  POWDER, light brown, olive-brown -- broken bast-bundles, crystal-fibers containing calcium oxalate monoclinic prisms; stone cells, more or less adhering;  fragments reddish-brown cork; masses of parenchyma and medullary ray cells, red upon addition of alkali; starch grains spheroidal, .003-.008 Mm. (1/8325-1/8125') broad.  Tests: 1. Shake .1 Gm. + hot water (10) occasionally until cold, filtrate + ammonia T.S. (10) -- orange-yellow.  2. Macerate .1 Gm. + alcohol (10 drops), boil with water (10 cc.), cool, filter; shake filtrate + ether (10 cc.) -- yellow ethereal layer separates; of this shake 3 cc. + ammonia T.S. 3 cc. -- separated ammoniacal solution + water (20 cc.) -- retains distinct yellowish-red.  Solvent: diluted alcohol.  Dose, gr. 15-60 (1-4 Gm.).
    ADULTERATIONS. -- Barks of allied species: Formerly the smaller quills of R. californica, with medullary rays irregularly curved and grouped; in powder often find R. Frangula, which, owing to absence of stone cells and its longer bast-fibers, may be recognized; to this latter ammonia imparts deeper color.
    Commercial. -- Obtain bark in the spring from young trunks and large branches, dry carefully; should not be taken from old trunks, as that has different taste and characteristics.  The emetic action of green bark is due to a hydrolytic ferment, which is destroyed either by aging or moderately heating (38 degrees C. (100 degrees F.) for 48 hours.
    CONSTITUENTS. -- Emodin (non-laxative), isoemodin, resin, tannin 2 p.c., glucose, volatile oil (yellowish-green, odorous), fixed oil (rhamnol arachidate, glycerides of linolic and myristic acids) 2 p.c., rhamnol (alcohol identical with quebrachol), C20H34O, , hydrolytic ferment (non-griping), syringic acid (not preexisting in the bark, but from a substance of unknown nature by the action of acids), ash 6-8 p.c.  The active principle, undetermined chemically, but possibly a glucosidal derivative, is obtained by precipitating aqueous solution of the alcoholic extract with lead subacetate, treating precipitate with ethyl-acetate, thereby yielding a non-crystalline, sticky mass containing laxative constituent.  The "cascarin" and "purshianin" of previous investigators are regarded now simply as emodin with impurities, these latter constituting the medicinal entity, as purshianin gr. 1/5 (.013 Gm.) is purgative.  The constituents of fresh (1-year) and matured (3-year) bark seem not to differ.
    PREPARATIONS. -- 1. Extractum Cascarae Sagradae.  Extract of Cascara Sagrada.  (Syn., Ext. Casc. Sagr., Extract of Rhamnus Purshiana, Powdered Extract of Cascara Sagrade; Br. Extractum Cascarae Sagradae Siccum; Fr. Extrait de Cascara Sagrada; Ger. Amerikanisch Faulbaumrindenextrakt.)
    Manufacture: Macerate 3 hours 90 Gm. with boiling water 400 cc., percolate until exhausted (500 cc.), evapurate to dryness, pulverize, add dried starch q.s. 30 Gm. (to preserve powdered condition); mix powders thoroughly, pass through fine sieve and transfer it to small, wide-mouthed bottles and stopper them tightly.  Dose, gr. 2-8 (.13-.5 Gm.).
    2. Fluidextractum Cascarae Sagradae.  Fluidextract of Cascara Sagrada.  (Syn., Fldext. Casc. Sagr., Fluidextract of Rhamnus Purshiana; Br. Extractum Cascarae Sagradfae Liquidum; Fr. Extrait fluide de Cascara Sagrada; Ger. Cascara Sagradafluidextrakt.)
    Manufacture: Similar to Fluidextractum Glycyrrhizae, page 317; evaporate to 75 cc., cool, add gradually alcohol 25 cc., and, if necessary, water q.s. 100 cc.  Dose, mx-30 (.6-2 cc.).
    3. Fluidextractum Cascarae Sagradae Aromaticum.  Aromatic Fluidextract of Cascara Sagrada.  (Syn., Fldext. Casc. Sagr. Arom., Aromatic (tasteless) Fluidextract of Rhamnus Purshiana; Fr. Extrait fluide aromatique de Cascara Sagrada; Ger. Bitterloses Cascara Sagradafluidextrakt.)
    Manufacture: Slake lime 6 Gm. with water q.s., mix it with cascara sagrada 100 Gm. + magnesiium oxide 6 Gm. (to remove bitterness), moisten uniformly with boiling water 200 cc., macerate in shallow dish for 48 hours, percolate with boiling water until exhausted, evaporate to 50 cc.; while warm dissolve in it pure extract of glycyrrhiza 4 Gm., cool, add glycerin 20 cc., alcohol 20 cc. in which have been dissolved gluside, .1 Gm., oil of anise .25 cc., oil of cinnamon .02 cc., oil of coriander .01 cc., methyl salicylate .02 cc., and water q.s. 100 cc.  Here the magnesium oxide forms with the bitter principle (acid resin) a magnesium salt, insoluble in the menstruum, while the oxymethylanthraquinone is soluble.  Dose, mx -30 (.6-2 cc.).
    Preps.: 1. Elixir Cascarae Sagradae, N.F., 50 p.c. + elix. Glycyrrh. Aq. 50.  2. Elixir Cascarae Sagradae Compositum, N.F., 12.5 p.c., + fldext. senn. 7.5, fldext, jugland, 6.5, elix. arom. q.s. 100.  Dose, each 3j-2 (4-8 cc.).
    4. Fluidglyceratum Cascarae Sagradae, N.F., 100 p.c.  Dose, mxv-30 (1-2 cc.).  5. Fluidglyceratum Cascarae Sagradae Aromaticum, N.F., 75 p.c. + fldglycer. glycyrrhiz. 25, lime 2, mag. oxid. pond. 2, +.  Dose, mxv-30 (1-2 cc.).
    Unoff. Preps.: Aromatic Syrup of Cascara (Br.), 40 p.c., 3ss-2 (2-8 cc.), Cordial, 3j-2 (4-8 cc.), Tincture, 15 p.c., 3ss-2 (2-8 cc.)
    PROPERTIES. -- Purgative, tonic, febrifuge, increases secretions of stomach, liver, pancreas; not usually given as a single cathartic, but where frequent repetition is required; it operates in 6-10 hours, and wears well, as generally increased quantities are not needed when habitually used; it regulates action of the bowels, and acts best when given on empty stomach in concentrated form.  Fresh bark nauseates and gripes, owing to a ferment which in time changes so that matured official bark and its preparations should be without these properties.  The purgative action is claimed by some to be due largely to resins, tonic to bitter principle.
    USES. -- Habitual constipation due to torpor of the colon, dyspepsia, hemorrhoids.


    Rheum officinale, Baillon, palmatum, Linne', and var., or other species grown in China and Tibet.  The dried rhizome and roots deprived of palmatum, periderm tissues, yielding not less than 30 p.c. of diluted alcohol-soluble extractive.
    Habitat.  W. And C. China, Thibet, Chinese Tartary; mountains, southern exposure -- light, loose, sandy and rich black forest soil.
    Syn.  Turkey or China Rhubarb; Br. Rhei Rhizoma; Fr. Rhubarbe de Chine; Ger.  Rhizoma Rhei Rhabarber.
    Rhe'um.  L. Rha, the river Volga, upon whose banks it grows and was first found,fr. Gr.... pijov, peiv, to flow -- i.e., it causes purgation.
    Of-fi-ci-na'le.  L. officina, workshop; opus, work, + facere, to do -- i.e., used in or  belonging to the shop or store.
    Pal-ma'tum.  L. palmatus, fr. palma, palm of the hand -- i.e., the much divided leaves.
    Rhubarb, contraction of rheubarbarum -- rheum + barbarum, -- i.e., barbarian plant from  the Rha (Volga), whence name rha Ponticum -- Pontic-rha, R. Rhaponticum, fr Pontic or  Euxine Sea.
    PLANTS. -- Large compact perennial herbs; aerial stem persisting through the winter, after a few years 30 Cm. (1 degree) high, 10-15 Cm. (4-6') thick, branches 25-37.5 Cm. (10-15') long, blunt summit, brown coat from withered scales (ocreas) and leaf-bases; internally fleshy (semi-[pulpy) with yellowish juice; leaves very large, petiole .3-.5 M. (12-18') long, 2.5-4 Cm. (1-1 3/5') thick, solid; lamina .6-1.3 M. (2-4 degrees) long and broad, suborbicular, palmately-veined, 5-7-lobed, reticulate, pubescent, pale green; stipules very large; flowering branches (stems) several, 1.5-3 M. (5-10 degrees) high, hollow, thick, green, striate, smoothish; flowers May-June, 6 Mm. (1/4') long, clusters of 7-10, catkin-like compound panicles, greenish-white; fruit August, small clusters, 12 Mm. (1/2') long, 6 Mm. (1/4') broad, triangular, wing at each angle, crimson-red; seed solitary.  RHIZOME, subcylindrical, barrel-shaped, conical, rounds, or flattened pieces, flats, frequently with a perforation; hard, moderately heavy, 5-17 Cm. (2-7') long, 4-10 Cm. (1 3/5-4') thick, or cut into variable shape and size; yellowish-brown, with lighter striations and occasional small patches of brown cork, more or less covered with yellowish-brown powder; fracture uneven, stellate vascular bundles, granular yellowish mottled surface; odor aromatic, agreeable; taste bitter, astringent, gritty when chewed, tingeing saliva yellow.  POWDER, yellowish-brown -- calcium oxalate rosette aggregates, starch grains .004-.025 Mm. (1/6250-1/1000') broad, few tracheae, reticulate and spiral.  Tests: 1. Boil .1 Gm. with aqueous solution of potassium acid, shake with ether 10 cc.; ethereal layer (yellow on standing) shaken with ammonia T.S.  5 cc. -- ammonia layer cherry-red color (pres. of emodin) , ethereal layer remains yellow (pres. of chrysophanic acid).  2. Boil 1 Gm. + diluted alcohol 50 cc. for 15 minutes under a reflux condenser, filter, evaporate to 10 cc., cool, shake with ether 15 cc., set aside for 24 hours -- yellowish prismatic crystals should not form (abs. of rhapontic rhubarb).  Solvents: alcohol; water.  Dose, gr. 5-30 (.3-2 Gm.)
    ADULTERATIONS. -- Irrespective of variety, rhubarb should be moderately heavy, compact, bright color, brittle, broken edges with fresh appearance, red and yellow veins intermingled with white, decidedly aromatic odor, bitter, astringent, slightly gritty, non-mucilaginous, staining saliva yellow; pieces that are porous, mucilaginous taste, dark brown interior should be rejected.  Turmeric sometimes added to the powder and also rubbed over unsightly pieces-recognized by its starch grains, as well as by adding to 5 gr. (.3 Gm.) of suspected rhubarb a few drops of chloroform on white peper, when Chinese slightly stains the paper, while the European, or dark-colored Chinese, imparts a deep yellow stain; now on adding a few grains of borax + a drop of hydrochloric acid, if pure rhubarb--stain not changed, if tumeric present--get a distinct red.
    Commercial. -- Plants, resembling our garden rhubarb -- pie-plant, grow wild and largely under cultivation in Chinese Empire, where a number of species, chiefly the two recognized, furnish the official product.  Rhizome, when 8-10 years old, is dug in the autumn (Tartary, spring, China, Sept.-Oct.), and, after removing roots and corky layer, is divided into segments (to aid drying), perforated, strung on cords, and suspended in the shade or under cover (house roofs and eaves) to be cured by circulating air, a process that often requires a year and a loss of 80 p.c.; frequently that dried by the sun, heated stones, stoves, ovens, kilns, or brushwood fires, high dried (usually having broad ridges, blackish grooves, heavy disagreeable odor) and the larger roots, tails, are included, but both are more or less inferior.  Variety and quality are distinguished, in experienced hands, by odor (bouquet), while all kinds are subject to insect attack, which is prevented best by keeping in tightly-closed containers having a tuft of cotton saturated with chloroform or carbon tetrachloride.  Most of our supply comes from Hankow, on the Upper Yangtse, that from Hsining (Tzechuen and Shensi products) commanding the highest price.  There are three varieties: 1, Russian (Turkish Crown -- R. palmatum), no longer on the market, but consisted of the best rhizome, from Chinese Tartary via Siberia, trimmed to beneath the cambium, perforated with large conical hole (for easy examination), inspected rigorously at Kiachta, refuse burned, the reserve sewed in linen sacks, covered with hide, and sent to Leningrad (Petrograd St. Petersburg); Turkish ports once suppled it (hence name), being brought from Tartary by caravans through Persia and Anatolia; 2, Chinese (E. Indian -- R. officinale, R. palmatum, var. tanguticum, etc.), our official rhizome, having inner bark, and sometimes patches of rough corky layer and twine fibers; color less bright and odor less aromatic than Russian; flourishes best at 2,400-3,000 M. (8,000-10,000 degrees) elevation in the Himalaya and other mountains, on the shady side of damp ravines, with northern exposure; distinguished natively as "northern" and "southern," also as "Shensi" (best, most expensive -- orange color, agreeable odor), "Canton" (smoky odor, bitter, ochre-yellow), "Shanghai" (smoky odor, light yellow; exported chiefly from Canton, occasionally via India; 3, European (Rhaponticum--R. palmatum, R. rhaponticum, R. compactum, R. undulatum, R. emodi +), cultivated in England, France, Austria (Moravia), the rhizome being cut to resemble the Chinese, but differing in having the outside nearly or entirely without white meshes, the medullary rays interrupted, narrow, nearly straight, with paler color, weaker odor, and less gritty but more mucilaginous taste; rarely imported.
    CONSTITUENTS. -- Resin, Aloe-emodin, Chrysophanic acid, rhein, emodin, emodin monomethyl ether, rheinolic acid (new anthraquinone derivative), volatile oil, rheotannic acid, gallic acid, cinnamic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linolic acid, verosterol (phytosterol), dextrose, levulose, calcium oxalate 2-40 p.c. (the greater the amount, the greater the activity of the drug, the two going hand in hand); starch, ash 12-13 p.c. -- very inferior 35-45 p.c.
    Resin. -- Chief purgative principle; amorphous, non-glucosidic -- obtained from alcoholic extract, after removing volatile oil, by separating from greenish-yellow residue in still the dark aqueous liquid, extracting it with ether, then with amyl alcohol, evaporating to get brown tarry liquid and yellowish granules, crystals (aloe-emodin, chrysophanic acid, rhein, emodin, emodin monomethyl ether, rheinolic acid -- all of which the resin yields upon hydrolysis); evaporate brown tarry filtrate, dissolve in alcohol and precipitate with equal quantity of chloroform.
    Aloe-emodin and Chrysophanic Acid. -- Both slightly purgative, obtained by concentrating above ethereal liquid, heating residue with ethyl acetate, adding petroleum, decanting from tarry precipitate, evaporating petroleum solution, dissolving in ether, extracting with 10 p.c. aqueous solution of sodium carbonate (aloe-emodin), or with 10 pc. aqueous solution of potassium hydroxide (chrysophanic acid).  Aloe-emodin is the rhabarberon and iso-emodin of some writers.
    PREPARATIONS. -- 1. Extractum Rhei.  Extract of Rhubarb.  (Syn. Ext. Rhei., Powdered Extract of Rhubarb, Extractum Rhei Alcoholicum; Fr. Extrait de Rhubarbe; Ger. Rhabarberextrakt.)
    Manufacture: Macerate, percolate 100 Gm. with 80 p.c. alcohol until exhausted, reclaim alcohol, continue distillation until residue syrupy consistence, transfer to a dish, rinse still with little warm menstruum, which add to dish and evaporate to dryness at 70 degrees C. (150 degrees F.), stirring frequently; add dried starch enough for extract to weigh 50 Gm., pulverize, mix thoroughly, pass through fine sieve; 1 Gm. represents 2 Gm. of the drug.  Should be kept in small, wide-mouthed tightly-stoppered bottles.  Dose, gr. 3-10 (.2-.6 Gm.).
    2. Fluidextractum Rhei.  Fluidextract of Rhubarb.  (Syn., Fldext. Rhei, Fluid Extract of Rhubarb; Fr. Extrait fluide de Rhubarbe; Ger. Rhabarberfluidextrakt.)
    Manufacture: Similar to Fluidextractum Sarsaparillae, page 126;
    Preps.: 1. Syrupus Rhei.  Syrup of Rhubarb.  (Syn., Syr. Rhei; Fr. Sirop de Rhubarbe; Ger. Rhabarbersirup (saft).)
    Manufacture: 10 p.c.  Mix fluidextract of rhubarb 10 cc., spirit of cinnamon .4 cc., add potassium carbonate 1 Gm., dissolved in water 5 cc., and to this mixture add syrup q.s. 100 cc.  Dose, 3j-4 (4-15 cc.).
    2. Mistura Rhei Alkalina, Neutralizing Cordial, N.F., 1.6 p.c.
    3.  Mistura Rhei Composita, Mixture of Rhubarb and Soda, N.F., 1.5 p.c.  4. Elixir Catharticum Compositum, N.F., 6.2 p.c.
    3. Pulvis Rhei Compositus.  Compound Powder of Rhubarb, (Syn., Pulv. Rhei Co., Gregory's Powder, Powder Magnesia and Rhubarb, Pulvis (Infantum) Antacidus; Fr. Poudre de Rhubarbe composee; Ger. Pulvis Magnesiae cum Rheo, Kinderpulver.)
    Manufacture: 25 p.c.  Triturate together rhubarb 25 Gm., ginger 10, add gradually magnesium oxide 65; mix thoroughly, pass through No. 60 sieve.  It is pinkish-white, mobile, darker on exposure to moisture; it exhibits fine particles of magnesiium oxide, numerous elliptical starch grains (ginger), .005-.06 Mm. (1/5000-1/400') broad, and fragments of vegetable tissues; polygonal starch grains (rhubarb), .002-.02 Mm. (1/12500-1/1250') broad.  Dose, 3ss-1 (2-4 Gm.).
    4. Tinctura Rhei, Tincture of Rhubarb.  (Syn., Tr. Rhei; Fr. Teinture de Rhubarbe; Ger. Rhabarbertinktur.)
    Manufacture: 20 p.c.  Similar to Tinctura Veratri Viridis, page 104; 1st menstruum: glycerin 10 cc., alcohol 50, water 40, 2d: diluted alcohol q.s. 100 cc.  Dose 3ss-4 (2-15 cc.): Prep.: 1. Mistura Opii et Rhei Composita, N.F., 10 p.c.
    5. Tinctura Rhei Aromatica.  Aromatic Tincture of Rhubarb.  (Syn., Tr. Rhei Arom.; Fr. Teinture de Rhubarbe aromatique; Ger. Aromatische Rhabarbertinktur.)
    Manufacture: 20 p.c.  Similar to Tinctura Veratri Viridis, page 104 -- using rhubarb 20 Gm., cinnamon 4, clove 4, myrstica 2; 1st menstruum: glycerin 10 cc., alcohol 50, water 40, 2d: diluted alcohol q.s. 100 cc.  Dose, 3ss-4 (2-15 cc.).
    Prep.: 1. Syrupus Rhei Aromaticus.  Aromatic Syrup of Rhubarb.  (Syn., Syr. Rhei. Arom., Spiced Syrup of Rhubarb; Fr. Sirop de Rhubarbe aromatique; Ger. Gewurtzer Rhabarbersirup (saft).)
    Manufacture: 3 p.c.  Dissolve potassium carbonate .1 Gm. in aromatic tincture of rhubarb 15 cc., to this add syrup q.s. 100 cc.  Mix thoroughly.  Dose, for a child with diarrhea, 3j-2 (4-8 cc.).
    6.  Fluidglyceratum Rhei, N.F.  7.  Pilulae Rhei, N.F., 3 gr.  8.  Pilulae Rhei Compositae, N.F., 2 gr.  9. Pulvis Rhei et Magnesiae Anisatus, Compound Anise Powder, N.F., 35 p.c.  10. Tinctura Rhei Aquosa, N.F., 10 p.c. (11 p.c. alcohol).  11. Tinctura Rhei Dulcis, N.F., 10 p.c., 1st menstruum: glycerin 10, alcohol 50, water 40, 2d: diluted alcohol.  12. Tinctura Rhei et Gentianae, N.F., 7 p.c., + gentian 1.75 p.c. (diluted alcohol).  13. Pilule Antiperiodicae, N.F., ½ gr.  14. Syrupus Sennae Aromaticus, N.F., 1.75 p.c.  15. Tinctura Antiperiodica, N.F., 4/5 p.c.  Dose, each, 3ss-2 (2-8 cc.).
    Unoff. Preps.: Aromatic Fluidextract, mxv-60 (1/4 cc.).  Infusum Rhei (Br.), 5 p.c., 3iv-8 (15-30 cc.).  Liquor Rhei Concentratus, 50 p.c., 3ss-1 (2-4 cc.).  Vinum Rhei Compositum, 8 p.c., +, 3j-4 (4-15 cc.).  Torrefied Rhubarb. -- By roasting, the cathartic principle is volatilized and the full astringency left behind; long boiling will effect the same result.
    PROPERTIES. -- Aperient, purgative, astringent, stomachic, tonic.  It increases saliva, gastric juice, bile, peristalsis, vascularity, and absorption.  The cathartic effect comes first (4-8 hours), due to resins (mainly pheoretin), emodin, etc.; then follows astringency from rheotannic acid; both actions being chiefly on the duodenum.  The milk, urine, and sweat become colored, the first also acquiring bitterness and purgative properties.  Purgation may result from its application to ulcers, abraded skin, or in poultices to abdomen.
    USES. -- Diarrhea, hemorrhoids, cholera infantum, chronic dysentery, dyspepsia, thread worms.  With calomel good in bilious fevers; with magnesium oxide for stomach and bowel disorders.  By association with other cathartics both rendered more efficient; sometimes used with opium.
    Allied Plants:
    1. Rheum rhapon'ticum.  Asia Minor, Siberia, Russia.  This is cultivated as pie-plant, the leaf-petioles being used, as they possess pleasant acidulous properties; this species is the source of the cultivated European rhizome, and that of Moravia (Austria), Hungary, England, and Banbury, which is usually less than half the size of official rhubarb, conical, harder, lighter color, more bitter and astringent, less gritty; contains rhapontin, C22H24O9.  R. undula'tum, R. compac'tum, R. Emo'di, R. austra'le, R. hyb'ridum. -- All produce handsome, but smaller, less valuable, and lighter-colored rhizomes.

Rhus aromatica

    Rhus aromat'ica, Fragrant (Sweet-scented) Sumac(h), 1.5-2.5 M. (5-8 degrees) high; given in extract, fluidextract (alcoholic), tincture, and for hematuria, leucorrhea, but mainly for incontinence of urine (enuresis).  Dose, gr. 10-30 (.6-2 Gm.).  R. Copalli'na, Black, Dwarf, Mountain Sumac(h), 1-2.5 M. (3-8 degrees) high; downy branches; leaflets entire; excels all in yield of tannin.  R. hir'ta (typhi'na), Staghorn Sumac(h), 4.5-9 M. (15-30 degrees) high; hairy; leaflets serrate.  All three indigenous to N. America.  R. Coria'ria, European Sumac)h), Mediterranean Basin; leaflets elliptic, woolly, serrate.  R. semiala'ta and R. japon'ica, China, Japan; these furnish galls which are used in Germany largely for obtaining tannic and gallic acid (see pages 157, 160).  The fruits of all these are red, hairy, and acidulous, while the leaves are astringent.

Rhus glabra

    Rhus glabra, Linne'.  The dried ripe fruit with not more than 5 p.c. stems or other foreign organic matter.
    Habitat.  N. America, west to California, Idaho; on barren or rocky soil.
    Syn.  Rhus Glab., Sumac Berries, Sumach, Mountain-, Dwarf-, Sleek-, Smooth-,  Upland-, Scarlet, or Pennsylvania Sumach, Indian salt (powder on the berries); Fr.  Sumach, Sumac; Ger. Sumach.
    Rhus'.  L. fr. Gr. pous; Celtic rhudd, red -- i.e., color of the fruit, also the leaves of the  same species in autumn.
    Gla'bra.  L. fr. glaber, smooth, hairless -- i.e., its leaves and branches.
    Su'mac.  L. fr. Ar. summaq -- i.e., their native name for the plant.
    PLANT. -- Woody shrub 1.5-4.6 M. (5-15 degrees) high; stem more or less bent, dividing into many straggling branches, pith large, wood thin, white; bark smooth, grayish or reddish, with small scattered warts; leaves imparipinnate; leaflets 11-31, lanceolate, acuminate, serrate, whitish beneath, changing to a beautiful red in autumn; flowers June-July, greenish-red, terminal panicles.  FRUIT, Sept., drupes in small clusters, flattened ovoid, nearly globular, somewhat reniform; 3.5-5.5 Mm. (1/7-1/4') long, nearly as broad, usually somewhat less; apex with raised scar, five-parted calyx occasionalloy with short pedicel at base; dark red, velvety with short hairs; endocarp smooth, shiny, crimson -- yellowish-red; 1-locular, 1-seeded; seed brown, very hard; inodorous; taste acidulous, astringent.  POWDER, brownish-red -- numerous non-glandular hairs, usually several celled, uniseriate, filled with pink or red dried sap, occasionally rod-shaped crystals; few slender 1-celled, colorless, non-glandular hairs; numerous brownish glandular hairs, fragments red-celled epicarp with adhering mesocarp having spiral tracheae; stone cells of endocarp small, fragments of embryo with cells having aleurone grains and fixed oil.  Solvent: diluted alcohol.  Dose, 3ss-1 (2-4 Gm.).
    ADULTERATIONS. -- Fruits of allied species -- R. hirta (typhina -- shaggy coating of long, straight hair), R. aromatica (smaller, less compressed, nearly spherical), R. coriaria (rougher, hispid).
    Commercial. -- Sumac grows in waste fields, along fences, woods, etc., the bark, galls, and leaves are very astringent, being collected during summer or fall for use in tanning and dyeing, while from these an extract is made containing 25-30 p.c. tannin, and this is its most convenient form for all trade and chemical purposes.  For this extract sumac is cultivated in Virginia and other States.
    CONSTITUENTS. -- FRUIT: Acid calcium and potassium malates, tannin (gallo-tannic acid) 2 p.c., gallic acid, coloring matter.  SEED: Fixed oil.  GALLS: Tannin 60-70 p.c.
    PREPARATIONS. -- 1. Fluidextractum Rhois Glabrae.  Fluidextract of Rhus Glabra.  (Syn., Fldext. Rhois Glab., Extractum Rhois Glabrae Fluidum, U.S.P. 1890; Fr. Extrait liquide de Sumac; Ger. Flussiges Sumachextrakt.)
    Manufacture: Similar to Fluidextractum Ergotae, page 63--macerate, percolate 100 Gm. with 1st menstruum: glycerin 10 cc., alcohol 50, water 40; finish with 2d: diluted alcohol.  Dose, 3ss-1 (2-4 cc.)
    Unoff. Preps.: Decoction, 5 p.c., 3j-2 (30-60 cc.).  Infusion, 5 p.c., 3j-2 (30-60 cc.).
    PROPERTIES. -- Astringent, refrigerant, diuretic; resembles tannin.
    USES. -- Catarrhal affections of stomach and bowels, pharyngitis, tonsillitis, mercurial aphthae, spongy gums, and other mouth affections (as a gargle), ulcers, wounds, etc. (as a wash).

Rhus tox

    R. rad'icans, Rhus Toxicodendron, Poison Ivy. -- The fresh leaflets, U.S.P. 1870-1890; N. America.  Climbing plant over fences, rocks, trees, etc.; flowers small; fruit smooth drupe.  Leaflets, collected May-June, trifoliate, petiolate, entire, glabrous, the 2 lateral nearly sessile, 10 Cm. (4') long, obliquely ovate and pointed; when dry brittle, inodorous, astringent, when fresh with acrid juice blackening on exposure, applied to skin produces swelling, inflammation, etc. -- hence should not handle ungloved or confound with the harmless Pte'lea trifolia'ta, Three-leaved Hoptree, whose leaflets are sessile, thicker, paler green; contains toxicondendrol 3.3 p.c., tannin, acetic acid (formerly considered toxicodendric acid); toxicodendrol, the active, irritating, poisonous principle, is a viscid, non-volatile oil (or freed fat acid, or complex glucoside), agreeably odorous, soluble in alcohol, benzene, ether, chloroform, decomposed by heat.  Irritant, rubefacient, narcotic, poisonous; internally produces gastro-intestinal inflammation, vertigo, nausea, muscular debility, delirium, mydriasis, convulsions, death.  Poisoning: The fresh leaves, juice or flying pollen produce external itching, burning, redness, tumefaction, vesication, desquamation, lasting 1-2 weeks.  Apply at once soap and water with scrubbing-brush, lead water and laudanum, alkaline solutions (sodium bicarbonate--8 p.c. solution 3-4 times daily, sulphite, chlorinated, thiosulphate, diluted ammonia, soapsuds, alum curd), or hot aqueous saturated solution of magnesium sulphate (frequently), or fresh bruised leaves of either fire weed (Erectites hieracifolia), touch-me-not (Impatiens aurea, biflora) or burdock (Arctium Lappa), or solution of sodium salicylate (2), + fldext. hydrastis (1) + water (5), or tincture or infusion of lobelia, grindelia, or sassafras, cocaine solution 4-8 p.c. (to relieve burning and itching), aristol, glycerite of phenol, opium -- no oils, vaselin, alcohol, these being solvents of poison serve to disseminate it, low diet, saline purgatives, quietness.  Used in chronic eczema, skin diseases, erysipelas, rheumatism, incontinence of urine, etc.  Dose, gr. 2-5-15 (.13-.3-1 Gm.); tincture (fresh leaves bruised and macerated with equal weight of alcohol, m 1/10-1 (.006-.06 cc.); juice (expressed from leaves and preserved with alcohol) is soluble in ether and possesses all the virtues of the plant; fluidextract, mv-30 (.3-2 cc.).  R. Toxicoden'dron, properly more or less shrubby, .6-1 M. (2-3 degrees) high, erect, leaflets crenately lobed, pubescent, called also Poison Ivy (Oak)--merely a variety of R. radicans.  R. diversi'loba, Pacific coast; leaves with 3-5-lobed, pinnatifid leaflets.  R. Ver'nix (venena'ta), Canada, United States, swamps, 3-6 M. (10-20 degrees) high; leaves of 7-13 entire leaflets; fruit yellow; called poison-sumac(h), -dogwood, elder, and yields most toxicondentrol.  R. pu'mila, S. Carolina, procumbent shrub; leaves pinnate with 11-toothed acuminate leaflets; fruit red, hairy.  All of these are poisonous, but R. Vernix the most so, as when in flower it so taints the surrounding air that sensitive persons become poisoned by simple exposure to the effluvium.


    Oleum Ricini.  Castor Oil, U.S.P.
    Ricinus communis, Linne'.  A fixed oil obtained from the seeds.
    Habitat.  India; cultivated in tropics; India, Italy, Spain, Sicily, United States.
    Syn.  Palma Christi, Castor Bean, Mexico Seed, Oil Plant, Oil Seed (Nut); Fr. Ricin  (Graine); Ger. Wunderbaum; Ol. Ricin., Oleum Palmae Christi; Fr. Oleum e Semini  Ricini, Huile de Ricin; Ger. Rizinusol.
    Ric'i-aus.  L. a bug, dog-tick -- i.e., from the resemblance of the seed.
    Com-mu'nis.  L. common, general -- i.e., it is the ordinary common species.
    PLANT. -- This is quite variable in habit and appearance -- in tropics a tree 9-12 M. (30-40 degrees) high, in warm or temperate regions a woody bush, 3.6-4.5 M. (12-15 degrees) high; in Middle United States with herbaceous stems 1.6-3 M. (5-10 degrees) high, hollow, smooth, glaucous, purplish bloom above; leaves with blade 15-20 Cm. (6-8') broad palmately divided (3/4 depth) into 7-11 lanceolate, serrate segments, smooth, bluish-green, paler beneath, on long, curved, cylindrical, purplish petioles; flowers July, monoecious, large, apetalous, racemes, staminate below, pistillate above; fruit tricoccous capsule 2.5 Cm. (1') long, blunt, greenish, deeply grooved, sometimes smooth, usually spinescent on the 3 projecting sides, 3-celled, each cell 1-seeded, which is expelled in Aug.-Sept. by capsule dehiscing into 6 valves.  Seed 12 Mm. (1/2') long, 6 Mm. (1/4') broad, 3 Mm. (1/8') thick, size of a coffee grain, with caruncle, raised raphe, grayish, marbled with blackish spots or bands of various tints and shapes, smooth, shining.
    CONSTITUENTS. -- Seeds (testa 23.82 p.c., kernel 69.09 p.c.) yield fixed oil 35-45 p.c., gum (mucilage) 2.4 p.c., starch and lignin 20 p.c., albumin 5 p.c., ricinine, proteins (emulsin), sugar, ash (testa 10 p.c., kernel 4 p.c.).  The poisonous principle, ricin, is an albuminoid, soluble in a 10 p.c. solution of sodium chloride, precipitated by acids, coagulated by heat; harmless to chickens.
    Oleum Ricini.  Castor Oil. -- This fixed oil, obtained from the seed chiefly by expression, is a pale, almost colorless, transparent, viscid liquid, faint, mild odor, bland, slightly acrid, usually nauseating taste, miscible with dehydrated alcohol or glacial acetic acid; sp. gr. 0.955; at 0 degrees C. (32 degrees F.) separates into crystalline flakes, at -18 degrees C. (-.4 degrees F.) congeals into yellow mass; contains mostly triricinolein (the glyceride of ricinoleic acid), C3H5(C18H33O3)3,also palmitin, ricinoleic acid (ricinic acid, C18H34O3, which is a viscid oil readily converted by nitrous acid into ricinelaidic acid, crystalline, melting at 50 degrees C. (122 degrees F.).  Tests: 1. Only partly soluble in petroleum benzin (dif. from most other fixed oils).  2. Soluble (clear) in an equal volume of alcohol (abs. of foreign fixed oils).  Should be kept in well-closed containers.  Dose, 3j-8 (4-30 cc.).
    ADULTERATIONS. -- Rare: Cottonseed, rapeseed, sesame, and mineral oils -- detected by decreased solubility in alcohol and preceding tests.
    Commercial. -- Plant, called Palma Christe from supposed shape of leaves resembling Christ's hand, is cultivated extensively in the United States for the oil which is extracted from the seed by: 1, Expression; 2, Decoction; 3, Solution (benzin, carbon disulphide, chloroform, ether).  The first method is preferred, and consists in crushing and freeing seed of the integuments, dark skin, etc., and expressing at 60 degrees C. (140 degrees F.), or in heating clean seed in shallow tanks short of scorching, 65 degrees C. (150 degrees F.), to render oil more fluid, and expressing them hydraulically in hempen bags between hot iron plates; while this affords the greatest yield of oil it is of interior quality, the best being from hand-screw presses.  This white oil now is run into iron vats with water, boiled to separate impurities (albumin being coagulated and removed by skimming, mucilage and starch being dissolved in water), strained, reboiled (to destroy acidity), strained, and, if opaque, treated with fuller's earth, or magnesium oxide (1 p.c.) and animal charcoal (2.5 p.c.), filtered through paper and felt, and put into cans or barrels, constituting as such cold-pressed castor oil; by grinding marc with water and expressing may obtain 6-8 p.c. additional good oil; the yield by cold expression is 25-30 p.c., with heat 35-45 p.c.  The method by decoction, owing to water dissolving poisonous ricin and heat increasing oil's acidity, is not so desirable, consisting in crushing the seed after removing husks (testa), boiling with water (oil floating on surface), straining, reboiling to dissipate acrid principle, straining, filtering: this oil usually is brownish, acrid, irritating, and comes from E. And W. Indies.  The method by solution causes the oil to turn rancid quicker, in spite of which it is preferred in France and Italy, being considered more agreeable and effective.  The so-called popular Italian castor oil is produced extensively around Verona, Italy, where only fresh seed thoroughly deprived of coating are expressed hydraulically without heat; this oil although remarkedly free from disagreeable odor and taste is none the less active.  An ethereal or alcoholic tincture of the seed is claimed to be less irritating and nauseous.  The press-cake, usually 60 p.c., is employed chiefly as a fertilizer, and, after the removal of ricin by salt solution, as a cattle-food.  In India there are two varieties of seeds, large and small, the latter yielding the best oil.
    PREPARATIONS. -- 1. Collodion Flexile, 3 p.c.  2. Emulsum Olei Ricini, N.F., 35 p.c., + acacia 9, tincture of vanilla 2.5, syrup 20, water q.s. 100.  Dose, 3j-2 (30-60 cc.); 3. Oleum Ricini Aromaticum, N.F., 97 p.c., + gluside 1/20, oil of cinnamon 3/10, oil of clove 1/10, vanillin 1/10, coumarin 1/100, alcohol 3.  Dose, 3iv-8 (15-30 cc.).  4. Linimentum Sinapis Compositum, N.F., 15 p.c.
    Unoff. Preps.: Castor Oil Mixture (Br.), 37.5 p.c., 3j-2 (30-60 cc.); Capsules, Paste.
    PROPERTIES. -- Purgative, demulcent.  It is non-irritating until the duodenum is reached, where the bile and pancreatic juice decompose it into glycerin and ricinoleic acid; this latter combines with sodium, forming sodium rincinoleate, which mildly irritates the bowels, causing purgation, stimulating muscular glands and coat, but not the liver; acts in 4 to 6 hours, producing liquid stools without much pain or tenesmus, followed by sedative effect on intestines. Leaves are said to be galactagogic when applied to breast, and to impart cathartic power to the milk and various secretions.  Glycerin increases the purgative effect.
    USES. -- Constipation, colic, diarrhea, dysentery, enteritis in pregnancy, puerperal stat e, tape and lumbricoid worms, traumatic fever, renal calculi, night-sweats, amenorrhea, engorged liver, hemorrhoids, cystitis gonorrhea.  In dysentery may add laudanum mxx (1.3 cc.), to each dose in order to counteract any pain, tenesmus, or exhaustion from frequent passages; externally applied to warts, as a local sedative, protective; base of Turkish-red oil used in calico dyeing and printing.
    Administration. -- In emulsion flavored to suit, or equal quantities of oil and either heavy sarsaparilla, peppermint, or cinnamon syrup beaten together, or take with soda water, malt liqur, orange juice, coffee, etc.  All disguise very effectively the nauseating oil taste.  At one time the seed were employed, but action too violent; their griping principle (ricin) is said to reside in the embryo and testa, hence to make best oil most of these should be removed before expressing.


    Rosa gallica, Linne'.  The dried petals, collected just before the expansion of the flower.
    Habitat.  W. Asia, S. Europe; cultivated (England, Holland, France, United States, etc.)
    Syn.  Rosa Gallica, Red Rose, Rosa Gall., French Rose, Provins Rose; Br. Rosae  Gallicae Petala, Red Rose Petals, Flores Rossarum Rubrarum; Fr. Roses rouge--de  Provins, Roses rouges; Ger. Franzosische Rose, Essigrosen-(blatter), Zucker-rose.
    Ro'sa.  L. fr. Gr...., Eng. rose fr. Celtic rhos, red -- i.e., the prevailing color of the  flowers.
    Gal'li-ca.  L. gallicus, of or pertaining to Gaul, now France -- i.e., country where once it  flourished extensively -- French rose.
    PLANT. -- Bushy shrub, .6-1 M. (2-3 degrees) high, stems numerous, covered with prickles and a few sharp spines; leaves alternate, imparipinnate, 2 pairs opposite leaflets, these nearly sessile, ovate, rounded at base, acute at apex, serrate, stiff, keeled, rugose, with veins, pale, hairy below, leaf-serratures not edged with glands; flowers large, on long stalks, petals 5 in the wild state, more when cultivated, rich-crimson; fruit (hip) scarlet to orange-red, oblong, containing many 1-seeded achenes, calyx persistent.  PETALS, either separate or imbricated in small cones, broadly ovate, summit rounded, deeply notched, margin entire, somewhat recurved, base obtuse, purplish-red except the light brown claw; texture velvety; when dry brittle; odor agreeable; taste astringent, slightly bitter.  POWDER, reddish-brown--epidermal cells with purplish-red content (sap), fragments of fibro-vascular bundles, spiral tracheae, rectangular cells with purplish content (sap).  Solvents: boiling water; diluted alcohol.  Dose, gr. 15-60 (1-4 Gm.).
    Commercial. -- Plant, in its many species and varieties, very largely cultivated domestically as well as commercially; petals are obtained by circumcising with a sharp knife the unopened corolla-buds, leaving the stamens behind on the calyx; or the entire blooms are cut off with knives or scissors, dried carefully but rapidly by stove heat (in order to preserve astringency and color), sifted, if necessary, from stamens, etc., and marketed; early collection is more astringent and of better color, qualities impaired by slow drying.  It is claimed that 1000 flower-buds yield 50 pounds (23 Kg.) of fresh petals, which when dried become 5 pounds (2.3 Kg.).
    ADULTERATIONS. -- Petals of various red roses.
    CONSTITUENTS. -- Volatile oil (trace), mucilage, tannin (rosatannic acid, quercitannic acid?), gallic acid, anthrocyanin -- sap pigment, quercitrin, quercetin (astringent and coloring), sugar, ash 3.5 p.c.
    PREPARATIONS. -- 1. Fluidextractum Rosae.  Fluidextract of Rose.  (Syn., Fldext. Ros., Fluid Extract of Rose; Fr. Extrait fluide de Rose rouge; Ger. Essigrosenfluidextrakt.)
    Manufacture: Similar to Fluidextractum Ergotae, page 63; 1st menstruum: alcohol 50 cc., water 40 cc., glycerin 10 cc.; 2d diluted alcohol.  Dose, mxv-60 (1-4 cc.).
    Preps.: 1. Mel Rosae.  Honey of Rose.  (Syn., Mellitum Rosatum; Fr. Mellite de Roses rouges, Miel Rosat; Ger. Mel rosatum, Rosenhonig.)
    Manufacture: 12 p.c.  Mix fluidextract of rose 12 cc. with honey q.s. 100 Gm.  Dose, 3j-2 (4-8 cc.).
    2. Syrupus Rosae, N.F., 12.5 p.c., + diluted sulphuric acid 1 p.c.
    2.  Aqua Rosae Fortior.  Stronger Rose Water.  (Syn., Aq. Ros. Fort., Triple Rose Water,    Aqua Rosae; Fr. Eau distillee fort de Rose; Ger. Starkeres Rosenwasser.)
    Manufacture: The saturated aqueous distillate from fresh flowers of Rosa centifolia.  It is colorless, clear, strong, pleasant odor and taste of fresh rose blossoms, free from empyreuma, mustiness, or fungoid growths; neutral, slightly acid; evaporate 100 cc. -- residue .001 Gm.; no reaction with hydrogen sulphide T.S., or sodium sulphide T.S. (abs. of metallic substances).  Dose, 3ij-8 (8-30 cc.)
    Preps.: 1. Aqua Rosae.  Rose Water.  (Syn., Aq. Ros., Aqua Rosarum; Fr. Eau distillee de Rose; Ger. Rosenwasser.)
    Manufacture: Mix, immediately before using, stronger rose water, and distilled water, each 1 volume.  Dose, 3ij-8 (8-30 cc.).
    2. Unguentum Aquae Rosae.  Ointment of Rose Water.  (Syn., Ung. Aq. Ros., Cold Cream; Fr. Creme froide; Ger. Unguentum leniens--emolliens.)
 Manufacture: Melt, in fine pieces, spermaceti 12.5 Gm., white wax 12 Gm., add expressed oil of almond 56 Gm., stir, heat until uniform; add gradually stronger rose water .19 Gm., previously warmed and having dissolved in it sodium borate .5 Gm., stir rapidly and continuously until congealed and uniform; must be free from rancidity, and if chilled should be warmed slightly before incorporating other ingredients.  Should be kept in pure tin, collapsible tubes.
    3.Confectio Rosae, N.F., rose 8 Gm., sucrose 64, honey 12, stronger rose water 16, Dose, 3ss-1 (2-4 Gm.).
    3.Infusum Rosae Compositum, N.F., 1.3 p.c., + diluted sulphuric acid .9, sucrose 4, boiling water q.s. 100.  Dose, 3ss-2 (15-60 cc.).  4. Pilulae Aloes et Mastiches, Lady Webster Dinner Pills, N.F., ½ gr. (.03 Gm.).
    Unoff. Preps.: Infusion, 3.5 p.c.  Infusum Rosae Acidum (Br.) 2.5 p.c., + diluted sulphuric acid 1.25, water q.s. 100.
    PROPERTIES. -- Similar to tannin; tonic, mild astringent, carminative.
    USES. -- Uterine and other hemorrhages, aphthae, ulcers of mouth, ears, anus, inflamed eyes, chapped hands, burns, flavoring vehicle, perfumery; ointment -- soothing, emollient application to the skin, chapped hands and lips, abrasions, ulcers, frost-bite, etc.

Rosa centifolia

    Rosa centifo'lia, Pale Rose. -- The petals, collected after expanding, U.S.P. 1820-1890; W. Asia.  Plant erect, 1-2 M. (3-6 degrees) high, similar to but larger than Rosa gallica; stems covered with prickles, larger ones hooked; leaves imparipinnate, 2 pairs of opposite leaflets; flowers large, double, calyx persistent; fruit (hip) scarlet to orange-red, oblong, containing many 1-seeded achenes.  Petals numerous, roundish-obovate, retuse, or obcordate, pink, fragrant, sweetish, slightly bitter, faintly astringent; contain volatile oil, mucilage, sugar, tannin, malates, phosphates (quercitrin?).  This, although often mistaken for the Damask rose, is no doubt the most anciently cultivated variety of R. gallica, and exists in many hybrid forms which are employed indiscriminately.  Used as mild carminative, for distilling the oil and U.S.P. stronger rose water -- the latter being of fine flavor, and more used in this country, owing to prevalence and cheapness, than the imported.  Dose, gr. 15-60 (1-4 Gm.).  R. cani'na, Dog Rose, United States; leaflets 5-7, ovate, serrate, flowers pink, white; R. blan'da, R. nit'i-da, also employed.

Rosa damascena

    R. Damasce'na, Damascus Rose. -- The volatile oil distilled from fresh flowers, U.S.P. 1830-1900; India, N. Africa, S. France, Bulgaria (Roumelia).  Plant, prickly, resembling the ordinary rose bush, cultivated in hedge-like rows on southern slope of Balkan Mountains.  Oil (otto, attar, essence of rose) pale yellow, transparent liquid, fragrant rose odor, mild sweetish taste, sp. gr. 0.860, alcohol (70 p.c.) precipitates stearoptene but dissolves eleoptene, congeals at 18-22 degrees C. (65-72 degrees F.); consists of solid portion (stearoptene) 12-14 p.c., being a mixture of odorless hydrocarbons, C20H42, etc., and a liquid portion (eleoptene) composed of (1) geraniol (rhodinol), C10H18O, 75 p.c., most fragrant, oxidized into aldehyde, citral rhodinal), readily soluble in alcohol, (2) citronellol, C10H20O, small amount; when congealed should be liquefied by warming before dispensing.  Adulterations: Spermaceti, paraffin (crystallize in opaque crust), fixed oils, volatile oils of guaiacwood, palmarosa, rose geranium, etc. -- having one or more similar ingredients (geraniol, etc.), recognized by congealing point and saponification value (10-17); synthetic rose oils -- now largely manufactured as a subtitute.  Stimulant, carminative, aromatic; chiefly in perfumery, flavoring.


    Oleum Rosmarini.  Oil of Rosemary, U.S.P.
    Rosmarinus officinalis, Linne'.  A volatile oil distilled from the fresh flowering tops,yielding not less than 2.5 p.c. esters (bornyl acetate) nor less than 10 p.c. total borneol free and as esters.
    Habitat.  Mediterranean Basin -- Spain to Asia Minor, N. Africa, reaching to Madeira  and the Canary Islands; cultivated in gardens.
    Syn.  Garden Rosemary, Old-man, Folia Rosmarini, Folia Roris Marini, Folia Anthos;  Fr. Romarin; Ger. Rosmarin Meerthau; Ol, Rosmar., Rosemary Oil, Oleum Anthos; Fr.  Essence de Romarin; Ger. Rosmarinol.
    Ros-ma-ri'nus.  L. ros, dew, mist, + marinus, maris, of the sea -- sea foam -- i.e., from its  maritime habitat and glaucous appearance.  Rosemary -- not Mary's rose.
    Of-fi-ci-na'lis.  L. See etymology of (Smilaz) officinalis, page 122.
    PLANT. -- Small perennial shrub 1-1.3 M. (3-4 degrees) high, bushy, much branched; bark pale brown, twigs tomentose; flowers April-May, bilabiate, upper lip 2-parted, lower 3-divided, middle one being the largest, pale blue; fruit achenes, subglobose, smooth; leaves evergreen, many, sessile, 2.5 Cm. (1') long, linear, both ends blunt, entire, margins revolute, dark green, shining above, woolly with white, stellate hairs beneath, like the flowers, with aromatic fragrance, camphor-like; taste bitter.
    CONSTITUENTS. -- Volatile oil 1 p.c., resin, tannin, bitter principle.
    Oleum Rosmarini.  Oil of Rosemary. -- This volatile oil, obtained by distilling the fresh flowering tops with water or steam, is a colorless, pale yellow liquid, characteristic odor of rosemary, camphoraceous taste, soluble in 10 vol. of 80 pc., alcohol, sp. gr. 0.903, dextrorotatory; contains pinene, C10H16, 80 p.c., camphene, cineol, C10H18O, camphor, C10H18, also at least 2.5 p.c. of esters, calculated as bornyl acetate, C10H17C2H3O2, and 10 p.c. of total borneol, C10H17OH.  Should be kept cool, dark, in well-stoppered, amber-colored bottles.  Dose, mj-5 (.06-.3 cc.).
    ADULTERATIONS. -- OIL: Oil of turpentine, etc., recognized by odor and not being affected by an equal volume of alcohol, which dissolves out oil of rosemary.
    Commercial. -- The Dalmatian (Italian) oil of rosemary, distilled after the flowering season is over, and the French, distilled form the flowering tops and of finer odor, are the chief commercial varieties; the English, from cultivated plants, and the Spnish, being high priced are greatly esteemed by some, but little used.
    PREPARATIONS. -- 1. Linimentum Saponis, 1 p.c.  2. Tinctura Lavandulae Composita, 1/5 p.c.  3. Acetum Aromaticum, N.F., 1/20 p.c.  4. Linimentum Saponato-Camphoratum, N.F., 3/5 p.c.  5. Oleum Hyoscyami Compositum, N.F., 1/5 p.c.  6. Spiritus Odoratus, N.F., 7/10 p.c.
    Unoff. Preps.: Infusion, 5 p.c.; Spirit (Br.), 10 p.c., mx-30 (.6-2 cc.)
    PROPERTIES. -- Carminative, stimulant, diuretic, diaphoretic, emmenagogue; excessive doses cause death.
    USES. -- Colic, nervous disorders, menstrual derangements; externally in rheumatism, sprains, bruises.  Stimulates the hair in alopecia, reduces temperature, and imparts violet odor to urine; mainly used in liniments, lotions, ointments, perfumery.


    Ru'bia tincto'rum, Madder. -- The root, U.S.P. 1820-1870; S. Europe, Asia.  Perennial herb, square stem, covered with short prickles by which it climbs; leaves elliptical, 7.5 Cm. (3') long; flowers yellow; root creeping, 5 Mm. (1/5') thick, reddish, sweetish, bitter, acrid, astringent taste; contains rubian (yellow), alizarin (orange-red), ruberythrin (yellow needles, blood-red with alkalies), purpurin.  Used as tonic, diuretic, emmenagogue; dropsy amenorrhea, rachitis, dyeing.  Dose, gr. 15-60 (1-4 Gm.).

Rubus idaeus

    R. Idae'us, or R. strigo'sus; Rubi Idaei Fructus, Raspberry, N.F. -- The fresh, ripe fruit of several varieties; Europe, N. Asia, N. America.  Shrub 2 M. (6 degrees) high, glaucous, spinose; leaves imparipinnate, 1-3 pairs, sessile, ovate, serrate, whitish, downy leaflets; flowers white, 5's.  Fruit, deprived of conical receptacle (hollow base), globular, hemispherical, composed of 20-30 small, rounded polygonal, succulent drupelets (aggregate fruit), pericarps red, numerous non-globular hairs, mesocarps fleshy, juice red, parenchyma with calcium oxalate rosettes, endocarps small stones, wrinkled; odor characteristic, aromatic; taste pleasant, sweet, acidulous.  Black Raspberries, the fresh ripe fruit of varieties of R. occidenta'lis, may be substituted for pharmaceutical purposes, either in part or wholly for Red Raspberries; most of these plants grow wild and under cultivation throughout N. America, supplying fruit that is in great demand, and a juice that ferments into wine, which upon distillation yields brandy more or less popular in bowel affections; contains volatile oil (trace), citric acid, malic acid, sugar 5 p.c., pectin, coloring matter.  Refrigerant, mild laxative, dietetic; used as edible fruit and for preparing syrup; 1. Syrupus Rubi Idaei; add to every 100 cc. of clear, boiled, filtered juice, 200 Gm. sucrose: Preps.: 1. Elixir Bromidorum Quinque, 15 p.c.  2. Elixir Gentianae Glycerinatum, 6 p.c. 5. Quilla'ja Sapona'ria, Quillaja, Soap (Tree) Bark, N.F. -- The dried inner bark with not more than 5 p.c. of outer bark nor 1 p.c. of foreign organic matter; Chile, cult. in N. Hindustan.  Tree 15-18 M. (50-60 degrees) high; leaves oval, evergreen, coriaceous; flowers white, monoecious; fruit capsule with persistent calyx, many seeded.  Bark in flat piecees of variable length, 3-8 Mm. (1/8-1/3') thick, or small chips, brownish-white, often with cork patches, nearly smooth, occasional depressions, conical projections or channels; inner surface yellowish-white; fracture uneven, strongly fibrous; odor slight, taste acrid.  Powder, pinkish-white, very sternutatory -- elongated calcium oxalate prisms, irregular crystal-fibers with thick lignified walls, medullary rays, stone cells, starch grains, cork cells with brownish walls; solvents: alcohol, hot water; contains saponin (quillajic acid, C19H30O10 + quillaja-sapotoxin, C17H25O10), C32H56O18, 9 p.c., starch, gum, sucrose, calcium oxalate and sulphate.  Stimulant, diuretic, expectorant, irritant, sternutatory, detergent, local anesthetic, antipyretic, paralyzant to heart and respiration, irritant to respiratory passages, poison to voluntary muscles; like senega; bronchitis, coryza, rhinitis, emulsifying agent, eruptions, scalp sores, fetor of feet, hair tonics, washing silks.  Dose, gr. 15-30 (1-2 Gm.); 1. Tinctura Quillajae, 20 p.c. (boiling water, then 35 p.c. alcohol); dose, 3ss-1 (2-4 cc.); 2. Liquor Picis Carbonis, 10 p.c. Fluidextract, mv-15 (.3-1 cc.).

Rubus villosus

    Ru'bus villo'sus, R. nigrobac'cus, R. cuneifo'lius, + Eubatus section, Rubus, Blackberry Bark, N.F. -- The dried bark of the rhizome and roots with not more than 10 p.c. of adhering wood nor 3 p.c. of other foreign organic matter; N. America, fields, thickets, cult.  Pubescent perennials; stems angular, woody, with stout recurved prickles; leaflets 3-5, ovate, cuneate, petiolate, serrate, rough above, pubescent beneath, 2.5-10 Cm. (1-4') long; flowers white, racemes; fruit (aggregate drupe --carpels 20 + ), 12-25 Mm. (1/2-1') long, black, pulpy, delicious.  Bark of rhizome 1-2 Mm. (1/25-1/12') thick, in long, tough, flexible bands or quills, 3-6 Mm. (1/8-1/4') broad, brownish, grayish-brown, smooth or scaly, inner surface yellowish, coarsely striate, fracture tough-fibrous, readily splitting; inodorous; taste strongly astringent, bitterish.  Powder, dark brown-cortical parenchyma, calcium oxalate rosettes, many simple and compound starch grains, cork tissue; solvents: boiling water, diluted alcohol; contains tannin 12-17.5 p.c., gallic acid .4 p.c., villosin (saponin) .8 p.c., resin 7 p.c., volatile oil, fixed oil, wax, ash 3 p.c.  Astringent, tonic similar to tannin; diarrhea--children and adults in summer.  Dose, 3ss-1 (2-4 Gm.); 1. Fluidextractum Rubi (diluted alcohol), dose, mx-60 (.6-4 cc.): Prep.: 1. Syrupus Rubi, 25 p.c., dose, 3j-4 (4-15 cc.).  Decoction, 5 p.c. (water or milk), 3j-2 (30-60 cc.); Syrup of fruit (juice 100, sucrose 200 -- heat); Wine; Brandy.


    Ru'mex cris'pus, or R. obtusifo'lius, Rumex, Yellow (Curled) Dock, N.F. -- The dried root with not more than 5 p.c. of stem-bases or other foreign organic matter; Europe, N. America.  Common obnoxious weeds, 30-120 Cm. (1-4 degrees) high, coarsely angled; leaves (lower) 15-35 Cm. (6-14') long, decreasing toward summit, lanceolate, crisped, wavy; flowers terminal panicle becoming a dense mass of rusty-brown 3-winged capsules.  Root, nearly simple, few rootlets, somewhat twisted, up to 30 Cm. (12') long, 7 Cm. (3') thick, reddish-brown, grayish from adhering soil, annulate above, wrinkled longitudinally, indented root-scars, stem-scars or remains (hollow); fracture short, dusty, fibrous; usually split longitudinally or cut transversely, 2 Cm. (4/5') long; odor slight; taste astringent, bitter.  Powder, brownish--calcium oxalate rosettes, crystals, numerous starch grains, few fibers, tracheae, cork cells light brown; contains (cascara-) emodin .17 p.c., chrysophanic acid (rumicin, lapathin), tannin, calcium oxalate, starch.  Astringent, alterative, tonic, laxative, antiscorbutic; similar to rhubarb and sarsaparilla; cutaneous eruptions, scorbutic manifestations, itch, scrofula, syphilis, hepatic congestion, dyspepsia, intermittents; leaves used as a laxative diet, and as spinach.  Dose, gr. 15-60 (1-4 Gm.); 1. Fluidextractum Rumicis (diluted alcohol), dose, mxv-60 1-4 cc.).  Decoction; Ointment.
    R. britan'nica, Water Dock.  The root, U.S.P. 1820-1850.  Europe, naturalized in N. America.  Plant 1.6-2 M. (5-6 degrees) high, leaves lanceolate, acute, transversely veined, obscurely crenate, .3-.6 M. (1-2 degrees) long; root more astringent but physically and medicinally similar to R. crispus, with which it is often indiscrimanately collected.  R. sanguin'eus, Red-veined Dock.  Leaf-veins and stems reddish; R. aqua'ticus, fruit smooth, both astringent.  R.Acetosel'la, Field or Sheep Sorrel, contains acid potassium oxalate and tartaric acid, sour taste lost upon drying; refrigerant, diuretic, good diet in scurvy.


    Ru'ta grave'olens. -- The leaves, U.S.P. 1830-1870; S. Europe, cultivated.  Plant .6-1 M. (2-3 degrees) high, woody; flowers yellow; fruit capsule, 4-5-lobed; seed black, many, all parts active; leaflets 12-25 Mm. (1/2-1') long, 6 Mm. (1/4') wide, crenate, thick, pellucid-punctate, aromatic, bitter; contain volatile oil (Oleum Rutae, U.S.P. 1870-1880, greenish-yellow, aromatic), rutin, (rutic or rutinic acid, C42H50O25 -- bitter, yellow, crystalline glucoside, identical with barosmin, decomposing into quercetin etc.).  Stimulant, emmenagogue, nervine; hysteria, colic, amenorrhea, menorrhagia, metrorrhagia -- due to atony of uterus; dangerous abortifacient; large doses irritant-poison -- severe gastroenteritis, vomiting, abdominal pain, distention, bloody stools, strangury, convulsions, rarely death.  Dose, gr. 5-20 (.3-1.3 Gm.); oil, mj-5 (.06-.3 cc.).

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