The Cayce Herbal 
 A Comprehensive Guide to the  
Botanical Medicine of Edgar Cayce
A Manual of Materia Medica and Pharmacology
by David M. R. Culbreth, Ph.G., M.D. (1927)


    Tamarin'dus in'dica, Tamarindus, Tamarind, N.F. -- The partially dried ripe fruit, deprived of the brittle outer portion of the pericarp and preserved in sugar (sucrose) or syrup, containing not more than 2 p.c. of foreign organic matter; India, Africa, nat. in W. Indies.  Handsome tree, 18-24 M. (60-80 degrees) high; bark rough, ash color; leaves paripinnate, leaflets 8-16 pairs, sessile, 12-25 Mm. (1/2-1') long, 6 Mm. (1/4') broad; flowers yellow, racemes; fruit indehiscent legume, compressed, 7.5-15 Cm. (3-6') long, 2.5 Cm. (1') broad, curved, nearly smooth, yellowish-brown, percarp thin, brittle, corky.  Pulp -- a pulpy mass, light reddish-brown, darker with age, containing some branching fibers and numerous reddish-brown, smooth, oblong, quadrangular, compressed seed, each in a tough membrane; pulp with parenchyma cells containing few starch grains, calcium oxalate rosettes and crystal-fibers with prisms; odor distinct; taste sweet, agreeably acid.  Bright iron in contact with moist pulp 30 minutes should not show reddish deposit (abs. of copper from evaporating vessels).  There are three varieties: 1, W. Indian (Brown, Red), the once official kind, cakes kneaded with sugar or hot syrup, or alternate layers of pulp and sugar; 2, E. Indian (Black), masses simply pressed together and dried in the sun; 3, Egyptian, cakes, flat, round, black, acrid, often moldy; contains tartaric acid 5-9 p.c., citric acid 4-6 p.c., potassium bitartrate 5-6 p.c., malic acid, acetic acid (mostly as potassium salts), sugar, pectin, tannin (in seed testa), insoluble matter 12-20 p.c.  Laxative, refrigerant; febrile diseases, combined with other laxatives (senna, etc.) as a flavoring.  Dose, 3ss-5 (2-20 Gm.); 1. Confectio Sennae, 10 p.c.


    Tanace'tum vulga're, Tanacetum, Tansy. -- The leaves and tops, U.S.P. 1820-1890; Europe, Asia.  Perennial herb, .6-1 M. (2-3 degrees) high; stem obscurely hexagonal, striated, often reddish; root fibrous, many-headed; flowers yellowish discoid, dense, terminal corymbs; fruit achene, small, oblong, 5-6 ribs, crowned with pappus.  Leaves, 15 Cm. (6') long, bipinnatifid, segments obtuse, oblong, serrate, glandular, receptacle convex, naked, florets tubular; odor strong, aromatic; taste pungent, bitter; contains volatile oil .25 p.c., tanacetin, fat, resin, tannin, mucilage; solvents: alcohol, water.  Stimulant, tonic emmenagogue, anthelmintic, diuretic, narcotic; large doses cause vomiting, convulsions, coma, mydriasis, feeble respiration and pulse, death from paralytic asphyxia.  Used in intermittents, hysteria, amenorrhea, colic, abortifacient; locally for bruises, sprains, rheumatism, ulcers.  Dose, gr. 15-60 (1-4 Gm.); fluidextract, mxv-60 (1-4 cc.); infusion, 5 p.c., 3j-2 (30-60 cc.); oil, mj-5 (.06-.3 cc.).  T. vulgare var. Cris'pum, Double Tansy. -- Leaves twice pinnatifid, curled.  T. balsam'ita (Pyrethrum Tanacetum), S. Europe; odor strong, taste bitter.  Both often cultivated and used similar to T. vulgare.


    Oleum Chaulmoograe.  Chaulmoogra Oil, U.S.P.
    Taraktogenos Kurzii, King, or certain species of Hydnocarpus.  The fixed oil expressed from the seeds.
    Habitat.  S. Asia; India, Siam, Burma, China, Africa.
    Syn.  Kalan Tree; Ol. Chaulmoog., Chaulmugra, Chaulmaugra, Oleum Gynocardiae; Fr.  Huile de Chaulmougra (Chaulmougre); Ger. Chaulmugrool.
    Ta-rak'to-ge'nos.  L. fr. Gr. rapaktos, confused, disordered, jumbled up, + ..., genus,  race -- i.e., genus that was overlooked and once confused with Hydnocarpus.
    Kur'si-i.  L. named by Prof. Geo. King (1890) in honor of Prof. Sulpiz Kura, author of  Forest Flora of British Burma, and curator, Royal Botanical Gardens, Calcutta.
    Hyd-no-car'pus.  L. fr. Gr...., edible fungus-truffle, + ..., fruit -- i.e., alluding to  superficial appearance of fruit.
    Chaul-moo'gra.  L. fr. native Asiatic (Burmese) name.
    PLANT. -- Large tree, 7-15 M. 21-40 degrees) high, smooth, pale yellowish bark, straight trunk, branches at right-angles, but drooping down; fruit size of large orange, light fawn color, velvety; seed numerous, irregularly imbedded in fleshy pulp, brownish-yellow, 2-3 Cm. (4/5- 1 1/5') long, more or less angular flattened, not as broad, roundish ends.
    CONSTITUENTS. -- SEEDS: Fixed oil, 25-50 p.c., starch, proteins, tannin, coloring matter, ash 1-5 p.c.
    Oleum Chaulmoograe.  Oil of Chaulmoogra. - This fixed oil is a yellow, brownish-yellow liquid, or below 25 degrees C. (77 degrees F.), a whitish, soft solid, characteristic odor, somewhat acrid taste; soluble in benzene, chloroform, ether, petroleum benzin, sparingly in alcohol, sp. gr. 0.950; contains palmitin, linolein, but chiefly glycerides of two fatty acids -- chaulmoogric, C18H32O2, and hydnocarpic, C16H23O2; both acids are optically active but differ from ordinary fatty acids in having a five atom carbon ring with an unstable hydrogen atom; both acids are readily converted into ethyl esters having therapeutic advantages over the oil; both acids form crystals that melt at 60-68 degrees C. (140-155 degrees F.).  Tests: 1. Dissolve 1 Gm. In 15 cc. of a mixture of equal vols. alcohol and ether previously neutralized with N/10 sodium hydroxide, using 5 drops phenolphthalein T.S., indicator, when titrated with N/10 sodium hydroxide to pink color -- 1.8-5 cc. should be required (abs. of free acid); forms salts -- sodium chaulmoograte, sodium hydnocarpate, etc.  Should be kept cool, dark, in well-closed containers.  Dose, mv-30 (.3-2 cc.).
    Aethylis ChaulmoograsEthyl Chaulmoograte, U.S.P. -- (Syn., Aethyl. Chaulmoog.; Fr. Chaulmougre d'ethyle; Ger. Chaulmestrol, Antileprol).  This mixture of ethyl esters of the fatty acids (chaulmoogric and hydnocarpic) of chaulmoogra oil, obtained by fractionating, is a clear, pale, yellow liquid, with slight fruity odor, miscible with alcohol, chloroform, ether, insoluble in water, sp. gr. 0.904.  Test: 1. 1 cc. in 10 cc. neutralized alcohol, using 2 drops phenolphthalein T.S. -- requires not more than .1 cc. N/10 sodium hydroxide for neutralization (abs. of free acid); its fluidity is its chief advantage over the oil, although it has a more agreeable taste and is less irritating when injected.  Should be kept in well-closed containers.  Dose (mouth, intramuscular injection), mxv-60 (1-4 cc.).
    ADULTERATIONS. -- Various hydnocarpus oils not agreeing with physical and chemical properties of oil of chaulmoogra; gynocardia oil.
    Commercial. -- The seeds are washed, dried in the sun, shelled, crushed and subjected to hydraulic pressure;yield 25-32 p.c. oil (best); extraction with ether or other volatile solvents -- 35-41 p.c.  There are several varieties: 1. True Oil of Chaulmoogra (Taraktogenos Kurzii); 2. Lukrabo Oil (Hydnocarpus anthelmin'tica), Siam, imported, as are the seeds, into China, where it is called Tafungtsze; 3. Oil from Hydnocarpus Wightia'na, synonymous with H. inebria'ns, yields a very similar and effective oil.
    PROPERTIES. -- Alterative, germicide, antiseptic, counter-irritant, blood-purifier; large doses toxic to dogs and rabbits causing vomiting, loss of appetite (central origin), destructive of blood corpuscles (hemolytic); in fatal intoxication -- fatty degeneration of liver, irritation of kidneys; only two cases of fatty embolism of lungs, in man (hypodermic injection) -- no serious poisoning so far reported.
    USES. -- Leprosy -- practically a specific against Lep'ra bacil'lus, when it must be used freely, internally and externally for 2-3 years, supplemented by nourishing diet to maintain bodily vigor; action may be due to stimulation of leukocytosis, or to its powerful germicidal effect, exceeding 100 times that of phenol; may have solvent power on the waxy coating of acid-fast bacilli, and may be absorbed by alimentary tract; but intramuscular injection gives best results; hypodermic injections of ethyl esters into leprous nodules cause them to swell to an ultimate recession, 50 p.c. of the cases being curable; also used for sores, wounds, sprains, bruises, tuberculous ulcers of larynx, and with doubtful effect on Tubercle bacillus.


    Taraxacum, Leon'todon Tarax'acum, Dandelion, N.F. -- The dried rhizome and roots with not more than 2 p.c. of foreign organic matter, yielding not more than 4 p.c. of acid-insoluble ash; Europe, naturalized in N. America.  Perennial acaulescent herb; leaves radical, 15-22.5 Cm. (6-9') long, 5-7.5 Cm. (2-3') broad, toothed (runcinate), 5-6 teeth on a side, sessile; flowers golden-yellow, closing at night, terminal upon hollow scape; fruit achene, compressed; spreading pappus on stalk -- for dissemination.  Rhizome, cylindrical, somewhat flattened gradually tapering, usually in broken pieces, 6-15 Cm. (2 2/5-6') long, 5-15 Mm. (1/5-3/5') thick, brownish, longitudinaly wrinkled, numerous root- and rootlet-scars; crown simple, branched, with many leaf-bases showing annulate markings; bark 2-6 Mm. (1/12-1/4') thick, composed of concentric layers of laticiferous vessels and sieve tissues, alternating with whitish inulin-bearing parenchyma; odor slight, inodorous, taste bitter.  Powder, light brown -- parenchyma cells large, thin-walled containing irregular masses of inulin; fragments with yellowish-brown laticiferous vessels, tracheae reticulate, intermediate fibers non-lignified, with pores, no starch; solvents: diluted alcohol, boiling water; contains milk juice (taraxacin, taraxacerin, 2 resins, glutinous body), reducing sugars, levulin, inulin (yellow with iodine) 24 p.c., pectin, ash 5-10 p.c.  Diuretic, tonic, stomachic, aperient, deobstruent; congestion of liver, spleen, dydpepsia, constipation, skin affections, dropsies.  Adulterations: Chiefly chicory, Cichorium Intybus, which, however, is paler and with milk vessels in radiating lines -- not concentric.  Subject to insect attack, and should be kept in tightly closed containers.  Dose, 3ss-2 (2-8 Gm.); 1. Extractum Taraxaci (12.5 p.c. alcohol), dose, gr. 5-30 (.3-2 Gm.); 2. Fluidextractum Taraxaci (glycerin 10, alcohol 50, water 40 + diluted alcohol), dose, 3ss-2 (2-8 cc.).
    Preps.: 1. Elixir Taraxaci Compositum, 3.5 p.c. + fldext. prun. virg. 2, fldext. glycyrrh.,    tr. aurant. dulc. aa 6, +, dose, 3j-2 (4-8 c.).
    Preps.: 1. Elixir Eriodict. Arom., 44 p.c.  2. Elixir Guaranae, 60 p.c.  3. Elixir Viburni   Opuli Compositum, 70 p.c.
    2. Elixir Gentianae Glycerinnatum, 15 p.c.  Decoction 5 p.c., 3j-2 (30-60 cc.).  Succus Taraxaci (Br.), extressed juice 3, alcohol 1, 3j-2 (4-8 c.).


    Caffeina.  Caffeine (Theine), C5H(CH3)3O2N4.H2O, U.S.P.
    Thea sinensis, Linne'Coffea arabica, Linne'.  Trimethyl-xanthine, a feeble basic substance and alkaloid obtained from the leaves of the former, and seeds of the latter (Rubiaceae), also occurring in other plants; chiefly prepared synthetically.
    Habitat.  S.E. Asia, China, India, Japan; cultivated.
    PLANT. -- Evergreen shrub 1.2-2 M. (4-6 degrees) high, much branched, bark brown, young twigs downy; leaves 5-10 Cm. (2-4') long, petiolate, acute at both ends, oval, irregularly serrate, veins prominent, dark green; flowers in winter, 2.5 Cm. (1') wide, yellowish-white; fruit 3-celled trigonous capsule, with thin brown woody pericarp; diluted alcohol or boiling water exhausts the leaves.  Dose, 3j-2 (4-8 Gm.).
    ADULTERATIONS. -- Prussian blue, indigo, turmeric, gypsum; the three first impart color to water, the last soon deposits; various leaves, recognized by shape, venation, margin, etc.
    Commercial. -- The plant, springing from seed, begins to yield satisfactory leaves in 3 years, and at 7 attains perfection, being about the height of a man.  Three collections are made yearly (Feb., Apr., June), the first, consisting mostly of young leaves, having greatest value.  There are two varieties: 1. Green, collected more carefully and quickly dried, and containing most tannin; 2. Black, owing to slower process, undergoing partial fermentation, which changes color and often impairs quality.
    CONSTITUENTS. -- Caffeine (Theine) 1-5 p.c., volatile oil .6-1 p.c., theophylline (isomeric with theobromine), ademine, tannin 11-21 p.c., boheic acid, albumin, resin, wax, ash 4-6 p.c. (14 p.c. being phosphoric acid); leaves yield 40 p.c. of aqueous extract.
    Theophyllina.  Theophylline, C5H2(CH3)2.O2N4.H2O, U.S.P. -- Syn., Theophyll., Dimethylxanthine; Synthetic -- Theocine; Ger. Theophyllinum, Theophyllin, Theocin.)  This organic base (alkaloid), isomeric with theobromine, is obtained sparingly from tea leaves, but mostly synthetically by a German patent under the name of theocine, wherein ammonia, carbon dioxide, potassium cyanide, acetic and formic acids are employed in a series of 12 reactions, and in fact becomes our first organic plant base (alkaloid) made on a commercial scale by strictly synthetic methods.  It is a white, crystalline odorless powder, bitter taste, permanent, soluble in solutions of potassium hydroxide and in ammonia water, in alcohol (80), water (120), more readily in hot water, sparingly in ether; saturated aqueous solution neutral; melts at 271 degrees C. (520 degrees F.).  Tests.: 1. Dissolve .2 Gm. in 5 cc. of potassium hydroxide T.S., or in 5 cc. of ammonia T.S. -- clear solution (dif. from caffeine, theobromine, paraxanthine).  2. Dissolve .2 Gm. in 5 c.c. of sulphuric acid--only faint yellow (abs. of readily carbonizable substances).  3. Dissolve .01 Gm. in hydrochloric acid 1 cc., add potassium chlorate .1 Gm., evaporate to dryness, invert dish over one containing a few drops of ammonia T.S. -- residue purple, destroyed by fixed alkalies.  4. Aqueous solution with tannic acid T.S.--precipitate, soluble in excess of reagent; when dried to constant weight -- loses 9.5 p.c. (water); incinerate .1 Gm. -- ash negligible.  Impurities: Caffeine, theobromine, paraxanthine, readily carbonizable substances.
    PROPERTIES AND USES -- Claimed to be the best diuretic, increasing amount of urine as well as solids; cardiac affections, nephritis, dropsy; similar to caffeine and theobromine, but much more effective; may produce gastric disturbances, renal irritation, which can be obviated by using its salt--theophylline sodio-acetate.  Dose, gr. 3-8 (.2-.5 Gm.), in warm tea.
    PREPARATIONS. -- (Unoff.): Fluidextract, dose, mxv-60 (1-4 cc.).  Infusion (Tea), dose, ad libitum.
    PROPERTIES AND USES. -- Similar to coffee, under Rubiaceae, page 580.
    Allied Plants:
    1. Thea (Camel'lia, after George Joseph Camel or Camelli, a Dutch Jesuit missionary and botanist) japon'ica. -- Japan.  An ornamental shrub with poisonous seed.  T. oleo'sa (Camellia oleif'era) and T. drupif'era.  Seeds resemble those of T. sinensis and yield a bland fixed oil -- that of T. drupifera being fragrant.


    Oleum Theobromatis.  Oil of Theobroma, U.S.P.
    Theobroma Cacao,  Linne'.  The fat obtained from the roasted seeds.
    Habitat.  S. America (Brazil, C. America, Mexico, W. Indies; cultivated in the tropics,  largely in some of the W. Indies.
    Syn.  Semen (Fabae) Cacao; Ol. Theobrom., Butter of Cacao, Cacao Butter, Oleum  Theobromae; Fr. Cacao, Feves du Mexique, Beurre de Cacao; Oleum Cacao' Ger.  Kakaobohnen; Kakaobutter.
    The-o-bro'ma.  L. fr. Gr., ..., a god, + ..., food, food of the gods -- i.e., its delicious  qualities.
    Ca-ca'o.  L. Sp. From Mexican kakahuati -- i.e., its native name.
    PLANT. -- Handsome tree 9-12 M. (30-40 degrees) high, round branches, bark gray, smooth; leaves 20-22.5 Cm. (8-9') long, 6 Cm. (2 2/5') wide, lanceolate, acute, round base, entire, veins prominent beneath, petiole 2.5 Cm. (1') long, thickened at both ends; young leaves pink; flowers pale pink, calyx and corolla 2.5 Cm. (2') broad, alike in color; fruit large, 15-17.5 Cm. (6-7') long, broadly fusiform, with 10 shallow furrows and blunt ridges, tuberculated, pendulous, single or 2-3 together, at first yellow, then red, purple, pericarp thick, tough, 5-celled; seed many, closely packed in tiers, size of almonds, angular from pressure, immersed in copious sweet buttery pulp, seed-coats 2, brownish.
    CONSTITUENTS. -- SEEDS: Fixed oil 50 p.c., starch 16 p.c., theobromine 1.5-4.5 p.c., caffeine, proteins 18 p.c., sugar .6 p.c., cacao-red 5-6 p.c., volatile odorous principle, ash 3.6-4.6 p.c.
    Oleum Theobromatis.  Oil of Theobroma. -- This fat (concrete fixed oil) is a yellowish-white solid (lighter colored with age), faint, agreeable odor, bland, chocolate-like taste, usually brittle below 25 degrees C. (77 degrees F.), soluble in ether, chloroform, petroleum benzin, benzene, boiling dehydrated alcohol, slightly in alcohol, sp. gr. 0.973, melts at 30-35 degrees C. (86-95 degrees F.); contains stearin 40 p.c., palmitin, laurin, small amounts of glycerides of acetic, butyric, formic, linoleic, and arachidic acids.  Test: 1. Dissolve 1 Gm. in ether 3 cc. in test-tube at 17 degrees C. (63 degrees F.), immerse test-tube in ice-cold water -- liquid not turbid nor does it deposit white flakes in less than 3 minutes, and after congealing should clarify at 15 degrees C. (59 degrees) F. (abs. of wax, stearin, tallow).  Dose, 3ss-1 (2-4 Gm.).
    ADULTERATIONS. -- Wax, stearin, tallow, etc.
    Commercial. -- The seed when taken from the fruit (size of cucumber but with pointed ends, consisting of shells 12 p.c. and kernels 88 p.c.) and dried, still retain astringency and bitterness (kernel), which may be overcome by roasting, or sweating and fermenting in heaps for 1 week, or burying in a box in clayed soil ("clayed," (claying"--best and yellowish) for 3 days, then throwing seed into heaps, covering with leaves for a week, thereby destroying tannin and bitter principle, and developing the derivative constituents on which the properties of chocolate partly depend, then drying.  The oil is extracted afterward by: 1, Expression; 2, Decoction; 3, Solution (benzin, carbon disulphide, chloroform, ether), the first process being considered best, and consisting in roasting, discarding shells, grinding kernels, heating at 70 degrees C. (158 degrees F.), subjecting mass to hydraulic pressure between hot iron plates or rollers, then running oil into rectangular molds, where it soon congeals.  The residual dryish, oleaginous pulp (expressed cake, oil cake), still containing variable amounts of oil, is utilized as cocoa or chocolate--the former containing the least oil, and both darkened in color and lightened in flavor by an alkali.  Chocolate (fr. Ind. chocolat), as a confection consists usually of expressed cake finely ground, sugar, vanilla, cinnamon, annatto, etc., molded into varying shapes.  Either cocoa or chocolate may be boiled with milk, or milk and water, sweetened, to form a valuable nutritive drink in convalescence from acute diseases.  Both are subject to much adulteration with starch, rice flour, barley flour, sassafras nuts, chestnuts, clove, butter, lard, cocco-nut shells, etc.
    PREPARATIONS. -- Unoff.  Emulsion.  Ointments.  Suppositories.
    PROPERTIES. -- Nutrient, demulcent, emollient.
    USES. -- Seldom internally, only as suppositories, when it acts as an excipient or carrier for other medicine.  Externally in cosmetic ointments, pill coating, abraded or inflamed surfaces.
    Derivative Products:
    1. Theobrominae Sodio-Salicylas.  Theobromine Sodio-Salicylate, C7H7O2N4Na + NaC7H5O3, U.S.P. -- (Syn., Theobrom. Sodio- Sal., Diuretin; Fr. Theobromine et Salicylate de Soude; Ger. Theobrominnatriumsalicylate.)  Obtained by mixing aqueous solutions of equal molecules of sodium theobromine and sodium salicylate, evaporating to dryness.  It is a white, odorless powder, sweetish, saline, somewhat alkaline taste, gradually absorbs carbon dioxide liberating theobromine, becoming incompletely soluble in water, frequently develops a characteristic odor, soluble in water (1), slightly in alcohol; contains, when dried to constant weight, theobromine 46.5 p.c., salicylic acid 35 p.c., losing water 10 p.c.  Tests: 1. Ignited--residue produces intensely yellow flame and effervesces with acids.  2. Aqueous solution (1 in 20) colorless, clear, opalescent; aqueous solution (1 in 100), slightly acidulated with acetic acid, + ferric chloride T.S. -- violet.  3. .05 Gm. Theobromine (separated in assay), + hydrochloric acid 1 cc. + potassium chlorate .1 Gm. Dry on water-bath -- reddish-yellow residue which becomes purple when moistened with 1 drop of ammonia T.S.  4. Dissolve .1 Gm., in sulphuric acid 2 cc.--no effervescence (abs. of carbonate); produces only slight color (abs. of readily carbonizable substances).  5. Dissolve 1 Gm. in water 10 cc., add a few cc. sodium hydroxide T.S., shake with chloroform 10 cc., separate chloroform layer, evaporate to dryness (constant weight) -- residue does not exceed .005 Gm. (abs. of caffeine).  Impurities: Caffeine, sodium carbonate, water, readily carbonizable substances.  Should be kept in well-closed containers.  Dose, gr. 5-15 (.3-   1 Gm.), 5-6 times daily, in dilute solution, capsule, wafer, followed by water.
    PROPERTIES AND USES. -- Diuretic, nervous stimulant; cardiac dropsy, nephritis (chronic acute), dyspnea, coughs; very slight action on heart and circulation; may produce headache, irregular pulse, vomiting, diarrhea, gastric irritation (avoided by small doses and weak solutions); owing to greater solubility far superior to theobromine.  Incompatibles: Acids, fruit syrups (decomposing and precipitating theobromine), bicarbonates, borates, phosphates, ferric salts, chloral hydrate, wines, etc.
    2. Theobromine (dimethylxanthine), C7H8O2N4. -- This is obtained by exhausting the kernels with hot water, straining, precipitating with lead acetate, filtering, removing lead with hydrogen sulphide, filtering, evaporating, and treating residue with hot alcohol, from which whitish, bitter crystals deposit.  It is a weak base (alkaloid) not altered by solution of potassium hydroxide, slightly soluble in water, alcohol, ether, forms salts (hydrochloride, nitrate, salicylate, etc.), and is related to caffeine, this latter being its methyl derivative--methyltheobromine, into which theobromine may be converted by treating theobromine silver with methyl iodide.
    3. Cacao Praeparatum, Cocoa, Prepared Cacao (Chocolate), N.F. -- A powder prepared from the roasted, cured kernel of the ripe seed.  It is brownish-red; numerous oil globules, protein grains, starch grains; odor and taste chocolate-like, free from sweetness; yields 6 p.c. of crude fiber, 15 p.c. of starch, and when extracted with ether, 18-25 p.c. of fat--the fatty residue shows not more than 3 p.c. of cocoa shells, and is without spicy odor and taste.  Dose ad libitum; 1. Syrupus Cacao, 5 p.c., + tr. vanill. 1/5 p.c., alcohol 5, sucrose 80, aq. dest. q.s. 100-2.  Tabellae Santonini, 1 gr. (.06 Gm.); 3. Tabellae Santonini Compositae, 1 gr. (.06 Gm.).

Thuja occidentalis

    Thu'ja occidental'is, Thuja, Arbor Vitae, N.F. -- The dried, leafy young twigs with not more than 2 p.c. of stems over 4 Mm. (1/6') thick or other foreign organic matter--only the recently dried drug should be used; Canada, United States. Handsome evergreen tree, resembling Chamaecyp'aris sphaeroi'dea (Cupres'sus thyoi'des) 6-15 M. (20-50 degrees) high, trunk crooked, bark pale, shreddy, wood light, soft, durable.  Twigs fan-shaped, flattened, leaves appressed in 4 rows, edges boat-shaped, glands on the back; odor strongly balsamic, aromatic, pungent; taste camphoraceous, terebinthinate, bitter.  Powder, greenish-brown --chlorenchyma, stomata, guard cells, long fibers, oblique pores; solvent: alcohol; contains volatile oil 1 p.c., resin tannin, pinipicrin, thujin, thujigenin, ash 7 p.c.  Stimulant, diuretic irritant, emmenagogue (resembling savin); fevers, bronchial catarrh, rheumatism, dropsy, worms, ulcers, warts.  Dose, gr 15--60 (1-4 Gm.); 1. Fluidextractum Thujae (alcohol).


    Thymol.  Thymol, C10H14O, U.S.P.
    Thymus vulgaris, Linne'.  A phenol occurring in the volatile oil of this and other plants.
    Habitat.  S. Europe (Portugal to Greece); cultivated in gardens, etc.
    Syn.  Common Garden Thyme, Mother of Thyme; Acidum Thymicum Thymic Acid,  Methyl-propl phenol; Fr. Acide Thymique; Ger. Herba Thymi, Thymian; Thymolum,  Thymiansaure.
    Thy'mus.  L. fr. Gr...., strength, its invigorating smell.  Used in temples as incense.
    Vul-ga'ris.  L. ordinary, common -- i.e., the kind growing wild and in common use.
    PLANT. -- Small shrub, 25-30 Cm. (10-12') high; stem and branches quadrangular; bark pale brown, shoots purplish; stems .5 Mm. (1/50') thick, grayish-brown, pubescent, nodes 5-20 Mm. (1/5-4/5') apart.  Thymus, Thyme, N.F.  Leaves and flowering tops with not more than 3 p.c. of stems over 1 Mm. (1/25') thick, or other foreign organic matter, yielding not more than 4 p.c. of acid-insoluble ash.  Leaves linearlanceolate, ovate, .5-6 Mm. (1/50-1/4') long, .5-2 Mm. (1/50-1/12') broad, acute base tapering into short petiole, revolute, grayish-green, puberulent, many non-glandular hairs, grayish, pubescent beneath; numerous glandular secreting hairs above, depressed in cuticle giving glandular-punctate appearance; flowers polygamous, bilabiate, small, pubescent, upper lip 3-toothed, lower 2-toothed, purplish; fruit nutlets, .5 Mm. (1/50') broad, spheroidal.  Powder, light-green -- non-glandular hairs 2 types, glandular hairs 2 types, leaf chlorenchyma with vascular tissue and epidermal cells, stomata, pollen grains.
    CONSTITUENTS. -- Volatile oil 2.5 p.c. (Thymol), resin, tannin, gum, ash 14 p.c.
    Oleum Thymi.  Oil of Thyme, N.F. -- A volatile oil distilled from the flowering plant containing not less than 20 p.c., by volume of phenols.  It is a colorless or red liquid, characteristic odor and taste, soluble in 2 vols. 80 p.c. alcohol, sp. gr. 0.912, levorotatory; contains at least 20 p.c., by volume, of phenols, also cymene, C10H14 l-pinene, borneol, linalool; the phenol content in the French and German oil, amounting to 25-42 p.c., is mostly thymol, but sometimes carvacrol, or a mixture of the two, whereas in the Spanish oil it is chiefly carvacrol, amounting to 50-70 p.c.  Adulterations: Oil of turpentine which lowers specific gravity and increases angle of rotation, while wild thyme oil only does the latter.  Test: 1. Shake 1 cc. with hot distilled water 10 cc., cool, pass aqueous layer through a wetted filter -- filtrate not blue or violet with a drop of ferric chloride T.S.  Should be kept cool, dark, in well-stoppered, amber-colored bottles.  Dose, mj-5 (.06-.3 cc.).
    Thymol.  Thymol U.S.P. -- This monatomic phenol, occurring in the volatile oils of Thymus vulgaris, Monarda punctata, and Ptycho'tis Cop'tica (Ajowan -- Umbelliferae), the latter alone supplying most of the commercial article, is obtained by subjecting to freezing the residue left upon distilling any of these oils below 200 degrees C. (392 degrees F.), whereby thymol crystallizes out; or may agitate this residue with sodium hydroxide solution, and after a time add hot water to separate sodium thymol (NaC10H13O) solution from thymene, and to allow unattacked oil to float on top; to sodium hydroxide solution add hydrochloric acid which sets thymol free as an oily layer and upon cooling crystallizes when a crystal of thymol is added; yield 20-61 p.c.  It is in large colorless, translucent, rhombic prisms, aromatic, thyme-like odor, pungent, aromatic taste, very slight caustic effect upon the lips; soluble in glacial acetic acid, fixed or volatile oils, water (1000), alcohol (1), chloroform (.7), ether (1.5); olive oil (1.7); alcoholic solution (1 in 20) neutral, optically inactive; isomeric with carvone (carvol, carvacrol); as a solid heavier than water, when liquefied by fusion lighter than water, melts at 50 degrees C. (122 degrees F.); liquefies when triturated with equal weight of ears, thready pulse, low temperature--treat symptoms, withdraw drug.  OIL: Chlorosis, rheumatism, neuralgia, bronchitis, diarrhea, gleet, gonorrhea, leucorrhea, vesical catarrh; externally in baths, lotions for scabies, muscular rheumatism, to correct fetor from sores, ulcers, gangrene.  Applied to cotton for toothache, earache, for veterinary practice, scenting soap.
    Thymacetin, C6H2.CH3OC2H5C3H7NH.COCH3, a derivative, has the same relation to thymol that phenacetin has to phenol, and is prepared similarly; it is a white crysstalline powder, soluble in alcohol, slightly in water.  Analgesic, hypnotic, antiseptic; used in neuralgic headache like phenacetin.  Dose, gr. 5-15 (.3-1 Gm.).
    Thyme plant (fresh) is used as a condiment to aid digestion of fat pork, goose, duck, etc., and to flavor insipid dishes, as is sage, marjoram, parsley; it is used also with other aromatic herbs in baths, cataplasms, fomentations, for rheumatism, gout, scabies, indolent ulcers.

Toluifera balsamum

    Toluifera Balsamum, Linne'.  A balsam.
    Habitat.  S. America (Venezuela, Colombia, Peru); high rolling countries.
    Syn.  Balsamum Tolutanum, Balsam of Tolu, U.S.P. 1910, Tolu Balsam; Fr. Baume -- du  Tole -- de Carthagene; Ger. Tolubalsam.
    To-lu-if'e-ra.  L. tolu + fero, ferre, to bear, producing tolu or an allied balsam -- i.e., it  was brought first from Tolu, now Santiago de Tolu in U. S. Columbia.
    Bal'sa-mum.  L. fr. Gr...., for balsam, name of balsam tree -- i.e., from its  characteristic secretion.
    PLANT. -- Evergreen tree 24 M. (80 degrees) high, often branchless for 15 M. (50 degrees) above ground, roundish spreading head; bark smooth, yellowish-brown, with numerous white lenticels; leaves having 4-7 leaflets; flowers upon smooth pedicels, dense racemes, 10-12.5 Cm. (4-5') long; calyx broadly tubular upon hispid pedicel, mouth 3-4-lobed; anthers versatile; fruit 10-12.5 Gm. (4-5') long.  BALSAM (Tolu) is a yellowish-brown plastic solid, brittle when old, dried, or exposed to cold, transparent in thin layers; odor pleasant, aromatic vanilla-like; taste mild, aromatic; soluble in alcohol, chloroform, ether, solutions of fixed alkalies, usually leaving insoluble residue; nearly insoluble in water, petroleum benzin; alcoholic solution (1 in 20)-- acid.  Tests: 1. Shake 1 Gm. with carbon disulphide (25), let stand 30 minutes, filter, evaporate 15 cc. to dryness, dissolve residue in glacial acetic acid, + few drops of sulphuric acid--not green; shake remainder of filtrate with equal volume of aqueous solution of copper acetate (1 in 1000) -- not green (abs.of rosin, copaiba).  Dose, gr. 5-30 (.3-2 Gm.).
    ADULTERATIONS. -- Turpentine -- blackish instead of cherry-red with sulphuric acid, soluble in carbon disulphide; sweet gum -- yields styracin to hot benzin, crystallizing when cold; storax, rosin, copaiba, saponifiable substances, various other resins.  A factitious balsam has been found containing storax 63 p.c.
    Commercial. -- Plant resembles Toluifera Pereirae in flowers and fruit but differs from it in having shorter leaves, smaller and fewer leaflets, recurved with non-puckered margin, non-hairy rachis and petiole, and less prominent glands.  Balsam -- a physiological product in very young tissues, thereafter becoming pathological, possibly an antiseptic protective against depleting local injury -- is collected by making V-shaped incisions through the bark and hollowing out the wood below each to support a small calabash cup for catching the flow, there often occurring 20-30 of these from the ground upward (2.5-3 M. (8-10 degrees), the higher being cut from ladders or scaffolds.  Bleeding continues, July-April, at the rate of filling the cups "each moon," they being emptied as occasion demands into rawhide flask-shaped bags (carried by donkeys) which when filled are sent to ports along the Magdalena and Orinoco Rivers where the balsam is transferred to cylindrical tins (10-25 pounds; 4.5-11.5 Kg.), formerly calabashes or baked earthen jars, and as such enters commerce via Carthagena.
    CONSTITUENTS. -- Resin 75-80 p.c., Cinnamic and Benzoic acids 18-20 p.c., Volatile oil 1 p.c., Vanillin .05 p.c., benzyl cinnamate and benzyl benzoate--last two form an acid, aromatic oily liquid 7.5 p.c.
    Resin, C18H20O5. -- Chief constituent, consisting of tolu-resinotannol combined with cinnamic acid and small amount (1.5 p.c.) of benzoic acid; it is amorphous, black, brittle, similar to that of T. Pereirae, having a portion soluble in carbon disulphide, which upon evaporation yields a crystalline, nearly colorless residue about 25 p.c. of the balsam; a portion of resin sparingly, another readily soluble in alcohol.
    Volatile Oil. -- Obtained by distilling with water; contains benzyl benzoate, benzyl cinnamate, phellandrene, farnesol, hardens by exposure, odor pleasant, sp. gr. 0.858.
    Acids. -- Obtained by distillation -- benzoic, cinnamic, with benzylic ethers of both, the benzyl cinnamate predominating.  Trommsdorf found resin 88 p.c., volatile oil .2 p.c., cinnamic acid 12 p.c., this latter coming over as a heavy oil condensing into white crystalline mass.  Dry distillation gives the above acids and ethers, also styrol, phenol, toluol--this latter being found in coal tar, wood tar, organic compounds, balsams (Peru, etc.) and resins; it is a colorless, oily liquid, readily convertible into benzoic acid.
    PREPARATIONS. -- 1. Tinctura Tolu.  Tincture of Tolu.  (Syn., Tr. Tolu, Tinctura Tolutana, Tolu Tincture; Fr. Teinture de Baume de Tolu; Ger. Tolubalsamtinktur.)
    Manufacture: 20 p.c.  Similar to Tinctura Cardamomi Composita, page 137; menstruum: alcohol.  Dose, mx-30 (.6-2 cc.).
    Prep.: 1. Syrupus Tolu.  Syrup of Tolu.  (Syn., Syr. Tolu, Syrupus Tolutanus; Fr. Sirop (balsamique) -- de Baume de Tolu; Ger. Tolubalsamsirup.)
    Manufacture: 1 p.c.  Rub tincture of Tolu 5 cc. + magnesium carbonate 1 Gm. + sucrose 6, gradually add with trituration, water 43 cc., filter; dissolve in clear     filtrate, gently heating, sucrose 76 Gm., strain syrup (hot), add through strainer, water q.s. 100 cc.  Dose, 3j-4 (4-15 cc.).
    Preps.: 1. Trochisci Ammonii Chlorii, q.s.  2. Emulsum Olei Morrhuae cum Vitello, N.F., 10 p.c.  3. Mistura Pectoralis, N F., q.s.
    1.  Pilulae Phosphori, q.s.  2. Tinctura Benzoini Composita, 4 p.c.  3. Pilulae Ferri Iodidi, N.F., q.s.
    Unoff. Preps.: Emulsion.  Inhalations (steam--acute laryngitis with aphonia).
    PROPERTIES. -- Stimulant, expectorant, disinfectant, vulnerary, stomachic.
    USES. -- Much less decided than balsam of Peru, but similar; bronchitis, diphtheritic deposits, catarrh, coughs, flavoring, perfumery.
    Incompatibles: Water and aqueous preparations with the tincture.
    Synergists: Balsams, aromatic drugs, volatile oils, stimulant expectorants.
    Allied Plants:
    1.  Myrox'ylon puncta'tum. -- The Quino-quino tree, and M. peruif'erum, both of Peru; yield balsams resembling official Peru and Tolu.

Toluifera pereirae

    Toluifera Pereirae, (Royle) Baillon.  A balsam.
    Habitat.  Central America (San Salvador), in woods near the coast.
    Syn.  Bals. Peruv., Peru Balsam, Balsamum Peruvianum Nigrum, Balsamum Indicum,  Black Balsam; Fr. Baume -- du Perou -- de Sonsonate, -- des Indes; Ger. Perubalsam,  Indischer Balsam.
    Per-ei'rae.  L. of Pereira -- i.e., in memory of Jonathan Pereira (1804-1853), the author of  Elements of Materia Medica, and Professor to the British Pharmaceutical Society, who  visited S. America to study these and many other plants.
    Pe-ru-vi-a'num.  L. adj. form, fr. Peruvianus of or pertaining to Peru -- i.e., the secretion.
    PLANT. -- Handsome tree, 15-25 M. (50-80 degrees) high, branching 2.5 M. (8 degrees) above ground; leaves 6-10, alternate, 15-20 Cm. (6-8') long, imparipinnate; leaflets 5-7.5 Cm. (2-3') long, oblong-ovate, hairy, puckered margin; flowers 12 Mm. (1/2') long, whitish, tomentose, racemes; fruit 1-seeded legume 10 Cm. (4') long, yellowish-brown.  BALSAM (of Peru), is a viscid, dark brown liquid free from stringiness or stickiness, transparent and reddish-brown in thin layers; odor agreeable, vanilla-like; taste bitter, acrid, persistent, burning sensation in the throat when swallowed; does not harden on exposure; soluble in alcohol, chloroform, glacial acetic acid with slight opalescence, partly soluble in ether, petroleum benzin; agitated with water -- latter acid to litmus; sp. gr. 1.145.  Tests: 1. Shake 1 Gm. with chloral hydrate (3) in distilled water (2) -- clear solution (abs. of fixed oils).  2. Shake 1 Gm. with purified petroleum benzin (5), warm 10 minutes, replacing loss by evaporation, evaporate 2 cc -- no turpentine odor, and residue treated with few drops of nitric acid -- not green or bluish (abs. of turpentine, rosin).  Dose, mv-30 (.3-2 cc.).
    ADULTERATIONS. -- Extract of bark and wood, alcohol, fixed and volatile oils, castor oil, storax, benzoin, gurjun balsam, copaiba, Canada turpentine, resin, water.
    Commercial. -- Plants grow wild in forests, either isolated or in groups, occasionally in apparent rows suggesting original planting, but there is no evidence of regular plantations, do not thrive above 300 M (1,000 degrees) elevation, bear fragrant flowers, yield mahogany-like wood and balsam after the 25th year continuing for 75 years.  Balsam, a pathological product that owes its qualities to neither wood nor bark but to the special treatment of the trees, is collected by the aborigines in a district reserved to them.  Sonsonate, Balsam Coast, extending from Acajutla to La Libertad, San Salvador.  After the last rains, Nov.-April, the outer cortical portion is scraped from the trunk and stout branches in alternating strips (or squares, 12; 30 Cm.) an 1/8 inch (3 Mm.) deep, exposing the inner layer from which, within 5-8 days, the mature sap begins to flow; after this has continued a week the tender portion is covered with a clean cloth to absorb the sap, and a second irritation effected by carefully applying a burning torch for 5 minutes, and repeating this every 2 months, six changes of cloths during each interval; a second hacking often follows; cloths are boiled half an hour in kettles with water, expressed (hot) in primitive press, and squeezed -- the balsam being caught in large bladders, gourds, or wooden bowls -- that in the kettles settles to the bottom and, after pouring off supernatant liquid is mixed with that from the cloths furnishing "crude or raw balsam," which is refined by heating moderately in a vat, whereby water is evaporated and impurities rise to the surface, straining, when the "clarified balsam" is poured into rectangular, screw-top tin canisters, 55 pounds (25 Kg.).  As long as the wounds are kept open there usually is some flow, and if the process is conducted carefully the lower ones will heal while the upper and fresher are being worked; the loose bark and wood are ground up and extracted, the extract being added to the other collected portions.  When trees have been tapped six consecutive seasons a rest of 2-3 years renders the product more abundant and satisfactory, while a longer period, 5-6 years in every 20, assures a continued yield; each tree averages 2-5 pounds (1-2.5 Kg.) annually.  It is exported from Acajutla (Pacific coast) and Belize (Atlantic coast) in jars, metallic canisters, drums, etc.  There also is obtained from the fruit by expression a white semi-fluid substance, Balsamo blanco, having the odor of Tonka and the appearance of Tolu, but, in spite of containing a crystalline resin, myroxocarpin, it is entirely distinct from Tolu or Peru.  The natives prepare from the fruit with rum a tincture or alcoholic extract, Balsamito, which is used as a stimulant, anthelmintic, diuretic, and externally for indolent ulcers, freckles, etc., while there often exudes from the trees a gum-resin containing 77.4 p.c. of resin, but no aromatic principle or cinnamic acid.  Balsam of Peru was considered formerly to be from Myroxylon peruiferum, a different tree flourishing in Brazil, Ecuador, Peru, whose product reached Europe via Peru (Callao), hence its name, being a fragrant balsam resembling Tolu and at Rio called Olea vermelho.
    CONSTITUENTS. -- Benzoic acid-benzyl ester, Cinnamein (volatile oil) 56-66 p.c., Resin 16-25 p.c., Cinnamic and Benzoic acids 23 p.c., Vanillin.
    Benzoic Acid-benzyl Ester (Benzyl Benzoate. -- The chief active constituent is a colorless oily liquid, boiling at 173 degrees C. (344 degrees F.), congealing at 32 degrees C. (90 degrees F.), and may readily be made synthetically.
    Cinnamein. -- Consists largely of benzoic acid-benzyl ester, and to a small extent of cinnamic acid-benzyl ester (benzyl cinnamate) both esters being separated easily by fractional distillation in vacuo, and thus obtained pure possess the characteristics, chemical and therapeutical, of the synthetic esters; the cinnamic acid-benzyl ester boils at 213 degrees C. (416 degrees F.), and congeals at 37 degrees C. (99 degrees F.).
    Resin. -- Consists of peru-resinotannol combined with benzoic and cinnamic acids, soluble in caustic alkali, and when in solution precipitated by carbon dioxide, insoluble in carbon disulphide; on dry distillation yields benzoic acid, styrol, and toluol, C7H8.
    PREPARATIONS. -- 1. Mistura Oleo-Balsamica, Hoffman's Balsam, N.F., 1.6 p.c., + eugenol, oils of cinnamon, lavender, lemon, myristica, thyme, aa 2/5 p.c., alcohol q.s. 100 (nervine).  2. Solutio Mastiches Chloroformica Composita, N.F., 30 pc.  Ointment.  Syrup.
    PROPERTIES. -- Stimulant, expectorant, disinfectant, vulnerary, stomachic.  It is eliminated by bronchial mucous membrane, kidneys, and skin, stimulating and disinfecting their secretions.
    USES. -- Chronic catarrh, asthma, phthisis, gonorrhea, amenorrhea, rheumatism, palsy; externally on indolent ulcers, scabies, ringworm, tonsillar diphtheria, bronchitis, tuberculosis of the skin, bone, or larynx, chilblains, eczema, for masking the odor of iodoform in ointment.


    Trifo'lium praten'se, Trifolium, Red Clover Blossoms, N.F. -- The dried inflorescence with not more than 2 p.c. of foreign organic matter; Europe, naturalized in N. America.  Well-known fodder-plant.  Heads ovoid, 12-25 Mm. (1/2-l') long and broad, shriveled, purplish, brownish on drying, consisting of many small papilionaceous flowers crowded together, stipules green; leaves trifoliate; odor faintly aromatic, tea-like, taste sweetish, slightly bitter.  Powder, greenish-brown -- non-glandular hairs, pollen grains, epidermis with stomata, polygonal cells (corolla) with rhombohedron of calcium oxalate; solvent: diluted alcohol; contains isorhamnetin, pratol, tannin, pratensol, trifolin (glucoside).  Alterative, deobstruent, sedative; whooping-cough, spasmodic affections.  Dose, 3ss-1 (2-4 Gm.); 1. Fluidextractum Trifolii (diluted alcohol); 2. Fluidextractum Trifolii Compositum, 2l.5 p.c., + glycyrrhiza 21.5, berberis, cascara amara, lappa, phytolacca, stillingia, aa 10.8, xanthoxylum 3, (33 p.c. alcohol), dose, 3j-2 (4-8 cc.): Prep.:  1. Syrupus Trifolii Compositus, 30 p.c., + dose, 3j-2 (4-8 cc.).


    Trigonel'la Faen'um-grae'cum, Fenugreek. -- The seed; India, Europe; cultivated in France, Germany, etc.  Annual herb, .3 M. (1 degree) high, leaves trifoliate, leaflets dentate, flowers yellowish, fruit compressed legume containing 16 seed; seed 3 Mm. (1/8') long and broad, 2 Mm. (1/12') thick, rhombic, flattened, brownish-yellow, large diagonal groove; strong aromatic, to some pleasant, odor; taste mucilaginous, bitter; contains volatile oil, fixed oil 6 p.c., mucilage 28 p.c. proteins 22 p.c., bitter principle, choline, trigonelline .13 p.c.   Powder sometimes adulterated with ground amylaceous seeds.  Used similar to flaxseed, elm, althea; emollient cataplasms, enemata, ointments, plasters, decoction, 5 p.c. (usually thick and slimy); demulcent in veterinary condition-powders.


    Tril'lium erec'tum, Trillium, Beth (Birth) Root, N.F. -- The dried rhizome with not more than 2 p.c. of foreign organic matter; N. America, Stem 20-40 Cm. (8-16') high, terminated by a whorl of 3 rhombic leaves and a purplish, solitary, unpleasantly scented flower; fruit ovoid, horny.  Rhizome, .6-5 Cm. (1/5-2') long, 1-3 Cm. (2/5-1 1/5') broad, compressed, annulated by leaf-scars and fissured by stem-scars; rootlet scars in concentric rows on under side, yellowish-brown, internally pale yellow; fracture uneven, hard or spongy; odor distinct; taste bitter, acrid, on chewing -- warmth in throat and secretion of saliva.  Powder, yellowish-white -- calcium oxalate raphides, starch grains, epidermal tissue with porous walls, tracheae with markings; solvent: diluted alcohol; contains saponin-like body (activity 5 p.c., trilline, fixed oil, volatile oil, resin, tannin, starch, ash 5 p.c.  Alterative, expectorant, astringent, oxytocic; uterine stimulant, indolent ulcers, injuries.  Dose, gr 15-30 (1-2 Gm.); 1. Fluidextractum Trillii (75 p.c. alcohol): Prep.: 1. Elixir Viburni Opuli Compositum, 15 p.c.


    Trios'teum perfolia'tum, Fever Root, Fever-wort, Horse-gentian. -- The root (rhizome), U.S.P. 1820-1870; United States.  Perennial herb 1-1.3 M. (3-4 degrees) high, hirsute; leaves pubescent beneath, 15 Cm. (6') long; flowers purplish, fruit dry yellow drupe, 12 Mm. (1/2') long.  Root 15-20 Cm. (6-8') long, 15 Mm. (3/5') thick, knotty, brownish-yellow, bitter, nauseous; contains bitter principle, starch.  Used as cathartic, emetic, diuretic, substitute for ipecac; in decoction, extract, infusion. Popular with Indians for fevers, amenorrhea.  Dose, gr. 15-30 (1-2 Gm.).

Tsuga canadensis

    Tsu'ga (Abies) canaden'sis, Pix Canadensis (Canada Pitch, Hemlock Pitch). -- Prepared resinous exudation, U.S.P. 1830-1880; N. America.  Hemlock struce is an evergreen tree 18-24 M. (60-80 degrees) high, .6-1 M. (2-3 degrees) thick, trunk straight, uniform size for 12-15 M. (40-50 degrees), bark rough, leaves 18 Mm. (3/4') long, 2 Mm. (1/12') wide, in 2 rows, numerous, glaucous, silvery beneath, cones ovate, 2.5 Cm. (1') long, resin (oleoresin) reddish-brown, translucent, or opaque, nearly hard, brittle, fracture shining, conchoidal; odor mild, balsamic, terebinthinate.  Oleoresin is obtained by exudation, incision, or boxing; yield small.  Used as stimulant, irritant, in plasters.  Emplastrum Picis Canadensis, U.S.P. 1860-1880.


    Tur'nera diffu'sa, or T. Aphrodisi'aca, Damia'na, Turnera, N.F. -- Turneraceae.  The dried leaf with not more than 15 p.c. of stems nor 3 p.c. of other foreign organic matter, yielding not more than 4 p.c. of acid-insoluble ash; W. Mexico, S. California, Texas.  Leaves obovate, 10-25 Mm. (2/5-l') long, 4-10 Mm. (1/6-2/5') broad, short-petioled, acute, cuneate base, 2-10-toothed on each side, smooth, light green; lower surface densely tomentose (T. diffusa), or glabrous, with few hairs on ribs (T. aphrodisiaca); frequently some reddish twigs; flowers yellowish, globose pods; odor aromatic; taste characteristic, aromatic, resinous.  Powder, yellowish-green -- stomata, hairs, tracheae, few tracheids from stem, calcium oxalate crystals in rosettes or prisms, starch grains; solvent: diluted alcohol; contains volatile oil (amber-colored, aromatic odor, warm camphoraceous taste) .5 p.c., damianin (bitter principle), 2 resins 6.4 p.c., tannin 3.5 p.c., starch, ash 10 p.c.  Aphrodisiac, tonic, stimulant, laxative; sexual impotence, in conjunction with strychnine, phosphorus.  Dose, 3ss-2 (2-8 Gm.); 1. Fluidextractum Damianae (75 p.c. alcohol), dose, 3ss-2 (2-8 cc.); Infusion -- substitute for tea.


    Tussila'go Far'fara, Farfara, Colts-foot (Leaves), Tussilago Leaves, Cough-wort, N.F. -- The dried leaf with not more than 3 p.c. of foreign organic matter, yielding not more than 4 p.c. of acid-insoluble ash; Europe, N. Asia, naturalized in N. United States.  Low succulent perennial, creeping annulate rhizome, scaly scapes in spring, bearing a single head; flowers yellow.  Leaves, petioled, pubescent (young--white, floccose beneath, old -- dark green above, glabrous below), orbicular, 8-15 Cm. (3-6') long and broad, cordate, dentate, red-brown teeth, palmately 5-9-nerved, glabrous above, wrinkled, greenish; odor indistinct; taste mucilaginous, faintly herbaceous, bitter.  Powder, yellowish-green -- many hairs twisted together, elliptical stomata and striated epidermal cells with wavy vertical walls; few non-porous fibers and tracheae, parenchyma cells with chloroplastids; solvents: water, diluted alcohol; contains glucoside (bitter, resin, tannin, volatile oil, gum, wax, caoutchouc, ash 20 p.c.  Demulcent, toxic; bronchitis, pulmonary affections, coughs.  Dose, gr. 30-60 (2-4 Gm.); 1. Species Pectorales, 20 p.c.  Decoction, Infusion, each 5 p.c., 3ss-1(15-30 cc.); Expressed juice; dried root, as well as leaves smoked for cough -- popular domestic remedy.

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